American Magazine of Aeronautics: Volume 17, 1915 - No. 1, 1915, July - No. 2, 1915, July - Aviation - Flying - Airport - Aerodrome - Aircraft

March 1, 2020

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No. 1, 1915, July

VOL. XVII. No. 1

JULY 15,

15 Cents

160 H.P. Model

The output of this model is sold for some weeks to come. Those desiring motors of this type should communicate with the factory at Hammondsport for the necessary arrangements for future deliveries.

All the important American records are held by the Cur-tiss Motor.

Modern factory methods and large facilities have developed Curtiss Motors to the highest degree of efficiency.

Simplicity of design and construction permit overhauling or repairing by any good mechanic, no special knowledge being required.

Light in weight, yet not so light that durability and strength are sacrificed. The factor of safety is large in Curtiss Motors.

We

Curtiss Motor Co.

HAMMONDSPORT NEW YORK

4215979274164987675726693856476956317157691�038282938�57358297

List of U. S. Aero Clubs

Many clubs have no rooms. We luive given here an address through which some officer of the club will receive mail. Many clubs exist in name only, as they hold no meetings of members. Many are non-incorporated, others have no actual organization.

Those marked (*> are aliiliated with the Aero Club of America. Those marked (t) have legal existence, but are not active, we are informed. Every chili in the country has been canvassed five or more times, and the following list contains only the names of clubs who verified their existence or to whom letters seat were not returned by the Postmaster. Clubs marked t%) are affiliated with the Aero Science Club.

Cuba

ցero Club de Cuba, Ignacio 5, Havana. Dr. Manuel M. Coro-nado, See.

California

ցero Club of California. Prof. II. La V. Twining, Pres.. 400 W. Washington St.. Los Angeles, Cal. Van M. Griffith, See.

֐acific Aero Club, 914 Pacific Dldg., San Francisco, Cal. Aero Club of Blackstone Hill, Oakland, Cal., care W. R.

Davis. Jr.. 474 Prospect St., Oakland, Cal. Aero Club of San Diego, Cal. C. C. Collier, Pres.. San Diego, Cal.

Air Pilots Club. Geo. B. Harrison. Pres., 27 Monroe St., San Francisco, Cal.

Connecticut

Yale University Aero Club, New Haven, Conn. Aero Club of Hartford. Hiram Percy Maxim, Pres., Hartford. Conn.

Hydroaeroplane Club of New Haven. Louis 10. Stoddard. Pres.. New Haven. Conn.

Delaware

Aero Club of Delaware, Wilmington, Del.

District of Columbia ♦Aero Club of Washington, 1520 "II" St.. X. W., Washington, D C. A. K. Zalim, Sec.

Illinois

ցero Club of Illinois, lira. 130, Auditorium Hotel. Chicago,

111. Lee Hammond, Sec, 'Peoria Aero Club. W. H. Webster, Sec, Peoria, 111. The Illinois Model Aero Club. Km. 1.10, Auditorium Hotel, Chicago, 111. Kmil M. Laird, Pres. Geo. E. Weaver, Sec.

Indiana ,

Purdue Aero Club. R. W. Noland, See., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.

Aero Club of Notre Dame, .Voire Dame University, Notre

Dame, Ind. Prof. Jerome Green, Pres. Aero Club of Indiana. Indianapolis, Ind. Carl G. Fisher, Pres.

Kansas

Kansas State Aero Club. H. N. Daniels, Sec. Overland Park, Kan s.

Topeka Aero Club. Topeka. Fans.

IiOtiisiana

Aero Club of Louisiana. Wm. Allen, Sec. New Orleans, La. Care N. o. Assn. of Commerce. Crawford II. Kllis, Pres., care United Fruit Co.

Massachusetts

ցero Club of New England. A. It. Shrigley. Sec, Tremont Dldg.. Boston. Mass. Amherst Aero Club, Amherst, Mass. Robt. Welles, B.A., V. P. & Sec.

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LIST OF U. S. AERO CLUBS—Continued

t»Pittsfield Aero Club, Pittsfield, Mass. K. B. Miller. Sec,

cai-e Berkshire Daily Eagle. Harvard Aeronautical Society, * 'amhridge, Mass. Karl H.

Bean, Sec, 7 Harvard Union. Cambridge, Mass. First Assn. of Licensed Pilots. I'hus. J. Glidden, Pres.,

Hotel Somerset. Boston, Mass. Aero Club of Worcester. Eben I'". Thompson, Sec, Worcester,

Mass.

Concord Model Club, care Kdw. 1*. Warner. Concord. Mass. Michigan

ցero Club of Michigan. C. B. I)u Charme, Sec, 1 letroit, Mich.

Aero Society of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Mich. Sec, I). M. Huvly.

Minnesota

Minneapolis Junior Aero Club. Stillmnn Chase. Sec, 3047 Kifth Ave., So. Minneapolis. Minn.

Missouri

*Aero Chili of St. Louis, care Lambert Pharmncnl Co., St.

Louis. Mo. W. A. lirady, Sec. ֋ansas City Aero Club. L. W. Shouse. sec. Convention Hall.

Kansas City, Mo. Model Aero I'luli of St. Louis, Columbia Bids., Stli anil Locust

Sis. St. Louis, Mo * Western Aero Assn. IT. W. Jacobs, 31" Frisco Bids.. Spring-

licld, Mo., Pres. r. C. 1-Iigslns, Stcger Hldg, Chicago. Sec.

Nebraska

Aero Club of Nebraska. Col. Hay L. Whilmore, Pres., ISIS Webster St., Ft. Omaha, Neb.

New Hampshire

Aero Club of New Hampshire. Ilalbert N. Bond, Sec., Manchester, N. H.

New Jersey

Princeton University Aero Club, Princeton. N. J.

Aero Club of New Jersey, Union League club. Alfred Mor-

rell. Sec, Hackensack. N. .1. Trenton Aero Club, .lames M. Kenton. Sec, 1!I7 Princeton

Ave., Trenton, N. .1. Summit Model Aero Club, 26 Shady Side Ave., Summit, N. J.

Wallace A. Lauder. Pres.

New York

Aero Science Club of America. 21) West 39th St.. New York City.

Aeronautical Engineers Society, 211 W. 3Sith St., New York City.

Aeronautical Society of America, 29 West 3:ith St., New York City.

Aero Club of America. Howard Huntington, Sec, 2117 Madison Ave., New York City.

The dyers, care Leroy M. Taylor, Lambs flub. New York City.

U. S. Aeronautical Beserve. 11. II. Sinclair. Sec, r.:! Fifth

Ave., New York City. N V. .Model Aero Club. J. A. P.oclie, Sec, 102 W. HOtli St.,

New York City.

He Witt Clinton High School Aero Club, DHlh St. and 10th Ave., New York City. էAero Club of Hulfalo, care Automobile Club of Buffalo. Dai 11. Lewis, Sec.

Cornell Aero Club. c. II. Lamlon, Sec. 311 Drydeu Koad, Ithaca, N. Y.

Thousand Islands Aero Club, care l>r. .1. M. (iibbons, ICS

Montague St., Brooklyn, N. V. Mtoohester Aero Club, Bochester. N. V. Aero flub of the V. M. C. A. Harold C. Carpenter, Pres..

II Hillside Ave.. White Plains, i\. Y.

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS IXC. 250 West 54th St.. New York

Telephone. Circle 22S9 Cable. Aeronautics. New YDrk

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 190S. under the Act of March 3. 1879. $.\00 a year. 15 cents a copy.

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Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to \ERO-NAUT1CS PRESS.

ERNEST L. JONE> Editor

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor HARRY SCHULTZ Model Editor

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received 6 days before date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must be made for receipt and return.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

FIRING AT DIRIGIBLES

(An interesting discussion of firings upon dirigibles has been contributed to the public by a European authority, and in view of the great future hoped for the new anti-aircraft gun, it is printed following.)

Rigid aircraft (dirigible balloons of the so-called rigid system) are less sensitive to gas losses, because they have many small supporting balloons that are enclosed by a stiffened envelope.

Projectiles of small arms and machine Iguns are able to penetrate this envelope, if the striking velocity is still about 50 m.-sec. So, shrapnel balls of exploding shrapnels receiving from the bursting charges an acceleration of SO or more meters, their penetrative power at appropriate distances of burst for all range possibilities of the projectiles is beyond question.

Projectiles of small arms and machine guns, as also shrapnel balls, produce perforations in the envelope, which, on account of the elasticity of the enveloping material and displacement of the fihres of the texture, are smaller than the caliper. A square hit by an artillery pro-Ijectile rends a hole as large as the caliper, but the remaining shreds hang loose-lly during the escape of the gas and so |the outlet is reduced in this case also.

In case the inflating gas is nearly in equilibrium with the pressure of the surrounding air. as is possible with the rigid types, only a very slow outflow of gas takes place through the holes : while in the case of the excess of pressure in the semi-rigid type, the velocity of the escaping gas is dependent upon that excess. For this reason, rigid types of airships, even after many hits of the envelope, can sometimes maintain themselves in the air long enough to withdraw from the tiring range of the enemy. Semirigid types are sensitive to hits in the envelope. It will thus depend upon the reserve buoyancy still to be relied upon, whether a balloon that is hit can land within the sphere of its own troops or will be caused to fall rapidly.

All motor balloons are subject to the danger of combustion. To set them on fire, artillery shells are used from which an inflammable composition issues: or shrapnels are filled with a composition, in place of shrapnel balls, which, taking fire after the burst of the shell, scatters many fiery elements. Upon the impact of the fire ball or dart with the balloon, the envelope is set afire, and the escaping hydrogen gas then burns in the oxygen of the air in a constantly increasing

flame, until the balloon is entirely consumed, which requires but a few minutes.

THE TRAJECTORY.

a. Every firearm has a certain line of departure by which the greatest horizontal range can be reached. Included between this line of departure and the horizontal through the muzzle is the angle of greatest range, which is dependent upon the muzzle velocity, the velocity of rotation, and the form (including the distribution of mass) of the projectile, and is less than 45°.

The line of departure of the greatest horizontal range is the dividing line between the so-called lower and upper angle groups; for every shorter horizontal range there is a corresponding line of departure in the lower and one in the upper angle group.

b. The travel diminishes in the ratio with which the line of departure approaches the vertical, i. e., the projectiles do not rise as high when discharged in a vertical direction as is indicated by the greatest horizontal range.

c. The branches' of the trajectory straighten out on the approach of tin line of departure to the vertical, becoming straighter. while the highest portion of the trajectory is more curved.

d. When firing in a vertical direction, the trajectory is a straight line and the velocity of the projectile diminishes until reaching the highest point of flight, where the upward movement ceases and changes into a quick drop.

Even rifle ammunition discharged vertically drops \\ ith a final velocity of 6070 m.-sec.

RAXGE.

The reach of firearms, in the wider sense of the term, includes the horizontal or vertical distance which can be traveled by the projectile. The range of an arm, though a term which might be applied to the total reach, is. as a rule, applied to only a part of that total reach, being limited by the following conditions:

a. Small arm projectiles must still have enough force to penetrate an envelope or to wound a man. for which a velocity of more than 50 m.-sec. is required, and which is retained in vertical ascent, for the rifle up to 2.500 m., for the carbine up to 2,050 m.. and for the pistol up to 1.050 m.

Projectiles of pieces of artillery, on account of their bulk, have still the required force for the ranges and altitudes

reached: and this also applies to the balls of shrapnels, when the distance of burst is not too great, for the reason that the balls, on the explosion of the projectile, as was stated before, are given an increase in their velocity.

b. The expected result of hits must be in reasonable proportion to the expenditure of ammunition.

c. Artillery ammunition with time fuse limits the range of shot.

d. While small arms can be aimed in every direction, the range of other arms is further limited by the structure of their parts.

e. The arrangements of sights in the case of small arms and machine guns do not permit the lull use of the range against airships at inconsiderable heights.

The range of small arms and machine guns, on account of the penetrative power of the projectiles, \vas found 'to be 150 m. less than the full reach in vertical fire: while at elevations less than the vertical, the range includes distances where the target can still be attained. A further reduction of the range with respect to the probability of hits was left out of consideration, except in the case of the revolver, since there are no experiments at hand, and since an endangerment of airships by volley fire can at least be expected.

Aeroplanes, on account of their small size, can first be discerned, as a rule, at a distance of about three kilometers, beyond the reach of field guns, for the greater part, as well as wholly beyond firing range of small arms. Aeroplanes flying over troops at an altitude of 1,000 m. and even of 1,500 m„ remain for minutes at a time within the carrying distance of small arms of large caliber.

AIMING WITH ALLOWANCE FOR TRAVEL OF

When an aerial craft is fired at with the elevation corresponding to its distance and height, the trajectory cuts the lines of sight at that point where the portion of the airship aimed at was at the moment of the discharge of the shot.

In nrder to take the angular velocity into account, the arm must be aimed ahead such angular distance as will be covered by the balloon between the time of discharge and the time of arrival of the projectile at the balloon.

For the reason that the time of flight of the projectile nust he taken into account for only an approximate distance,

and owing to the velocity of aircraft being hard to estimate, the difficulties of tiring increase in great measure; for it cannot be expected of the marksman or the director of the fire, surprised by the appearance of an airship, to enter into long-drawn-out considerations as to the exact aim. nor can it be expected of everyone to possess that sense peculiar to the huntsman of aiming ahead, without long practice.

Flying machines can, while moving laterally, change their position in elevation during the travel of the projectile as follows: at a distance of 500 paces, about 3 m.; at 1,000 paces, o m.; and at 2,000 paces, 12 m. Since the cone of fire for rifles in a vertical section of the trajectory in individual fire has, at 1,000 paces, a diameter of 12 m„ and at 2,000 paces about 20 m., an aeroplane does not get beyond the effective 2one of dispersion by a change of elevation during the time of flight of the projectile.

Airships traveling at considerable heights are to be fired at with small arms only when they have attained an angle of elevation of more than 45°, and then with a smaller adjustment of sight than is indicated by the direct distance.

ESTIMATING DISTANCES.

In order to keep the expenditure of ammunition within limits, it will be well to fall back upon some facts already at hand, for at least an approximate estimate of the distance.

The use of range-finders with two points of view is rendered very difficult by the movement of the airship.

In most cases the method of automatically getting the range (Captain Aizier's method) can be employed with success. When two gnus, separated -s far as pos-

sible from each other, aim at one and the same point, the smoke produced by bursting shrapnels with like time fuses and fired at short intervals, one after the other, will appear with certain relative lateral position, making it possible to determine whether the point aimed at is nearer or farther than the regulated time-distances. (See Fig. 1.)

The guns are fired with fuses set for time of flight corresponding to an estimated range. Cun No. 1 is fired at brief intervals (about two seconds) hefore (>un Xo. 2. thus 'causing its shrapnel to explode first. Accordingly, if the first "burst" is observed to the right of the second "burst." the range is underestimated; if it appears to the left of the second burst, the- range is overestimated.

SIGHT.

It is to be remembered that, with an increase of the angle of elevation of the target, a smaller sight elevation is needed in order to reach one and the same direct distance: and that without consideration of the movement of the bal-

loon and time of flight of the projectile, the following adjustments of sight are indicated:

Angle of elevation of target below 30°—Sight elevation is that for the distance.

Angle of elevation at 70°—Sight elevation is that for half the direct distance.

. Near the zenith—Sight is point blank.

If a dirigible is approaching, a sight corresponding to a distance that is less than the time, despite a possible error in estimating an additional few hundred paces (m.), is to be chosen; if it is departing, a sight corresponding to a distance that is larger than the time, despite an underestimate, is to be taken as the proper one.

Should the airship pass over the firing position, the normal sight is, as a rule, to be used. Only when coming near at heights of over 1,500 m. is the sight in the scale of paces equal to the height in meters.

Repeating Revolver—Owing to the great dispersion at greater distances, airships are to be fired at only when they pass over the firing position at a height of 200 in. at the most. Aeroplanes in a flanking flight are likewise to be fired at only at 200 m.; an aim is to be taken ahead for only the single length of the craft.

Altogether, there can be firing only when there is no doubt that the airship is a hostile one. For this purpose it will be necessary to distribute to the troops lists of airships similar to the lists of naval vessels, from which an outline of the front, side and bottom of the aircraft, with principal dimensions and actual velocity, can be taken.

A

San Diego, Cal., July 8, 1915.

Seven new Curtiss machines arrived at the aviation school on June 21, which, with the one already on hand for official tests, will constitute the air craft of the First Aero Squadron. On the same day two Martin machines of the latest type were delivered to the school for test, prior to aceptance by the Signal Corps. These machines show the steady and certain progress of construction toward greater refinement in workmanship, finish and materials. The standardization of certain parts, such as the landing chassis arrangement, arrangement of motor, system of controls, disposition of seats, instruments, etc., is clearly sought in the present types of aeroplanes; a promise of general uniformity of constructional features that will inevitably bring safer, stronger, more comfortable and more efficient machines.

The present squadron of Curtiss machines is distinguished by the low, rakish lines, an effect produced by staggered planes. The fuselage is long, unusually deep and narrow. The nose nf the fuselage is a metal surface enameled a pale tan drab, the body and wings being cov-

RMY AVIATIO

ered with a white waterproofing "dope." The machines are equipped with instrument boards. The passenger seat is a wicker basket chair. Something untried at this station heretofore will be provided in the shape of a celluloid windshield to protect the pilot's head from the blast of the propeller. The new Martin machines are distinctive by the round, graceful sweep of the wings; the long, tapering, torpedo-shaped body, with a round-nose radiator and a four-wheel chassis. The two small front wheels are elevated, so that they are brought into use only when a landing is made in soft ground, tending to nose the machine over. The metal hood is enameled an olive green, and all surfaces are of an olive drab color. At the present time the Curtiss type of machine is being used for service duty, the Martin type for training work. A Curtiss flying boat is used in the first stages of instruction for beginners.

With the beginning of the new fiscal year the annual appropriation of $300,000 became available. The school has grown with such leaps and bounds during the past year that it has completely

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passed the formative period. There are now ten large buildings on North Island, besides numerous sheds and small structures. The large buildings consist of four hangars, with 24 individual booths or stalls for land machines; two water hangars, a machine shop, a fireproof storehouse, power house, experimental station, construction shop, barracks, officers' mess and headquarters.

During the past year the first field unit has been organized. The First Aero Squadron will leave this station during the latter part of July and take station at Fort Sill, where it will remain until the completion of barracks, quarters and the other necessary buildings at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. During the stay at Fort Sill the squadron will co-operate with the Field Artillery School in the development of a reliable system of "spotting" and fire control from aeroplanes. The officers constituting this squadron are Captain Fou-lois, Lieutenants Milling, Morrow, Chapman, Carberry, Bowen, Jones, Willis, Rader, Fitzgerald, MacDill, Gantz, Harms, Christy and Sutton.

I Conchtdcdon /֡ge //)

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON AERONAUTICS MEETING

The Executive Committee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics held its third meeting on the afternoon of July 8th. The Committee approved of contracts with several prominent institutions for reports on matters of interest relative to aeronautics, which are to be submitted to the Advisory Committee at its next annual meeting. These reports will cover the subjects of the behavior of aeroplanes in gusts, by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the possibilities in design of mufflers, by Cornell University: the aeronautical qualities of different fabrics used in the construction of aeroplanes and dirigibles, by the U. S. Rubber Company: the present status of internal combustion engine design with relation to aeronautics, and the means of

improving their performance, by Columbia University; also the question of safe and reliahle means of making the terminal connections of the aeroplane truss wires, by John A. Roehling's Sons Co. This latter will be a voluntary contribution.

Owing to the limited funds at the disposal of the committee, many other important subjects of similar nature cannot be investigated until a later date, but in the course of making the contracts referred to, it was found that a number of manufacturers and other institutions are already engaged on important investigations and are ready to co-operate with the committee.

A subcommittee, of which Professor Marvin, Chief of the Weather P>ureau, is chairman, has been assigned to the in-

vestigation of the problem of the atmosphere in relation to aeronautics, which it is believed will result in important discoveries and information with relation to atmospheric disturbances.

Inquiries are being made as to the facilities of the various departments of the Government, and various institutions, for the prosecution of investigations of important aeronautical problems, so that at the earliest practicable date important investigations may be obtained with facilities already existing.

The Executive Committee holds monthly meetings and. with the facilities available, is rapidly getting information which will enable it to present a comprehensive report to the Advisory Committee at its regular meeting in October.

FIRST MASSACHUSETTS

AVIATOR FINED

Harry M. Jones, whose accident pre-viousb' reported resulted in the death of his two passengers, was brought into the local District Court in Quincy, Mass., on June 24th, charged with operating an aircraft without a license. The pleading was "not guilty," but the judge stated that, while he was satisfied there was no wilful violation, he would have to find him guilty on a technical violation. The court then fined him $100 and suspended sentence until September 30th.

The aviator was advised to take his case to a higher court. Jones declared he had applied to the Highway Commission for a license and had been refused one as the commission had no expert to judge the qualifications of an aviator. No money was appropriated by the Legislature which passed the aircraft law for hiring an expert to test aircraft.

Judge Avery stated that Jones should apply to the Supreme Court for a writ of mandamaus compelling the Highway Commission to carry out the letter of the law. He said that if Jones did not make any more flights between now and September 30, or if in the meantime the Highway Commission granted him a license to fly in this State, the fine would be remitted to him. Jones wil make a test of the case.

The law passed by the State of Massachusetts in 1912 made it obligatory upon an aviator to take out a yearly license, fee five dollars; renewals free. Applicant must pass a satisfactory examination by the Highway Commission, consisting of written replies to questions put to him. Everj- aeroplane must be passed by an inspector employed by the Commission, approved, registered and fitted with license numbers two feet high which must be visible from below. Registration fee is ten dollars. The law also goes into details regarding the right of the aerial way.

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania, after Aeronautics had long argued for a national law, prepared a bill and had it

presented to Congress. Very little if any outside aid was rendered by other clubs, possibly by reason of the loss of power which would entail upon the passage of a national bill.

BECOME AN AVIATOR?

The fake aviation schools, we thought, had become extinct. It would appear that this opinion was too hasty. P.eware the schools with the extensive contract forms, the vari-colored personal (?) letters with the apparent guarantee in red caps and the qualifying words in small type, the promises of "hundred of thousand dollars worth" of contracts for exhibition work, the follow-up letter with the reduction in price or the elimination of the breakage charge, with the copyrighted booklets enticing you to become cue of the "charmed circle of initiates with aspirations above those of ordinary mortals who daily tread the dull, cold paths of ordinary life on Mother Earth," and telling of the avidity and wondering awe with which the inhabitants of Painted Post still regard the aeroplane. "Get in the game NOW while * * * the chance to make BIG MOXEY is good" may be the appeal.

There is no need to go wrong, ever. There are plenty of people whose word can be taken. Why students can be found at all of the fake schools is a greater wonder than the aeroplane. Look with distrust upon the journal that carries the fake advertisement. If this journal itself won't recommend its own advertisers, why take the chance.

In one very recent instance, ten days after circulars and letters were received by a prospective student telling of several instructors, an ample supply of machines and miles and miles of land, an investigator failed to find anything "in the way of a factory, school or aeroplane, save one old machine which does not look as though it would ever fly."

I f your prospective school intimates a connection with a reputable concern of world-wide reputation, ask that concern the truth of the statement.

KANSAS CLUB TO HAVE AERODROME

A mammoth speedway, with provision for an aerodrome, is to be built at Overland Park, Kans., the headquarters of the Kansas State Aero Club and the factory of Frank Champion. The officers of the Kansas State Aero Club are: W. B. Strang, president: Thomas Riley, vice-president, and E. X. Daniels, secretary-treasurer. Overland Park is 30 minutes' ride from Kansas City, Mo., just across the line into the dry State.

The Automobile Club of America states that, contrary to the rumor, it has placed no embargo on the testing of aeronautical engines, due to the noise of the exhaust. However, provision is being made to deaden the noise of those engines which cannot be fitted or are not fitted with mufflers, by special construction in the Club's laboratory. A number of aero engines have recently been privately tested here for manufacturers but no "official" test has been made to date, to which the public has access and on which the club furnishes a certificate. An official certificate of the Auto C. of A. would he a worthwhile proposition for an engine builder.

AVIATION IN FORESTRY SERVICE

Sir Ernest Shackleton is reported to have taken an aeroplane with him to the Antarctic, and the Boston Post wants to use one to discover the legendary hidden treasures of Guatemala and Venezuela and other unexplored territories. The Postmaster General wants aeroplanes to caro- mail, and Jack Vilas has been appointed forest ranger and will use his hydroaeroplane in the vicinity of Trout Lake, Wis., for detection and reporting forest fires, under the supervision of Chief E. M. Griffith. The States of Michigan and Minnesota are considering the aeroplane for this work.

AEROMARINE AEROPLANE MOTORS

The Aeromarine Plane and Motor Company is manufacturing two sizes of motors—100 h.p. and 163 h.p. The previous motor of SO h.p. is not now being made up. Details of the 100 h.p. motor are given following and those of the larger model will appear in a subsequent issue. Some fifty of the smaller model are now coming through the factory.

Readers are familiar with the work of the late Frank E. Boland and his brother whose aeroplane and motor earned a well deserved reputation. These experiments and the production of the motor was financed by Jnglis M. Cppercu and the old Boland Aeroplane and Motor Co. was absorbed by the above concern after Frank Roland's death.

The ICO h.p. motor has six vertical cylinders, 4 5/16 inch bore of inch stroke, of vanadium iron, machined inside and outside, on which are electrically deposited the copper water jackets to a thickness which has been found substantial and resilient. In the process of deposit, the jacket becomes a practically integral part of the cylinder, insuring against water leaks at any of the variable temperatures at which the motor may be called upon to perform. It will be recalled the famous Cadillac engine has copper jackets.

Great care has been exercised in the development of the flanged base of these cylinders in order to retain the init'al strength necessary to withstand the working stresses, at the same time permitting of uniform expansion of the base of the cylinder walls and the skirt of the engine piston.

The valves employed are of concentric type. 2^4 inch diameter, manufactured from special materials, arranged in the cvlinder heads over the center of the pistons, with a first-class arrangement of adjustable rockerarms and push-rods.

The hollow cam shaft of high grade steel, heat treated, and ground true, is provided with seven bearings of the split bronze bushing type, V* inch diameter, 2li inches long. The bearing surfaces are babbitted. All cams are hardened and ground.

The connecting rods, of I-beam section, are machined from solid hand forg-ings of Carpenter special nickel steel. The merit of this form of construction is not alone their exact uniformity of weight (which in itself is absolutely essential where speeds of 2,000 r. p. m. are reached and maintained), but it further enables the use of rods of such light .eight that the stresses due to transversal inertia and centrifugal forces, etc., are reduced to minimum.

The crankshaft, of 514 inch throw, is also machined from the solid forged billet, heat treated and ground true, the material being the same as employed for collecting rods. Main bearings arc pro-

vided on both sides of each crank throw, 1^4 inch diameter, lf£ inch long

The main bearing caps are each provided with four retaining bolts arranged in transverse line to the shaft. The two innermost bolts of each cap pass entirely through the crank case and are fitted with retaining nut at the top of cylinder base. The tie-down rods extend upward to light bridge pieces resting on and across the top of cylinder heads.

Additional ball bearings are fitted on either side of the driving gear, by means of which the propeller shaft is driven at a ratio of 1 to 1.75 of the motor. At the other extremity of crankshaft further additional ball bearings are employed to carry the load of driving the cam shaft, water and duplex oil pumps, and magnetos.

All bearings throughout the motor other than ball are die cast Fahrig metal and interchangeable.

These motors have been subjected to exhaustive tests in order to prove their mechanical construction, ignition and carburetor efficiency. Standard equipment is: two Bosch magnetos, representing duplex synchronized ignition, each cylinder being provided with two spark plugs; two three-way intake manifolds and two Zenith carburetors with synchronized throttles.

The Aeromarine oiling system has been designed to maintain lubrication un-

changed, irrespective of the angle of ascent or descent, loop the loop, or upside down flying.

These motors are provided with oil reservoir of five gallons capacity. When the motor is running, the gear driven duplex high and low-pressure oil pump takes oil from the reservoir and delivers it through ways machined in solid walls of crank case, etc., to the crankshaft bearings, through these bearings and into the hollow crankshaft; thence to the connecting rod bearings, and also to the driving gears mounted on crankshaft.

The oil is also delivered to and through the hollow camshaft. The camshaft is cross-driled in a running line with the connecting rods, enabling a stream of cooled oil to pour on to the rods while running, retaining them at a low and even temperature and insuring their maximum strength. Oil is also directed from the camshaft to the camshaft bearings, cam followers and guides, etc.

All the surplus oil is thrown by the rapidly revolving parts to the sides and bottom of the under half of crank case, whereupon it drains down and through an integral hollow extension of the under half of crank case. This extension leads down and through the oil in the reservoir to the low-pressure gear train of the duplex oil pump, from which it is returned to the reservoir and cooled.

By means of this system the crank case is constantly and thoroughly scavenged of all surplus oil, and the danger of flooding the cylinders at any position of the motor is entirely eliminated.

These motors are provided with positive means for driving generator required for lighting, starting and stabilizing; also for driving gasoline pump and revolution indicators. It has been expressly kept in view that they should in every detail confirm to the requirements of the United States Government specifications.

In a test on a fan-brake dynamometer the gasoline consumption was 63 lbs., or 9 gals., per hour. The B. H. P. was 100. so that the lbs. per h.p. hour was .63 and gals, per h.p. hour .09. The shaft speed was 1,150, and the crank speed 2,000 r.p.m.

Oil consumption was: Lbs. per hour, 6.25; lbs. per h.p hour, .063. Weight, lbs.. 435; weight per h.p.. lbs., 4.35.

We are staunch believers in your publication as an advertising medium—Advertiser, July, 1915.

We would like to have a small ad. in Aebonautics. The price is most reasonable for the service rendered. We want copy to read as follows—Advertiser, July, 1915.

WANTED — Second-hand aeroplane cheap. Elmer F. Bryan, Mainesburg, Pa.

STURTEVANT COMPANY PRODUCE 4 MOTORS A DAY FOR FOREIGN ORDERS

The B. F. Sturtevant Company of Hyde Park, Mass., are working night and day in order to complete the large orders which are being received daily for the eight-cylinder 140 h.p. aeronautical motor. These orders call for shipment of motors at the rate of four per day after August 1st and two a day are going out now. This rate, however, is subject to change without notice.

out and oil led to its interior just as to the crankshaft, while besides the gear t;.pe of pressure circulating pump there is a secondary pump driven by an eccentric from the camshaft that raises oil from an outside tank and keeps the crank case level constant.

All advertisers in Aeronautics are teputable. All advertisements are ordered and paid for. No fake advertisements are allowed.

The photograph gives a good idea of the general layout of the motor which is designed to run at a high normal speed of 2000 r.p.m., the cylinder dimensions being a 4-inch bore and a 554-inch stroke. A special geared head reduces the rate of revokition from 2,000 to 1,500 r.p.m.

The branched intake manifold as well as the use of two separate Bosch magnetos are points worthy of comment. The exhaust pipes are brought out beyond the cylinders, the last being cast in blocks of two each, the water jackets having large openings which permit the cylinders to be thoroughly cleaned out. Cover plates of aluminum are used to close the water spaces. Chrome nickel steel of very high tensile strength is used for the connecting rods and crankshaft, the latter being bored out all through, while the connecting rods are machined all over. The big ends are located side by side on common crank-pins, white metal bushings being used at this point.

Aluminum is used for the crank case, the oil passages being cast within it to conduct the oil which is supplied under pressure to the various points. For the main bearings of the crankshaft the supply comes from the cast passages, the oil being distributed to the big ends through the crankshaft. For cam lubrication the camshaft is drilled

BUSINESS TROUBLES

_ On July 12th Henry H. Waldeu, dentist and former aviator, of 545 West 158th St., Xew York, filed a petition, with liabilities $21,SS7 and assets $2% in accounts. The liabilities are for dental materials, advertising, repairs, rent, loans, aviation photos, storage, garage, insurance, burglary insurance, notes and motors. Among the creditors are Mrs. Bessie Murray, $10,000; claim for work negligently done; Mrs. A. W. Martin and M rs. A. Mossing, similar claims, amount not given; Star Company, $1,098, judgment for advertising; Hall Scott Compauv or Hall Scott Motor Companv, $100: Y'era Barker. $300, notes; Toni Fund, of Shadyside, $1,000; alleged claim for an automobile accident; Aeronautics, $43, judgment for advertising, and Godair Wimmer Building Company, $4,833, claim on a lease.

The property of the Batson Air Navigation Co., Savannah, Ga., was sold on July 7th. by the Sheriff for $850. The sale was to satisfy a judgment in favor of George F. Armstrong and Sam Ross, who aided in financing the company.

Some residents of Lake Odessa, Mich., hired a "professor of aeronautics" to make an ascension. When the latter notified the committee he could not get his balloon out of a pawnbroker's shop unless he had $40, the money was gen-

erously advanced and a dissappointed crowd waited in vain for the aeronaut to appear and make the ascension.

THOMAS SEAPLANES FOR NAVY

Sturtevant 140 h.p. motors have been specified for the two Thomas seaplanes recently ordered by the U. S. Navy, this being the second order for Sturtevant motors which has been received for engines from the Navy during the past few-weeks.

PATENTS ISSUED

JUNE 29TH.

T. Anderson, No. 1,144,578. Airship. _ W. S. and A. H. Barrows. No. 1,144,521. Variable pitch propeller.

C. Tohnson, No. 1,144,847. Aeroplane.

L. H. Phyfc, No. 1,144.723. Toy aero-

_V.e'G. and E. J. Gustafson, No. 1,144,471. Strut and guv wire device.

F. S. Pierson. No. 1,144,914. Flying toy.

F. Steffan. No. 1,144,505. Aerial landing and launching device.

E. S. Timmons, No, 1,144,570. Aeroplane.

JULY 6TH. W. B. Clements, No. 1,145,406. Flying machine.

E. F. Gallaudet, No. 1,145,013. Aeroplane wing in which ribs are rotatably mounted at the outer end of a spar.

A. J. Kloneck. No. 1.145,319. Aeroplane with plurality of propellers.

B, L. Mareness. No. 1,145.695. Combination of open lateral end tubes.

A. Rochon, No. 1,145,388. Flexible blade propeller.

J. H. Timbull. No. 1,145.526. "Gyroplane."

SO-LUMINUM SOLDERS ALUMINUM

A new aluminum solder has been marketed by the So-Luminum Mfg. Co., 1790 Broadway, New York, which really solders aluminum—and a novice can do it. Those who have tried to solder aluminum know the difficulties. Those who don't needn't try under old methods. A sample piece soldered at right angles to another cannot be broken off at the joint. It will finally break above the solder. It is claimed that with this solder welding is eliminated in many cases. All that is required is a gasoline torch. The job to be done is heated, then with a slight rubbing with a hacksaw blade or piece of iron, the metal and So-Luminum will combine without a flux.

The last eastward trip of the Baltic was a record one for aeroplane shipments .the total being 197 "airships." according to the Sim's eye-witness. In May only three machines were exported, valued at $21,000. with parts valued at $55 581. Of the aeroplanes, one went to Italv. valuation $12,000.

THAW STABILIZER SOON TO BE TRIED

The Huntington Aircraft Co. is building a tandem seated tractor to the design of Harold Kantner for A. B. Thaw, in which the latter's automobile stabilizer will be tried further. This will have a 100 h.p. Curtiss motor. The planes are staggered and the fuselage is rectangular in cross-section, which is a departure from the Xieuport type fuselage in the earlier Huntington machine, as mentioned in Aeronautics.

Patent issued the end of July on the Thaw stabilizer, which is based on the pendulum principle. Two pendulums are, however, employed and a device is employed which prevents oscillation, with all its attendant objectionable features. Magnets put into operation by the tilting of the machine and the consequent swinging of one or the other of the pendulums, cause a clutch to take hold of one of the two grooved pulleys and the power is transmitted to the pulley from the shaft on which the two pulleys, clutches and magnets are mounted. From this little device, which can almost go in one's pocket, a flexible shaft runs to an air driven propeler through reduction gearing so that the power of the propeller is multiplied several times by the time it is required to wind up the aileron control cables on the pulleys or drums.

Thaw is also the inventor of a device to overcome the inertia of the machine during balancing movements. Still another device is being experimented with in the way of an automatic landing system, which will land the aeroplane irrespective of manual control on the part of the pilot.

The stabilizer has been previously tried in its first crude state in flights made with the inventor's brother. William Thaw, now reconnoitering with the Allies. The latter has been promoted to lieutenant and has been decorated for distinguished aerial services. ,

CURTISS BUILDING GIANT AEROPLANES FOR ALLIES

The Curtiss Aeroplanes and Motors, Ltd., of Toronto, is or is not building giant aeroplanes capable of flying hundreds of miles with scores of passengers or tons of explosives. Charles M. Manly, however, is at the above plant acting as advisor in the employ of the British Government. That is known. That the C. A. & M., Ltd., is doing an unlimited amount of work in rush time may also be stated as an incontrovertible fact. J. A. D. McCurdy is director and "Tony" Jannus is there. There is also being operated the largest aviation school on this continent, with an enrollment to date nearly eighty pupils. Fifty are receiving actual flying instructions. Three flying boats and three land machines are being used for this purpose. Several pupils have qualified for their pilot certificates and they are leaving for England in a few days where they will complete their training at the Central Flying

School. That's so much. But as to the special machines building, there are strict instructions from the Government concerned to impart nothing. Nothing is apparently being imparted regarding the h'\s machine for Russia with two 160 H. P. motors.

FLIES 115 MILES FOR BREAKFAST

On Tune 29th Aviator Stormer flew from Tacoma to Port Angeles in 2 hours 5 minutes, something like 115 miles, to keep an exhibition date. After landing he enjoyed his early breakfast—S:25 a. m.

DEATH OF MATTERY

Capt. William A. Mattery, formerly a Chicago airship and balloon pilot, is reported as having been killed in an aeroplane accident while on duty with Gen. Villa's army in Mexico.

MAY BUILD 10,000 PLANES

English aeronautical men have launched a movement to create a Ministry of Aeronautics and build 10.000 aeroplanes. "We want aeroplanes going to and coming from Germany like ants about an ant hill, but going each with 300 pounds of explosive and coming back empty until the war ends. We want a daily service of destruction to Germany."

BALLOON AT TOBYHANA FOR RANGE FINDING

A. Leo Stevens returned home on July 20th from Tobyhana, Pa., where he took part in the maneouvres of the U. S. Army and National Guard.

i

General Scriven. Chief Signal Officer, was on hand to watch the range-finding experiments under the direction of

Lieutenant Greeley of the Signal Corps, son of the explorer, using an Army balloon of 19.000 cubic feet. Mr. Stevens set up the generating plant, which will remain at Tobyhana. Once filled with hydrogen, the balloon was towed with guy ropes a mile or two to suitable spots and allowed to go up to altitudes varying from 500 to 1000 feet on a cable from an army truck. An insulated tele-1 hone wire was paid out as the balloon was taken along. The large white targets were easily distinguishable from the balloon for a distance of ten or fifteen miles and the results of shots by the field artillery were phoned from the balloon and corrections made accordingly.

NEW COMPANIES

Simplex Aircraft Co., New Haven, Conn.; $300,000; V. J. Mayo, Stephenson MacGordon and Chance M. Yought, incorporators.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS

Akron, O., July 6.—Ralph H. Upson, Mrs. Upson. Miss Irene Seiberling, daughter of F. A. Seiberling, president of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., and her brother, Penfield Seiberling, made an ascension in the "Goodyear" to Voungstown, O., a distance of around 55 miles.

NEW NAVY AVIATION CLASS ASSEMBLES

The class of officers for instruction in aeronautics at the U. S. Navy Aeronautic Station, Pensacola, will be Lieutenant E. F. Johnson, Lieutenant A. C. Read. Lieutenant (j. g.) E. G. Plaas, Lieutenant (j. g.) R. Paunack. Lieutenant (j. g.) W W. Corrv, Ensign J. P. Norfleet. Ensign H. W. Scofield, all of the Navy, and Lieutenant F. T. Evans and Lieutenant A. E. Cunningham of the Marine Corps. This class will assemble at once for a course of instruction in practical shop work in assembling, adjusting and repairing aeroplanes and aeroplane machinery followed by flying of all kinds. These officers were selected from a number of applicants. The selection was based upon special physical fitness and the availability of the applicants for this special duty considering the reports of fitness and sea experience of the applicants.

The applications of those not selected now will be given consideration together with other applications that may be received in the meantime when a new class is formed. It is intended to form another class in three or six months. Other things being equal, applications will be considered in the order of their receipt at the Department.

It is expected that a $90,000 dirigible shed will be built at Pensacola for the airship which is to be delivered, and plans for permanent aeroplane sheds are to be prepared.

Has anybody seen Barnes, Alphens S.? Reports of his death are said to be very much exaggerated but no definite information is obtainable.

FLYING AT OPENING OF A. C. P. FIELD

OF AMERICA 29 West 39th Street, New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania is to be congratulated upon the great interest that it has at last aroused in Philadelphia and vicinity in aeronautical affairs. On July 3d a large delegation of Club members and friends accompanied by press representatives from every paper in the city assembled at the City Recreation Pier, where through the courtesy of Commander C. B. Price, LT. S. X., they were met by the government tug "Modoc" and taken down the Delaware

THE NAVAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE

On July 19th Secretary of the Navy Daniels announced that he had invited eight scientific societies in the United States each to name two of their members for service on the Naval Advisory Board of which Thomas A. Edison is to be chairman. The eight organizations | that have each been asked to nominate two of their members are: American Society of Civil Engineers, American | Chemical Society, American Institute of I Electrical Engineers, American Institute Mining Engineers, American Mathemati-I cal Society, American Society Mechani-I cal Engineers, Aeronautical Society of

America and Inventors' Guild. I . The letter to the Aeronautical Society-reads as follows :

NAVY DEPARTMENT, Washington, July 19, 1915.

Mr. Frederick W. Barker,

Acting President American Aeronautical Society, 29 W. 39th St., New York City:

My Dear Sir—A few days ago, as you have doubtless seen in the papers, desiring to make available the latent inventive genius of our country to improve our Navy, I requested Air. Thomas A. Edison to become chairman of an Advisory Committe of emini nt men who would make up the committee. Mr. Edison, with the patriotism characteristic of American inventors, accepted the call to duty. I am writing to ask the membership of your society to give practical and valuable aid and needed co-operation by selecting representatives of their body to serve as members of the Advisory Committee. It is believed that the best results can be obtained only by such selection of the membership as will he representative of the inventive genius and scientific knowledge found in the membership of your own and kindred societies.

Will you not, as Acting President of the American Aeronautical Society, arrange to secure the selection of two of its members to serve on this Advisory Board. I feel that the work your so-

ciety has done has been such as to give it the right to be, in a way. officially represented, and the Navy Department desires in this way to testify to its own appreciation of the splendid work for onr country that your society has done. In addition, 1 feel that the judgment of your members as to who is best qualified among you to serve on this board will be far better than my own.

1 am going to ask you, by a poll by letter of your members, or in whatever way seems to you most certain of securing the men desired by the majority of your organization, to choose two of your members to serve on this Board, and it will give me great pleasure, when you have furnished me these names, to extend the gentlemen the formal invitation of the Department.

We are anxious to begin as soon as possible, and if your society can furnish me the names at an early date, it will help the prompt organization of the Advisory Board very much. In adopting this course, I have the emphatic approval of Mr. Edison, and he agrees entirely with me that your society should be represented in this way and that no better method of getting the kind of men we need could be devised.

The public press has so fully set forth the general plan that I feel it unnecessary to explain to you the purposes of this Board, but am enclosing a copy of the original letter I wrote to Mr. Edison and the statement given to the press upon receipt of his message that lie would serve.

Thanking you in advance for the great service which I feel sure your society will be glad to render to our common country, I am, Sincerely yours,

(Signed) Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy. At a meeting of the directors on July 20th a poll of the members was authorized, in accordance with the suggestion of the Secretary of the Navy, and the two members will be named at the earliest possible date.

River for the inspection and formal opening of the official field of the Club at the League Island Navy Yard. After the inspection of the 23-acre grounds and staking out the large shed which is to be built for the Club, the party proceeded to the location where the Curtiss place was staked down awaiting the arrival of Aviator Baron Yon Figyel-messy. Promptly at the hour set the machine arose from the field and cutting one large spiral for alttitude, winged it's way cross-country to Point Breeze Park to engage a company of the Pennsylvania National Guard in mimic warfare. Owing to defective electrical devices the dropping bombs failed to explode, but at an altitude of nearly 3000 feet and in a high puffy wind, the visiting committee was given an unusually fine exliibtion of the safety in flying in high winds when an aviator has plenty of reserve motor power.

Within the next few weeks it is planned to have the field clear for use and that at least three or four planes will be stationed on the field. The present canvas shed is to be replaced with a permanent wooden structure, which will set back about fifty feet from the water edge. The dimensions of the new structure will approximate ninety feet in length by fifty in width and will undoubtedly be the largest in the United States. Several novel features tire to be incorporated in the construction. It will be adapted for both water and land planes, and later if desired it can be enlarged to four times the present dimensions or three other hangars can be built on the sides without changing the first one built. The side facing the water front will be built for flying boats and hydroaeroplanes and the land side for land type planes. While the planned dimensions may seem large the Club is looking forward to the future and making preparations for large span planes.

A telegram was received from David McCullough of Newport, Pa., stating that his two flying boats were being overhauled and assembled at the Ham-mondsport plant of the Curtiss Co. and as soon as the work was finished he would order them shipped to the League Island Station, for McCullough has offered himself and his machine to the Naval Militia.

The unusual features of the field for aviation purposes has been commented upon by naval officers and many prominent flyers who have inspected same. They have all pronounced it perfect for the purpose and as holding out finer possibilities for the development of aviation than any other flying field in the East.

A stretch of fully half a mile is perfectly level, being all filled in or reclaimed and without ditches or ruts. For a distance of about forty feet back from the water edge the land has a very gradual slope, ideal for the landing of flying- boats. The popularity of the project and the great interest shown in the movement is best attested by the enrolling of a large number of naval and marine officers in the Club. The beach is unsurpassed and there is at hand a repair shop, railroad facilities, hoisting

cranes, concrete dock and Government protection for machines and outfits.

The Philadelphia Motor Speedway Association has started work on the construction of their property. This will be rapidly pushed to completion and when finished will have one of the finest flying fields in the country. A two-mile course marked by steel pylons with a perfectly level field and adjoining properties ideal for landing and with several rows of hangars, will make the official Inland Field of the Club full}- equal to the best

flying fields of Long Island. Located at Warminster, it is easily accessible from Philadelphia by train, trolley or motor. This Inland Field will make ideal location for exhibition flying and aviation schools, also for contests and meets that owing to certain restrictions it would not be possible to hold on the League Island aviation grounds.

When these two fields are completed the Aero Club of Pennsylvania will be able to boast of facilities that no other club in the country possesses.

THE CURTISS MARINE ENDURANCE TROPHY

Rules have been formulated for the competition for the trophy offered by Glenn H. Curtiss for the longest flight within 10 hours over water.

The trophy's valued at $5,000 and $5,000 in cash additional is to be divided into five annual prizes of $1,000 each or equivalent. Competition will be held annually and the conditions for winning the trophy and the yearly prize will be progressive in accordance with the progress made in water flying. The competition is open only to members of the Aero Club of America and affiliated Aero Clubs who hold aviator certificates. The winner of the trophy the first year, 1915, shall be the member who, at the expiration of the time set for the close of competition. October 31st, 1915, shall hold the record for distance covered during ten hours of one day. He shall receive the cash prize of $1,000 or equivalent and the Club of which he is a member shall become the record holder of the trophy, which is to be held in custody by the Aero Club of America. A Club becomes the owner of the trophy after five years when it has been won for three consecutive years by its members. The general rules for the contest for each year are to be announced on or before January 1st of each year.

The contestants may start daily from any place in the United States of America during the period of the competition, at any time, and fly to any other place in the United States over water, and the distance covered during ten hours of one day, measured either in a straight line from starting point to finishing point, or under the conditions hereinafter given, shall be considered as his record. Pilots are required to assure themselves of the co-operation of the officials necessary to control. Starts must be made from the water, also the landing.

_ The conditions governing the measurement of distances shall be as follows:

(A) Straight line flight: Which is a flight over water measured in a straight line from point of start to point of finish.

(B) Broken line flight: The competitor may fly back and forth between two points over the water, but will be penalized part of the distance, for the advantage he obtains over competitors in class (A). In this case the points must be not less than fifty miles apart.

The penalization will be five per cent, of the total distance covered.

Whenever a passenger or passengers are carried the entrant shall be entitled to the addition of five per cent, to his record for each passenger carried, and the total obtained by this addition shall

determine his position for the award of prize. Passengers must be at least IS years of age and each individual weigh at least 143 pounds or else brought up to this weight by ballast.

Change of type of machine and equipment is not prohibited, but the change cannot take place to make any one day's record, except in the case of flights exceeding 5C<) miles in distance, in which case the change of machines will be allowed so as to eliminate the waste of refilling the gasoline tanks, repair, etc.

In case the aviator changes the machine but fails to cover a distance of 500 miles, his record will be valid only up to the point where the change took place.

Aviators may stop as often as they wish and make repairs.

The competitor must, at least forty-eight hours before starting, notify the Contest Committee of the Aero Club of America in writing or by telegraph of

his intention to start on a flight, giving the hour and place at which the start will be made. On receipt of same the Contest Committee will arrange to have representatives present. If it is impossible to secure local representatives to supervise the start, ample time must be allowed for representatives of the Contest Committee to make the journey and their expenses paid by competitor to place of start and return.

The start shall be made under the supervision of the representative, who shall verify the weights of the passengers, if any, record the time of departure and submit a report covering all the facts of the departure to the Contest Committee. After landing the pilot must obtain, from as many credible witnesses of the landing as possible, affidavits setting forth in full the facts of the landing with respect to its location and the exact time, forwarding these and a certificate from his passengers, if any, by mail, to the Contest Committee as soon as practicable after landing. He shall also telegraph as soon as practicable after landing to the secretary of the Aero Club of America, giving the location and time of landing. In case there are no witnesses to the landing, affidavits from credible individuals, who saw the aeroplane after the landing, must be furnished by the pilot, these affidavits setting forth the location of the landing place and the circumstances of the landing.

A record shall be considered bettered when the official measurement shall show that the distance exceeds the previous record by at least five miles.

Hydroaeroplanes and flying boats must carry at all times, ready for use, regulation motor boat signal lights, compass, anchor and rope and one life preserver for each passenger. Towing is not prohibited, but distance must be stated in report.

This trophy is emblematic Of the triumph of wings over the dominating elements, the sea and the air.

Xeptune, the ruler of the waves, who has controlled all marine craft throughout the ages (the Viking boat of thousands of years ago, Columbus's caravel, the Santa Maria, are shown in the distance"), and who still holds control over the latest marine craft (some of the representative craft, the Yacht Cup winner, a liner, a dreadnought, and a sub-Com'hulctl <>« page If)

KAMP

32S E. 235th Street, Xeic York

WALTER V. KAMP, maker

Laminated woodwork of any shape, strongest — lightest and best construction for any kind of Aircraft

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Rome IRadiators are Used on the Highest Grade Aeroplanes ROME-TURNEY RADIATOR CO., Rome, N.Y., U.S.A.

Part tenia) s_'_'_*_

Overman Cushion Tread Pneumatic Tires

MANUFACTURED BY

LOUIS R. ADAMS & CO., Inc. 250 W. 54th St., New York CO., 527 West 56th Street, New York

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RADIATORS, SEATS, TANKS, REPAIRS, SPECIALISTS IN METAL WORKING

HEATH AERONAUTICAL MOTORS

AIR AND WATER COOLED 5-to-500 H. P. Catalogue 4 red stamps

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JANNUS BROTHERS FLYING SCHOOL

Complete Course $.300.00

Address: Toledo. Ohio - General Delivery

L L SIZES

Prompt Shipment Quantity Orders Room 450 1777 Broadway, New York

AERO WHEEL CO.

Spare Parts for Aeroplanes ٠fJisx

G'.N OME AND ANZANI MOTORS NEW YORK CITY

(.REG. U. S. PAT. OFF.)

Aeronautical Motor

is the most powerful motor in the country that is thoroughly perfected and tried out. Sturtevant motors are used by the U. S. Army and Navy and all the leading aeroplane builders.

Oth

f 4-cylinder, 50 H. P. er 6_cyiinder? go H.P.

Specifications upon request

B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY Hyde Park, Boston, Mass.

and all principal cities of the world

Military Machines Delivered "Quick"

Thomas Military Tractor Biplanes—any quantity—manufactured and delivered at short notice.

Ten specializing departments, with production at fingertips can double or treble output immediately.

Thomas representatives in Europe constantly in direct touch with European development.

Most advarrced design. Strong, serviceable, no tinkering.

Ordered and re-ordered by mighty governments. Surpassed U. S. Army requirements.

Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., Ithaca, N. Y.

Military Tractors Flying Boats Aeroplanes

gill

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wrisht

Patents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

THE WRIGHT FLYING SCHOOL

Located at Dayton opens May 1st, for the season of 1915- Tuition $250. No other charges of any kind. Enroll now. Booklet on request.

The Wright Company

DAYTON, OHIO N«w York Office: tl Pio. St.

. .luuiiiiiniiuiiiiiiiuiiiiiini

In answering advertisements please mention this magacinr

THE ELLIOTT AIR SPEED INDICATOR

The speed of aircraft through the air

has presented a problem for the solution of which various devices have been presented to show speed relative to the air. In climbing, with the critical speed of the machine known, the indicator warns one of his margin of safety. The clinometer tells the angle of ascent but the speed indicator indicates the forward speed, the most essential factor. For "volplaning" the indicator is just as necessary.

The Elliott device consists of two parts, one to receive the air pressure where it is free from disturbing influences, and the other to indicate the intensity of that pressure.

This arrangement is obtained by supplying a Pitot tube, which consists of two tubes, a short one set with its open end facing the direction of travel, and the other with one or a number of holes at right angles to the same direction. In the tube facing the wind is produced a pressure proportional to the velocity through the air, and in the other tube account is taken of the static or barometric pressure. By using this device there is available for measurement an air pressure which bears a known relation to the air speed.

The indicator is of the liquid type. Where a magnification of four or five times greater than that obtained from a water gauge is required, it is necessary to use a two-liquid gauge. For machines whose normal flying speed exceeds 60 miles an hour a single liquid gauge of special form gives sufficient magnification.

The makers of the Elliott air speed indicator make a complete instrument board for aeroplanes, as has been seen on Curtiss flying boats. The board can be suspended or bolted to any part of the machine. It comprises an aluminum frame on which are mounted the following instruments: (11 The air speed indicator ; (21 an engine revolution indicator; (3) an aneroid with graduations from 0 to 6,000 feet; (4) a clinometer

with zero-setting device; (5) an eight-day clock; (6) compass. The address of the manufacturer may be found in Data Sheet No. 8.

THE "TEL" ENGINE REVOLUTION INDICATOR PATENTS

The "Tel" engine revolution indicators are of the conjugate movement and are based on the measurement of a rotary spindle traveling within a certain unit of time, viz.: one second. The mechanism consists of the following four essential parts:

1. Clutch gear. 2. Winding up gear. 3. Clock escapement. 4. Measuring axle.

I. The clutch gear enables the indicating needle to give the correct indica-fon irrespective of the direction of rotation of the transmission gear.

2. The winding up gear consists of a slip spring contained in a barrel which is wound up by the main spindle and operates automatically the movement of the clock escapement.

3 and 4. The clock escapement regulates the rotation of the measuring axle. On this rotating or measuring axle are three-toothed segments set at equal distances from one another. These segments more vertically on the axle parallel to the axis and are in mechanical connection with the pointer by means of a rack and pinion. The rotary movement ՠof this measuring axle is uniform, being regulated by means of the clock escapement, and makes one complete rotation in three seconds. Each of the segments of this axle pass, dnring exactly one second of time, before a toothed pinion with which it remains engaged during this unit of time, the revolving toothed pinion winding the rack vertically along the measuring axle. This toothed pinion is in direct mechanicai connection with the rotating shaft, the speed or number

of revolutions of which it is required to indicate. The amount of vertical movement of these racks thus obtained during one second is proportional to the speed and is transmitted through the rack and pnion to the indicating needle which indicates the number of revolutions per minute. When the speed of the engine is low the segments will move vertically to a less degree during the unit of time. If, however, the speed of the engine is high the segments will travel a greater distance along the measuring axle causing the needle to indicate a higher speed.

In order to prevent the indicating needle falling back to zero after each segment has passed before the toothed pinion the moving rack is held by a ratchet gear at the moment when it leaves its engagement with the toothed pinion. At the same moment the following rack is engaging with the toothed pinion and measures in accordance with the new speed. Each rack thus passes under three phases each of one second, these three seconds corresponding to one complete revolution of the revolving axle.

The method of transmission can be arranged by means of gear-wheels in which a reduction gear is embodied; the ratio between the graduation of the scale and the revolution of the spindle being arranged accordingly. The object of this reduction gear is to reduce to a minimum the wear on the instrument.

These instruments are being used extensively by the British, French, Russian and Italian government. Over 4.000 have been sold for aeronautical purposes. It is manufactured by the Hasler Telegraph Works, whose address will be found in Data Sheet No. 8.

Miss Catherine Stinson has purchased the wreckage of the Beachy monoplane, and a Miss Marie Berger will fl\- it. The biplane will be used by Miss Stinson. Ruth Law exhibited in the birthplace of aviation the last week in June, while Miss Stinson was compelled to look on. as her machine was not on hand. Evidently Dayton can get none too much of flying.

When Harry Atwood was aeroplan-ing from St. Louis to New York City he alighted to adjust his machine in a field near Fort Plain, N. Y. Atwood wasn't certain what State he was in, and wanted to know. A crowd of villagers rushed toward him and he called to them:

"Where am I?"

"You're in Charlie Knoll's cow pasture," shouted the nearest man.—Everybody's.

AVIATIOX—The art or act of flying. (Rare.1

AVIATOR—A flying machine employing the principle of the aeroplane. (Re-cent.1

BALLOONER—One who goes up in a balloon.

—Century Dictionary and Encyclopedia.

©HighTension Magneto

9 kbW\ .Magneto mat win lire an o-i:

B Bjj^-Ap Mwed. lii-iixiires on Coil or t"Tffi Batterv. Gives maximnm

Model H

Especially adapted for Aeronautic:!I work. Tin- only Magneto that will fire an ^-cylinder engine at crauk shaft

speed and power.

11/ for Ciituiouuc Eighteen

tITeTK-WJignition c°>

CuvtumD Omo IISA

PATENTS

Manufacturers want me to send them patents on useful inventions. Send me at once drawing and description of your invention and I will give you an honest report as to securing a patent and whether 1 can assist you in selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. Personal attention in all cases.

WM. N. MOORE Loan and Trust Building Washington, D. C.

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY

Books and Advice Free

bend sketch or model fur t-earch. Highest references. Best Results. Promptness Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer

624 F Street, N. W. Washington. D. C.

BALDWIN

■Balloons Dirigibles Fabrics Motors

Box 78. Madison Sq. P.O.. New York

felSiffi DON'T pa—£

if-flEJ B[aEj ested in a reliable, efficient l|^^K|f=9P Jpl&i aridecoDomical power plant. Til J fij'ii I ,}-!'—^.T^3* is the_ only kind we

build. F>ur sizes.

Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works Muneie, Ind.

AERONAUTICS

= The Leading British Weekly = E Journal Devoted to theTechnique E E and Industry of Aeronautics =

= (FOUNDED 1907) =

E Yearly Subscription: E

~ Two Dollars Ten Cents. Post Free —

~ (il/oney Orders Only) «

ՠHead Office: ■

= 170 Fleet Street - - London, E. C = = Americso Office: 250 West 54lh Street, New York ^

Hiiiiiiiimililllllllilllllilililiiiiiiililllillliliiiimn

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

Charavay Propellers

For Efficiency

THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc. 1733 Broadway, New York Sole Manufacturers of Sloane Aeroplanes

WHY WELD

When you can do better work in one-fourth the time, at one-fourth the price, by using the latest great discovery. —~ ^° W(?,diiff. N<> oxidization. No

^? 1""^ Hnx necessary. Runs at extremely

J . ■ «.! ~% . , ~» |nw temperature. Kasily applied \Lf 0CiAA/Tt\VTVWTT\ with gasoline torch. Twice as strong f . . i and much harder than aluminum.

V^^^ڞWuminurn5olde^^^ Never bivnks i\i sold,red points.

Convince yourself by Trying It. Used hy Interuat'l Motor. Locomobile. Packard, Stanley, Pierce-Arrow, Brewster. Deuiarcst, St ndc baker. Simplex—Aeroplane manufacturers and U. S. Navy.

Wrife for Booklet 66

?3.5U per lb.—Sample stick ('alb. i $1.50 net cash.

SO-LUMINUM MFG. & ENGIN.EhING GO., Inc., Sole Mtrs. and Distributors

United States Rubber Co. lildg. 171-0 Bruadway, New York

r

< BENOIST

Aeroplanes and Flying Boats

BENOIST AEROPLANE CO., Inc.

Factory and Office

341 S. SI. Louis Avenue

CHICAGO. ILL.

BALLOONS

Airships. Aeroplanes, Gas Generators, Safety Packs, Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' Balloons used by 95* of American and Canadian Clubs. MADISON SQUARE, BOX 181, NEW YORK

Aeronaut LEO STEVENS

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

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METERS IN FEET AND INCHES

m.

ft.

rn.

ft.

m.

ft.

m.

ft.

cm.

ins.

cm

ins.

,

3.281

45

167,0+

89

292.00

330

1082,7

15

5,906

59

23,23

2

6,562

46

150,92

90

295,28

340

l"5,5

16

6,299

60

23,62

3

9,843

47

154,20

91

293,56

350

1148,3

17

6,693

61

24,02

4

13,12

48

157,48

92

301,84

360

1181,1

18

7,087

62

24,41

5

16,40

49

160,76

93

305,12

37o

1213,9

19

7,481

63

24,80

6

19,69

50

164,04

94

308,40

380

1246,7

20

7,874

64

25,20

7

22,97

51

167,32

95

311,69

390

1279,6

21

8,268

65

25,59

8

26,25

52

170,61

96

314.97

400

1312,4

22

8,662

66

25,99

.9

29,53

53

173,89

97

3'8,25

410

1345,2

23

9,055

67

26,38

10

32,81

54

177.17

98

321,53

420

1378,0

24

9,449

68

26,77

11

36,09

55

180,45

99

324.81

430

1410,9

25

9,843

69

27,17

12

39,37

56

183,73

100

328,09

440

1444,6

26

10.24

70

27,56

'3

42,65

57

187,01

105

344.49

450

M76,4

27

10,63

7i

27,95

M

45,95

58

190.29

110

360,60

460

1509,3

28

11,02

72

28,35

15

49,21

59

193,57

115

377,30

47o

1542,1

29

11,42

73

28,74

16

52.49

60

196,85

120

393,71

480

1574,9

30

II,8l

74

29,15

17

55,78

61

200,13

125

410,11

490

1607,7

31

12,21

75

29,55

16

59,o6

62

203,42 206,70

130

426,52

500

1640,4 1968,5

32

12,60

76

29,92

19

62,34

63

135

442,92

600

33

12,99

77

30,32

20

65,62

64

209,98

140

459,33

700

2296,6

34

13,39

78

30,71

21

68,90

65

213,26

145

475,73

800

2624,7

35

13,78

79

3t,lo

22

72,18

66

216,54

150

482,13

900

2952,8 3280,9

36

14,17

80

31,50

23

75,46

67

219,82

155

508,54

1000

37

■4,57

81

31,89

24

78,74

68

223,10

160

524,35

2000

6561,8

38

14,96

82

32,28 32,68

25

82,02

69

226,38

165

541,94

3000

9842,7

39

15,36

83

26

85,30

7o

229,66

170

557,75

4000

13123,6

40

15,78

84

33,07

27

88,58

71

232,94

175

574,i6

5000

16404,5

41

16,14

85

33,85

28

91,90

72

236,22

180

590,56

   

42

16,54

86

33,47

     

29

95,15

73

239,51

185

606,97

cm

ins.

43

16,93

87

34,25

30

98,43

74

242,79

190

623,37

44

17,32

88

34,65

3i

101.71

75

246,07

195

639,78

1

o,394

45

17,72

89

35,04

32

104,99

76

249,35

200

656,18

2

0,787

46

18,11

90

35,43

33

108,27

77

252.63

210

688,99

3

1,181

47

18,50

91

35,83

34

iii,55

?8

255,91

220

721,80

4

1,575

48

18,90

92

36,22

35

114,83

79

259.19

230

754,61

5

1,969

49

19,30

93

36,62

36

118,11

80

262,47

240

787,42

6

2,362

50

19,69

94

37,10

37

121,39

81

265,75

250

820,22

7

2,756

51

20,08

95

37,40

38

124,67

82

269,03

260

85.3.03

8

3,150

52

20,41

96

37,8o

39

127,96

83

272,31

270

885,84

9

3,543

53

20,87

97

38,20

40

131,24

84

275,6o

280

918,65

10

3,937

54

21,26

98

38,60

41

134.52

85

278.88

290

951,47

11

4,331

55

21,65

99

38,98

4-

137,80

86

282,16

300

984 27

12

4,725

56

22,05

100

39,3

43

141,08 144,36

87

285,44

310

1017,1

13

5,n8

57

22,44

22,84

 

44

88

288,72

320

1049,9

M

5,512

58

   

RUST PREVENTIVE.

The following is a good rust preventive for steel: 16 parts turpentine, anil 1 part caoutchouc dissolved 1>y a gentle heat. To this add 8 parts hoiled oil, stir and at the same time bring to the boiling point. Apply with a brush after the manner of varnishing. This coating can be removed by the use of turpentine if desired.

ALUMINUM POLISH.

An emulsion of equal parts of rum and olive oil can be used for cleaning aluminum. Potash lye not too strong is also effective in brightening aluminum, benzol is also used.

A good polish for aluminm consists of a paste formed of emery and tallow, the finish lustre being obtained by the use of rouge powder with oil of turpentine.

1

2 զlt;

> <

> H

0 Z

LIST OF U. S. AERO CLUBS Continued

Saratoga Aeronautic Club, care Geo. A. Farnhani, Pres., Saratoga Springs, N. V.

Hay Ridge Model Aero i"lull. fiT.'li) Ridge Blvd.. May Ridge. Brooklyn. Carl Marcus, Sec. Jl.ong Island Model Aero club, 401 Grunt A\c., Cypress Hills, L. I.

ցero Chili of New York, Nassau Blvd., Garden Citv Estates,

L. I.

Harlem Model Aero Club. Harry Schullz, Pres., 2a W. 106th St., New York.

Ohio

''.Jueen city Aero club, :;22K Harrison Ave., Cincinnati, O. Goodyear Aero Club, Akron, i). c. s. Lewis, Sec.

Pennsylvania

*Aero c'lub of Pennsylvania. Geo. S. Gassner. Sec.. Front and tjueen S(s.. Philadel]iliia, Pa.

Hen Franklin Aeronautical Assn.. care In*. T. Chalmers Fulton. 6til & Piumond Sis,. Philadelphia. Pa.

I 'hiladelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society. Dr. Thos. E. Fldridge, Pres.. 1 s 1 1 No. Logan Sip, I'll 1 In. Pa.

Pittsburgh Aero club. 11. P. Haas, Sec, Mage,. P.blg., Pittsburgh, Pa.

Philadelphia Aero club. Alan McMurrav. Sec, 171s N. 25th St., Phila,, Pa.

Tennessee

Nashville Aero club. 10. Fisher Cedes, Sec, Nashville, Term. Texas

San Antonio Aero Club, care 1 >r. Fredk. J. Fielding, 12a Hicks

Hblg., San Antonio, Tex. Texas Junior Aeronautical Assn. Hugh Dumas, Pres.. Ft.

Worth.

Aero Club of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Tex.

Southwestern Aeronautical Assn., P. (>. Hox 11!', Ft. Worth,

Tex. 11. E. I,, ("iixtan. Pres. Texas Model Aero club. 517 Navarro St.. San Antonio, Tex.

Herkeley Hunter. Sec. Texas Aero Club, care Chamber of Commerce, San Antonio,

Tex. Harold Kayton, Sec.

Utah

Aero club of Utah, care 1.. It. Culver, 11 Eagle lllock. Salt Lake city, Utah.

Vermont

Aero Club of Vermont. Chas. T. Fairlield, Pres., care Put-laud News, Putland. Yt.

Washing-ton

Pacific Northwest Model Aero club, 0 10 Uavenna Hlvd., Seattle, Wash. Robert La Tour. Manager.

Wisconsin

i"! Milwaukee Aero club, Milwaukee, "Wis., care Major Henry P. llersey, chief Weather Bureau, Milwaukee, Wis. Milwaukee Aeronautic Society. Pres., Sherman Jirown, Mgr. Davidson Theatre, Milwaukee. Wis.

{Milwaukee Model Aero Club, 402 Bradford Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. Alfred Heyden. Sec.

Miscellaneous

*Aero Club of Connecticut. Gregory S. Bryan. Sec. Bridgeport. Conn. Postmaster returns mail to this club.

*Aero Club of Baltimore, Balto.. Md. Postmaster and the secretary pro tern of the proposed club state there is no aero club in Baltimore.

*Aero Club of Dayton (<).)■ Postmaster returns mail as undelivered

O

O

H. P. TABLE BY A. L. A. M. FORMULA

In using table, find bore ot cylinder in inches or

millimeters in the proper left-hand column, then read across to right under column for the number of cylinders that the motor under consideration has.

Bore = D Number of Cylinders = N.

Inches. Millimeters, 4 6 8

2Y, 64 ........ 10.00 15.00 20.00

2Vi 68 ........ 11.23 16.85 22.05

2H 70 ........ 12.08 IS.13 24.20

2H 73 ........ 13.37 20.00 26.45

3 76 ........ 14.40 21.60 28.80

3JA 79 ........ 15.64 23.50 31.25

3% 83 ........ 16.92 25.39 33.80

3)4 85 ........ 18.21 27.30 36.45

3'/2 89 ........ 19.61 29.45 39.20

3% 92 ........ 21.08 31.57 42.05

3% 95 ........ 22.50 33.75 45.00

3J/S 99 ........ 24.22 36.32 48.05

4 102 ........ 25.60 38.40 51.20

A'4 105 ........ 27.20 40.80 54.45

AVX 108 ........ 29.00 43.50 57.80

43A HI ........ 30.65 46.00 61.25

114 ........ 32.40 48.60 64.80

Ate 118 ........ 34.28 51.41 68 45

4?4 121 ........ 36.15 54.20 72.00

47A 124 ........ 38.25 57.21 76.0!

5 127 ........ 40.00 60.00 80.00

S!4 130 ........ 42.20 63.20 84.05

S'/i 133 ........ 44.20 66.40 88.20

Ste 137 ........ 46.34 69.SO 92.45

5<4 140 ........ 48.48 72.72 96.80

5te 143 ........ 50.80 76.10 101.25

5)i 146 ........ 53.00 79.50 105.80

57/s 149 ........ 55.28 8 2.88 110.45

6 152 ........ 57.70 86.64 115.20

(For four cycle motors)

O

RUBBER LUBRICANT.

The following is a lubricant prescribed by Mr. Wm. P. Dean, which he states lie has thoroughly tested and found to be an excellent lubricant and preservative for the rubber, one lubrication lasting for several occasions: \lA ozs. of glycerine; Vi oz. of si.ft soap; 8 ozs. of water. Boil together in a pan until the mixture is about the consistency of molasses or maple syrup. If it should get too thick, add more water and boil again, cool and bottle. To lubricate, pour a few drops in the palm of the hand and rub well up and down the rubber until every strand is lubricated.

CURTISS EFFICIENCY

THIS is the main factory of the Curtiss Aeroplane Co. at Buffalo, where aeroplanes of the tractor and pusher type for land and water are built under ideal conditions. The Curtiss Company is the largest and best equipped aeroplane-manufacturing plant in the world. Information on request.

CO., BUFFALO, N. Y.

THE

CURTISS AEROPLANE

BUFFALO, N

airaiiiiii:٦nbsp;..........<i«:iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii

BURGESS- Military Aeroplane DUNNE

furnished to

United States Great Britain Russia

Self-balancing

Self-steering

and

Non-capsizable

Form of wing gives an unprecedented arc of fire and range of observation.

Par excellence the weight and gun-carrying aeroplane of the World.

Tail-less and folding.

Enclosed nacelle with armored cockpit.

Speed range 40-80 miles per hour.

Climb 400 feet per minute.

Burgeu-Dunne No. 3 Delivered to U. S. Army at San Diego, December 30

THE BURGESS COMPANY, Marblehead, Mass.

Sole licensees of the American-Dunne Patents

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiciiii!!mi;i;iiiiiiii;iii:iiiiii^

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.


No. 2, 1915, July

VOL. XVII. No. 2

JULY 30, 1915

15 Cents

llBlllil)imiMif^1i- jjgjii^^

EROMilTICS

160 H.P. Model

The output of this model is sold for some weeks to come. Those desiring motors of this type should communicate with the factory at Hammondsport for the necessary arrangements for future deliveries.

All the important American records are held by the Cur-tiss Motor.

Modern factory methods and large facilities have developed Curtiss Motors to the highest degree of efficiency.

Simplicity of design and construction permit overhauling or repairing by any good mechanic, no special knowledge being required.

Light in weight, yet not so light that durability and strength are sacrificed. The factor of safety is large in Curtiss Motors.

We

Curtiss Motor Co.

HAMMONDSPORT NEW YORK

O O

CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN MOTORS (Aug. 1, 1915)

O

> pi 73 O

z >

C H

o in

O >

>

CO

pi m

H

2

p

CO

w

XA1IE

Rated IIP

No Cyl.

Bore

Stroke

Stated RPM

Stated Lbs.

with All Accessories but without Water, Gas or Oil

 

s

B

IIP by

A.L. A.M. Formula

Wt.

Per Rated

HP (Lbs.)

Cooling

Lbs. Water

Stated BH P

Lbs. Per BMP

Arrangement of Cylinder

Duesenborg. ...

N.B.

-1

4

375

6

 

2220

305

1

.37

30 65

N.B.

W

N.B.

N.B.

N.B.

Vert.

Ouesenberg.....

750

12

6

.75

7

5

1500

2700

1

. 11

21S.77

3 G

W

N.B.

750

3 6

Ve.e

Emerson........

             

Not

given

           

Vert.

t*Fredrickson ....

55

3

4

5

4

75

1250

N.B.

1

05

40. OS

N.B.

A

 

N.B.

N.B.

Radial

t*Fredrickson ....

00

5

4

5

4

75

1250

210

1

05

0(1. S2

2.33

A

 

N.B.

N.B.

Radial

t*Fredricksou ....

ISO

1(1

4

5

4

75

1250

N.B.

1

05

133.04

N.B.

A

 

N.B.

N.B.

Radial

♦Gyro ..........

!I0

7

4

5

6

 

1250

215

1

33

56 7

2 30

A

 

SO

2.6S

Radial

*Gvro .........

110

1)

4

5

6

 

1250

270

1

33

72. 9

2.45

A

 

102

2 64

Radial

llall-Scott ......

125

0

5

 

7

 

1300

535

1

40

60 0

4 2S

W

N.B.

125

4.28

Vert.

11 all-Scott.......

SO

s

4

 

5

 

N.B.

200

1

25

51 .2

3 . 62

\v

N.B.

N.B

N.B.

Vee

llall-Scott. . .

00

S 4

 

4

 

N.B.

265

0

 

51 2

4 33

w

N.B.

N.B.

N.B.

Vet'

llall-Scott . .

100

s

5

 

5

 

1500

540

0

 

SO

5 4

w

N.B.

145

3.72

Vee

Harrinian ....

30

1

4

25

4

25

1000

ISO

0

 

2S 0

U.

w

22

N.B.

N.B.

Vert.

Harrintan ....

00

1

5

 

5

 

1350

240

0

 

40

4

w

30

N.B.

N.B.

Vert.

ilarriman . . .

100

6

5

 

5

 

1400

355

0

 

00

3 55

\y

40

N.B

N.B.

Vert.

tJohnson . . ...

50

1 5

 

4

 

/1150

20S

 

S

(15

4 10

w

N.B.

50

4 10

Vee

t.lohnsou

75

<>

=)

 

4

 

1 to

29S

 

s

07 5

3 07

w

N.B

75

3 07

Vee

t.lohnson

100

S 5

 

4

 

,1400

403

 

s

130.

4 03

w

N.B.

100

4 03

Vee

fJohnson

150

12

5

 

4

 

!

5fl5

 

s

195

3 06

w

N.B.

150

3 00

Vee

Kent]). .

1(1

*>

1

 

4

 

1300

01

0

 

12 S

3 si

A

 

10

3 75

"1'1>.

Kcrup. . .

35

4 i

4

25

4

5

1150

102

1

05

2s. :.ռ/p>

5 40

A

 

36

5 33

Vert.

Kemp........

55

0

1

25

4

5

1150

272

1

05

43 3

4 04

A

 

54

5 10

Vert.

The Johnson motor, although it is of the two-cycle type, is different from other two-cvcle motors in that it is controlled by system of cylinder cut-out.

o

o

o

CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN MOTORS (Aug. 1, 1915)

NAME

*Adams-Farwell. . *Adams-Farwell. .

JAeromariue......

tAcromariue......

Aircraft.........

Ashmusen.

Rated II P

100 165 100

Ashmusen.......! 105

Bates......

Bates.......

Bates.........

Bates.........

Bates.........

Bates.........

Bates (b). . . . Bates (b) . . . 1 Burgess-White.

Curtiss........

Curtiss........

Curtiss........

Curtiss........

Curtiss........

Ouesenberg

30 40 00 1 10 135 110 ISO 120 1(50

0O 90 100 100 75

85

           

Stated Lbs.

                       
           

with All

   

11 P

by

Wt.

           
           

Accessories

 

s

A.

L.

I

er

Cool-

Lbs.

Stated

Lbs.

Arrange-

No.

Boi

Stroke

Stated

but with-

   

A.M.

R (ted

ing

Water

BHP

V

er

ment of

Cyl.

       

RPM

out Water

 

B

Formula

1

i.

     

BUP

Cylinders

           

Gas or Oil

       

(Lbs.)

         

5

6

 

6

 

1200

205

0

 

72

 

4

09

A

 

N.B.

N

11.

Radial

0

6

 

6

 

1200

2S0

0

 

S(i

0

2

S

A

 

N 11.

N B.

Radial

N.B.

N.B.

N

B.

N B

N.B.

N

.11.

N.

11.

N

B.

N.B.

N.B.

N. 11

N

B.

Vee

C>

4

3125

5

125

2000

435

1

IS

14

6

4

35

W

35

100

4

35

Vee

           

Not

given

                 

s

         

Not

given

                 

<>P1>.

12

         

Not

given

                 

opp.

2

4

75

5

5

1600

115

1

15

IS

07

3

S3

A

 

33

3

4S

Opp.

զgt;

5

25

6

 

1600

145

1

14

22

1

3

02

A

 

41

3

53

Opp.

4

5

25

li

 

1600

330

1

14

44

2

3

00

W

N.B.

ss

3

75

Vert.

6

4

75

5

5

1500

300

1

15

54

2

3

07

W

N.B.

1 14

3

15

Vert.

6

5

25

0

 

1550

450

1

14

60

4

3

33

W

N.B.

զgt;

 

Vert.

S

4

.5

5

 

1550

340

1

1 1

64

s

3

09

W

N.B.

*>

   

Vee

S

5

25

6

 

1600

560

1

14

SS

2

3

1 1

W

N.B.

»

 

Vee

6

5

25

6

 

1600

350

1

14

60

4

2

01

A

N.B.

■'

   

Radial

16

3

125

5

5

2000

575

1

76

02

5

3

50

A

 

Not

ready

Dble. V.

0

4

 

5

 

1200

2S5

1

25

3S

4

4

70

W

30

N.B.

N.B.

Vert.

s

4

 

5

 

1200

325

1

25

51

2

3

61

W

30

N.B.

N

B.

Vee

s

5

 

7

 

1100

700

1

40

so

0

4

37

W

SO

N.B.

N.B.

Vee

s

4

.25

5

 

1250

340

1

17

57

S

3

40

W

30

N.B.

N.B.

Vee

s

4

 

5

 

1 100

300

1

25

51

2

4

 

W

30

N.B.

N.B.

Vee

4

 

3«.«

6

 

2220

365

1

50

25

4

4

3

W

N.B.

S5

4

3

Vert.

= Rotative. t "= Two-cycle H.P. is figured A.L.A.M. rating times 1.05. J = Geared. Propeller rnns 1150

r.p.ni. to 1200 r.p.m. W = Water. A = Air. Weights of air cooled motors are for plants readv to flv. Water

weighs (j.j.5 lbs. per cubic fool; 1 gallon = S.355 lbs. N.B. = Information asked and not given. a "= Not' including

radiator. Ibi Last two models not vet completed.

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O Z > G H

O

°3

D

>

> Co X Pi Pi H

Z

p

CO

to

Published senii-mnnthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St.. New York

Telephone. Circle 22S9 Cable. Aeronautics. New Yzjrk

ERNEST L. JONES Editor

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor HARRY SCHULTZ Model Editor

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22, 190S. under the Act of March 3. 1879. $3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.

Postage free in the United States. Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 25 cedts extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries.

Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AEKO NAUTICS PRESS.

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received 6 days before date of publication. If prool is to be shown, allow ance must be made for receipt and return.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at tbe end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed tbat their subscription is to be continued.

THE AEROPLANE POWER-PLANT

By M. WILLIAM EHRLICH, M.E.

(All rights reserved by Author)

As the title indicates, this series of articles will deal with the power plant of an aeroplane, and each chapter will he complete in itself. Different sections will cover the items which tend to produce economy and efficiency as related to aviation. It is a technical treatise 'written in ei'cry-day language. The data embodied is practical from start to finish, with facts and figures given to substantiate almost every statement made, as is shown by the tentative statement of contents, as follows:

Prime Movers; a Comparison—Physical Relation of the Aero Engine to the Aeroplane —Unit Weight and Engine Classification— Motor Power and Installation Requirements —Propellers with Transmission of Power— Economic Selection of Propellers—Fuel Supply and Carburction—Ignition, Lubrication and Cooling—Gasoline, Oil and Water Requirements—Motor Rating and Developed Capacity—Disposition and Control of Equipment—Power-Plant Accessories—Four Cycle . lir-coolcd Motors—Four Cycle Water-cooled Motors—Two Cycle Motors.

It is admitted almost universally that the power-plant of an aeroplane is certainly its most important feature. Until the perfection of same, the motor remained the "missing Hub" in the solution of mechanical flight.

The author, M. William Ehrlich, is a consulting mechanical engineer and a Junior of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. He has to his credit many useful and practical papers, including such as the "Internal Combustion Engine." "A Trans-Continental Acro-zcay," etc.

The present series on "The Aeroplane Power-plant," the first installment of which appears below, should be of great moment to aviators, designers and manufacturers. Students of aviation certainly cannot afford

to miss them. 11 c arc indeed fortunate in securing this scries, and it is certain that many will find it of great benefit and value. The editor would be glad to-receive readers' comments on same from time to timc^ Incidentally, the publishing of this material emphasizes the fact that Aeronautics is, as always, the leading aeronautic magazine in this country, as only authoritative subjects and events are reported in our columns, frequently exclusively.

EDITOR,

CHATTER I. MODERN PRIME MOVERS

BEING A COMPARISON OF INTERNAL ( OMBUSTION ENGINE TYPES; DISCUSSING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AERO-MOTOR AND CONSIDERING THE QUESTION OF THE STEAM-ENGINE

It is needless to delve into the practical details attending the accomplishment of human night in mechanically propelled heavier-than-air machines, which are now popularly termed aeroplanes, for many of the early accomplishments, really wonderful achievements, are still fresh in our minds, and as the more recent attainments are so ably recorded in the different journals, these certainly need not

here be quoted. ^Historical accounts of performances are indeed always interesting, but it is riot the scope of this work to repeat that which has already been so well presented in various other forms. The principal aim at this writing is to bring to light the real secret underlying the success of the art of aviation.

The necessary forms of aero-foils or planes and their arrangement were through experiment well tie-

veloped by the close of the nineteenth century. But even at that time it was clearly understood that serious attempts at human flight would prove futile unless an exceptionally light power-producing apparatus could be obtained and utilized for the mechanical propulsion of the flying machine. Thus we see that even at an early date the power-plant was recognized as the missing factor.

As the years progressed the crude classes of self-propelled vehicles brought the modern type of gasoline automobile to the front, and with many detailed improvements added to the rapid development of this form of internal-combustion engine, public favor was soon gained. Now, after a little more than twenty years of existence, man)' refinements have been produced, resulting in a highly .economical means of transportation, both for pleasure and commercial purposes. With the successful utilization of the explosive type of engine in the automobile came the further evolution of reduction in weight, resulting in what is now termed the aeroplane or aero-motor. This is the name to be used throughout these papers to designate the types of gasoline engines used in the practice of aviation. Before proceeding with the numerous details involved in the power plant of an aeroplane, and particularly so with the motor proper, a few explanatory words may not be out of place.

The internal combustion engine, commonly called the gas engine, is a form of prime mover in which the fuel is burned directly in the cylinder of the engine. The gasoline engine, also known in England as the petrol-engine, is so-called because of the fuel used in combustion; but petrol and gasoline are almost identical in their composition. Therefore we see that the internal combustion engine may be classed according to the kind of fuel used, such as gas, oil, gasoline, naphtha, alcohol, kerosene, etc. Whether the fuel be a liquid or a gas, it is always vaporized or forms a gas before actual combustion takes place, thus the various types are properly called "gas" engines.

The extensive use both of the manufacturing apparatus and the automobile type of machine has created a popular distinction, the former being called an engine and classed by the kind of fuel used, and the latter is almost universally called a motor. Therefore it is frequent that we hear it termed the automobile motor and sometimes the auto-engine. This synonymous use may also be found in the practice of motor-boating and aeroplaning. The machine above-mentioned as the "manufacturing" type represents that form of prime-mover now extensively used in large manufacturing and industrial establishments for the production of electricity or other commercial pur-

poses. This form is usually horizontal and of slow speed, from which type the possibilities of the auto-engine were made a reality. The Diesel type of engine is not included in this account.

In the development of the auto-engine, economy in weight and space played as great a part as was similarly but later found necessary for aviation purposes, requiring the reduction of the motor parts and resulting in the production of a high speed engine. Though originally of the vertical type, these motors are now found with various arrangements and numbers of cylinders, both for use in automobiles and aeroplanes, It is an indisputable fact that the high power or modern auto-engine is a highly economic apparatus, but it must be understood that the conditions to be found in aero practice are somewhat unlike those inherent to the automobile.

A more conservative comparison would perhaps be the power plant of a motor boat. In this craft the engine is called on to deliver continuous power for an extensive period of time, conditions also found in aviation. The reason why the automobile is taken as a basis for comparison may be readily accounted for. The duty of the motor-boat engine is to fulfill a severe power demand, and in order to maintain reliability ail the parts are substantially built, resulting in high total weight. l!ut in the auto-engine many refinements have been brought about, both in the methods of construction and the materials used, resulting in a high grade apparatus that is also able to withstand extensive usage and without much reduction in effect. This resulted in a considerable reduction in weight without affecting the power output, for it is not only the design, but the construction of the engine which bears on its power economies. A well designed but poorly built motor will never give satisfactory results.

Therefore it may be readily seen that it is the success of the automobile engine and the progress of that industry in general that allowed for the rapid development of the aeronautical motor, thus making the assumed possibilities of the past, actual realities of today.

It should be remembered that the prototype of the modern motor dates back only 30 years, to 1885, when the first high-speed internal combustion engine was developed under the pate: Is of Gottlieb Daimler. However, prior to this invention, and even before the days of the successful steam railroad, many inventors proposed using the steam engine as a means for propelling carriages, or as they were then called, road-wagons. Developments along this line of thought brought about many successful steam-propelled vehicles, especially so in England, at about 1845. Then

the law interfered with mechanical progress, and put a ban on the use of steam cars by reserving the right of the road exclusively for horse-drawn carriages. On this account the development of steam-driven vehicles came to a standstill.

Rut when the early experimenters with heavier-than-air machines soon realized that human flight by the muscular force of man is out of the question, and decided that mechanical means must be utilized, attention was directed to the production of small steam boilers and quick-steaming generators. The most successful of the early attainments were due, therefore, to the wonderfully light steam engines constructed at the various periods by the different inventors. Approximate figures, given herewith, indicate their accomplishments. The year, name of experimenter, and the weight per horse-power developed, or its equivalent, are as in Table A.

Table A—Steam-driven Aeroplane Power-Plants

isr,s.

1S75. 1S'»1 . 1802. 1S'»4. 18%.

F.XPFRIMF.XTFR

. Stringfellow

.May........

. Ader ......

. Hargrave ..

.Maxim.....

. Lansrlev ____

. 13 lbs. per 1). p.

It may be well to note that the steam engine, even though a prime mover, is not an internal combustion engine. This type of apparatus necessitates the use of a boiler in which the fuel is burned and the steam generated. The steam is then conveyed to the engine proper and under the pressure exerted is caused to operate. The various machines above named proved quite successful, operating, however, for a very short

time only, as the stored supply of fuel and water was small of necessity, and therefore soon exhausted.

The results obtained by these experiments reinforced the view maintained by many that a practical machine which could develop continuous power and still be low in weight would be the only solution for the mechanical propulsion of aeroplanes. The internal combustion engine fulfilled these requirements but the weight was excessive. The ingenuity of engineers was then called upon, and soon the present day aero-motor was developed. In order to duly justify the various statements heretofore made regarding the weights of machinery, Table B is presented, giving average figures of modern or present day practice which may aid in their corroboration.

Table B—Weights of Modern Internal Combustion Engines

 

..........400 lbs. per h. p.

 

.......... 50

 

.......... 15

Aeroplane Engine............

.......... 4 " "

The values in Table B are not given as a means of discrediting the qualities and possibilities of the steam-engine for use in aeroplanes, for successful steam-driven automobiles do exist. The fact cannot be denied that this latter type of conveyance in actual practice has proved highly reliable, and can withstand extensive endurance; as regards weight, it may be safely said that it does not surmount the average found in gasoline vehicles by any great margin.

Other types of motive apparatus may and have been considered, but we will not attempt to go into these details, but proceed with the form of power-plant as found in modern aeroplanes, and to be considered in the next chapter.

WIRELESS CONTROLLED AIR TORPEDO

George F. Russell, of 120S Washington St., Hoboken, N. J., one of the old time Mineola flyers who has dropped out of ken for the past late years, has appeared over the horizon again, going strong.

He has evolved an aerial torpedo, gravity driven, capable of being steered more or less in the same directions as the power driven aeroplane.

The device consists of a supporting plane of about 16 sq. ft. in area, approximately 4 by 4 feet. This is mounted with three vertical struts of steel tubing, guyed, above two brass channels bolted back to back 7 ft. 2 ins. long, to which is attached a tapered aluminum tube with spun brass head and a tail outfit of the Curtiss order. The tube measures 12 ins. at the large end and 6 ins.

at the smaller end. The forward third is used for the containing of explosives with cap for ignition on contact.

At the time of launching from aircraft, a spring motor is set going which is used for operating the steering arrangement of the aluminum tail, which comprises a horizontal fin on each side of the tube, two elevators, a vertical fin and a vertical rudder. The control wires to the elevators and rudder are individual and either part may be operated alone through a system of wireless control of the spring motor.

In the rear end of the tube is a storage batter}- light, which would be visible to the crew handling the torpedos. A red or a green slide would move across the face of the lighted end, according lo which way the rudder turned, advis-

ing the aerial sharpshooters of the movements of the torpedo.

The whole outfit weighs, empty, in the neighborhood of fifty pounds, to which must be added explosive to the weight of 100 or 150 pounds.

The device, Mr. Russell explains, is really a monoplane glider, with large weight per area of supporting surface, traveling at high speed at a steep angle of incidence. He figures the angle of descent to be 1 in 3. The spring motor will run 10 minutes, plenty long enough to operate controls to the extent desired before the apparatus reaches the ground.

The torpedo is designed to be dropped from a dirigible, aeroplane or balloon. On a larger scale, the inventor claims a full-sized power driven man-less aero-Contimted on page ?S

SOME GENERAL OBSERVATIONS REGARDING AERIAL FOREST PATROL

Thousands of square miles in all the states are continually being patrolled for the detection and prevention of destructive forest fires. Great areas of cut lands are being reforested and the enemy is fire. Originally men were employed at stations to travel from one place to another on foot. Later, horses were used in the patrol work, and we now have steel towers with telephone lines running to headquarters or to the nursery where the men are at work. From the tower they get the alarm and the men in the nursery go and put the fire out.

State foresters are actively considering the aeroplane, both land and water, for aerial forest patrol. They consider it perfectly practical and that it will save an enormous amount of time of the men in the lookout towers and in patrolling the forests.

Mr. Auguston C. Carton, secretary Public Domain Commission of Michigan, has in mind a system of dropping fire extinguisher from the aeroplane when a fire first starts.

The matter of aerial patrol was taken up by State Forester W. T. Cox. of

Forest patrol can certainly be done thoroughly and economically by the use of flying boats and aeroplanes.

Flying boats should be used without question where there are lakes or rivers to furnish landing places, as they have several points of superiority over aeroplanes (land machines). The modern fh-ing boats are being operated practically without breakage of aii3' kind; and the danger of accidents from forced landings is eliminated ; while land machines are still subject to more or less breakage, depending on the skill of the pilot and *he physical characteristics of the country. The flying boat is also superior for the reason that the pilot and passengers sit in the bow of the boat and have an unobstructed view on all sides. This is a very important factor. Land machines can be btiilt with this arrangement and are being so constructed for use in the present war, but it is done at a considerable sacrifice of safety. In times of war the safety of the pilot is a secondary consideration.

Whether land or water machines are employed, a definite course will be charted for the ranger, having landing places, or stations, not more than five miles apart. By a station is meant a place where a safe landing can easily be made. In the case of the flying boat all that is required is water eight inches deep. For a land machine a fairly flat field 100 yards by 200 yards should be availahle. The machine must have a safe gliding angle of five to one. The aviator will then be safe with stations five miles apart if he maintains an altitude of 2,500 ft. In case of motor fail-

Minnesota, with the Navy, and negotiations were started with the Xaval Militia so that its services could be made use of at first, should the Militia be able to organize an aeronautic force.

In Wisconsin a trial has already been made. L. A. Vilas is spending the summer at Trout Lake, which is in the heart of the Wisconsin state forest reserve, and he has taken a great deal of interest in the work of the forest rangers in locating forest fires from the steel lookout towers, which are built on high points, and which are connected with the headquarters camp and ranger stations by telephone. It immediately occurred to Mr. Vilas that during a dangerously dry season, he could easily detect any forest fires which might start up, and he did locate and report a fire which was some fortv miles awav.

Mr. E. "M. Griffith,' State Forester, says: "On the evening of June 22 he took me up in his flying boat, as he wanted me to see another fire which he had just noticed while flying over to our camp. Wc went to a height of 1,600 feet, and from that elevation I estimate that we could see some 200,000 acres of

By Roger W. Jannus.

ure lie can easily reach the nearest station without power.

Some aviators take chances on their motors. They fly into places from which they could not possibly make a safe landing if the motor were to stop from any one of the thousand causes that may develop at any time. That kind of flying is a matter of luck, pure and simple. The writer does not believe in such a lack of policy, as it is certain to result in accident sooner or later. When we have larger machines with several motors, of which at least one can be out of commission, then we can safely have the stations at considerable distance apart without undue hazard.

The machine should have a minimum speed not greater than SO miles per hour, and a maximum of about 65 miles per hour; and should be relatively large and stable. The larger the machine the better, up to about 1,800 pounds in the case of the boat and 1,600 for the aeroplane, because a large machine properly built is infinitely more stable than a small one, and is capable of going up in strong winds with ease. While it is possible to fly a small, high-powered machine in any wind that can blow, with the exception of a tornado, it often gets to be nerve-racking and fatiguing physically if the flight is over five or ten minutes' duration.

Flying boats suitable for this purpose can be built, with a fair profit, for from $6,000 to $8,000. The initial cost of aeroplanes is slightly less, but when the greater risk and the possibility of having to prepare landing places is considered, the boat is the cheaper proposi-

forest reserve lands. Very easily and quickly we located the small fire, which we found was caused by a settler burning brush, and which was doing no damage. This fire could have been located from an elevation of not more than 500 feet, bnt we went to a higher elevation in order to make sure that there were no other fires within a radius of 25 or 30 miles.

"I consider that the use of the aeroplane in locating fires is perfectly practical, and that it will save an enormous amount of time of the men in the lookout towers, and also in patrolling the forests. Of course, the first cost of a machine will be considerable, but it would be saved within a couple of years by the patrol work which it would take the place of."

Through Aeronautics, manufacturers have been asked to submit data on upkeep, best type of machine, both land and water; first cost, operation, and so forth. All State foresters are being given by Aeronautics the fullest information on the application of the aeroplane to this new field.

tion of the two in most cases. Upkeep is difficult to estimate, but should not be over $50 a month for gasoline, oil and small repairs. $50 per week should attract aviators of sufficient ability, and a good mechanic will cost about $20 per week. This brings the running expense to $350 per month.

In order that practically all the patrolling could be done from the air, machines should be ordered at least 50 per cent, in excess of the number required for normal service. As is the case with any machinery, a portion of the equipment will be undergoing repairs and overhauling all the time. Provision for this should be made by obtaining a number of machines of exactly the same model so that parts would be interchangeable. There will be no accomplishment and no satisfaction if the thing is gone tit without sufficient funds and equipment. The scheme itself would then be blamed when failure would really be due only to the lack of sufficient financial resources.

In the event of our being involved in war these machines and men would be of inestimable value, as neither machines nor aviators in large quantities can be obtained on short notice. It is simply an impossibility, as both are the result of long and expensive development.

It is to be sincerely hoped that the adoption of aircraft by the Forest Reservations will be one of the first steps in the general aerial awakening which is now taking place in our country.

NAVY'S FLOATING DIRIGIBLE SHED

Contract has been awarded the Amer-can Bridge Company for building a floating dirigible shed at Pensacola, Fla., to be finished within eight months. This will house the dirigible now being built by Captain Baldwin.

It will consist of a steel pontoon carrying a steel frame structure, with sides and roof of corrugated galvanized sheet steel. The pontoon is 225 ft. long, 65 ft. 6 ins. beam, 6 ft. in depth. The shed

The shed is designed to stand a wind pressnre of 12 pounds to the square foot on the sides and 30 pounds on the closed end. The windows and other details will be noted on the drawings.

A gasoline engine is provided for, near the closed end of the shed, with capstan both outside and inside the shed, operating either independently or in conjunction. An inclosure at the forward end of the shed is to be fitted up for a

NAVY WILL HAVE HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN PLANT AT PENSACOLA

Contract has been awarded the International Oxygen Co. for the furnishing to the Xavy Aeronautic Station at Pensacola, Fla., of a oxygen and hydrogen gas producing plant, complete with generating units, pnmps, compressors for hydrogen and oxygen, purifier, pressure regulators, distilling stoves, coolers, scrubbers, switchboards, motor trans-

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itself is 187 ft. 6 ins., height 62 ft. and 56 ft. 6 ins. wide. This will comfortably house a dirigible 35 feet in diameter.

Along each side there will be a wooden balcony at a height about that of the longitudinal centre of the airship. Two overhead trolleys, suitable for carrying 2,000 pounds at anv point, are provided for.

As the outfit will not be docked for very long periods, great care is to be taken with the tinder-water plating of the pontoon, and the bottom and sides will be coated with bituminous compositions and an enamel which alone will be at least 3/16 inch thick. The sides of the pontoon above the lower guard and the outside of the shed will be painted a slate color. The entire inside of the pontoon will be painted with a bituminous solution and a bituminous cement or enamel. The inside of the shed, including the steel framework but excluding the inside of the galvanized corrugated sheet steel, will be finished in plain white.

The pontoon is divided into eight water-tight compartments by one center line longitudinal and three transverse bulkheads. '

watchman, with necessary berthing and other accommodations.

At the open end of the shed there is provided a canvas curtain, made in two halves with lap at the center and means for lacing together. Rings and pipe are provided above the top edge of the curtain so that each half can be hauled over to the side and then brailed in clear of arches

The curtain is variously supported with rope and blocks and falls are provided for closing, opening and handling the curtain. Three main verical stays of 5s-inch rope fastened at the top to the arch and at the bottom to the deck of the pontoon, and means for taking up slack, are provided. For the purpose of preventing the bellying of the curtain the center mainstay is fastened to the deck so that after the halves of the curtain have been laced together the center stay will form a ridge rope. Side stays are suitably located to support the curtain in this position.

The car of the airship is to be hauled in over the deck of the pontoon on a car provided for this purpose. A track to accommodate this car is to he fitted on the deck of the pontoon in the center of the shed.

formers, ventilating fans and all other uecessar.v machinery; instruments, gauges, meters, thermometers, etc.; gasometers for holding one day's output of hydrogen; SO hydrogen flasks to hold 200 cubic feet of hydrogen each under 1.800 pounds pressure; 6 oxygen flasks to hold 200 feet of oxygen under like pressure.

The plant must produce 15,000 cubic feet of hydrogen per day of 99.5^ purity and be capable of enlargement by the addition of similar units. It should be designed so that it can be easily taken down, transported and erected on freight cars, lighters or ships, either complete or in smaller units; to be capa> ble of being frequently stopped and started with little loss of time or efficiency; to be capable of laying idle without deterioration. The Navy Department supplies the electric power and the contractor all other material.

De Lloyd Thompson flew over the Continental Divide, at Butte, Montana, on July 16th. The exact height of the divide is not known, but the city is about 5,600 feet altitude. The Gyro motor worked perfectly and had plenty of reserve at highest altitude. He looped twelve times, tlevv upside down and negotiated the tumble with perfect ease at that altitude.

NAVY WANTS MOTORS—NO COMPETITION.

It is probable that a proposal will be sent out shortly inviting bids for several motors for aeronautical work in the Navy. The Navy Department has not proposed any motor competition,

such as the newspapers are mentioning with the usual accuracy.

Two aeroplanes have been recently ordered from Thomas Brothers & Co. without bid, and the Burgess contract has also been previously announced in Aeronautics. The Wright machine recently delivered at Pensacola was ordered a year ago last February.

1 beg to advise you that the advertisement (one insertion) inserted in your magazine has brought in about 10 to 12 replies; and in that lot were two parties with just what was needed. —An Advertiser.

NEW COMPANIES

Sturtevant Aeroplane Co., Jamaica Plain, Mass. Grover Cleveland Loening resigned his position as aeronautical engineer with the Signal Corps on July 15th and is now connected with this new company.

Thomas Aeromotor Co., Ithaca, XT. Y.

PLENTY OF AIR SPECIALISTS

Two more air advisers have been appointed by Secretary Daniels to act on the Naval Advisory Board, in addition to Messrs. M. B. Sellers. Technical Editor of Aernautics, and Hudson Maxim, named hy The Aeronautical Society of America, on July 27th at the request of Secretary Daniels made on July 19th.

Now, Henry A. Wood, "president" of "The American Society of Aeronautical Engineers," and Elmer A. Sperry, also a member, as well as a member of The Aeronautical Society of America, have been named by the above new organization, which latter Thomas A. Edison states has been formed at his request. Mr. Edison is chairman of the Naval Advisory Board.

A few days after The Aeronautical Societj- was asked, on July 19th, to select two of its members to serve on the Naval Advisory Board a letter was hurriedly sent out on letterheads of "The American Society of Aeronautic Engineers," 297 Madison Avenue.

These letters advised the recipients that they "have been selected to become one of the members of the American Society of Aeronautic Engineers. . . ."

On July 23rd over a hundred names were published in the daily papers as "members" of this organization "composed entirely of aeronautic engineers and experts to co-operate with the New Advisory Committee of the Navy," evidently meaning the Naval Advisory Board. On August 9th a contemporary prints a request from Secretary Daniels to the new organization, the wording being the same as the request to The Aeronautical Society, to select two of its members to serve, and commenting on "the work your society has done,"—this organization of a few days of age.

Better second fiddle than no fiddle at all!

AIRCRAFT IN THE PRESENT WAR

It is expected that by the next issue we will have received the arranged-for article on Aircraft in the War, by ex-Lieutenant Riley E. Scott, illustrated with exclusive pictures taken on the German side. This will be entirely un-expurgated.

TEXAS AERO SHEDS FOR SIGNAL CORPS

The plans and specifications for the aeroplane sheds to be erected at the Army Post at Fort Sam Houston, near San Antonio. Tex., to house the aero-plans of the proposed aviation school which were opened at the national capital in the office of the chief signal officer, on June 20, are novel in the door

The doors are composed of Js-inch tongue and groove sheathing laid diagonally over a regulation door frame. An astragal moulding is secured to the side of each door to make a tight joint. In the floor an inverted T shape of structural steel imbedded in concrete engages a groove plate on the hottom of the

The first of July saw as many machines on hand at San Diego as can be used for some time to come. The First Aero Squadron has its new equipment, and the School is amply supplied with training machines.

00

   

--

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-

 

ffl no

DD

no

QG GO

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no

cr

DO DD

DD PD

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HE

DPf

DDI

nor

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Section Ihtvvyh Sfied

Front ElevaT/on

- 3fO-

$7,000,000 is easily the contracted aeronautical engine output for F'15, judging from orders now in hands and parts farmed out. All these makers advertise in Aekoxautics.

Another story which has not been denied—neither has it been affirmed—is to the effect that a certain well-known author and accredited authority is to head a large company in the manufacture of aircraft, with offices in the Hub.

arrangements. The two sheds each will house five planes and will cost in the neighborhood of $20,000. Corrugated iron will be used in the construction.

As is to be expected on Government work, the construction of the hangers, though very simple, is yet of the best throughout. The framework is of structural steel, which in turn is covered with corrugated steel No. 26 gauge, with corrugations 2l/2 x >s inches.

The most interesting feature lies in the manner of disposing of the doors when the shed is open. On either side of the partition between adjacent hangers there is fixed a swinging door of the same general construction as the sliding doors except that the upper panels are glazed. An overhead track runs across the front of the shed, curves behind the swinging doors, and then runs along the sides of the shed. Two heavy, ballbearing, pivoted door hangers on each door, run on this track and thereby can be slid from the closed position in front to the open position along the sides, rounding the curve behind the swinging end doors.

doors and holds them in alignment. The illustrations give an idea of the construction.

The construction at San Antonio will unfortunately not be completed until about the middle of December, when the

"There's no business to he had, why advertise?"—Manufacturer in 1912.

"We've got more than we can handle now, why advertise?"—Same, 1915.

A vision was observed the other day of a two by four slice of wood, emitting

Section under roof

First Aero Squadron will go there for station, and San Antonio will then be a focus of aeronautical activity, but until December there will be nothing doing except construction work on buildings.

dense smoke and harking like twin gat-ling guns after a night out, travelling at 60 or more miles an hour over Mar-blehead harbor. Looking for stray comets, an observer at Blue Hill descried through his -42-centimetre telescope a crouching form clinging to a wreath of smoke and endeavoring to guide the wild course of the thing by means of a piece of tin nailed to the end of a stick. On the next round it was seen to he W. "Startling" (see esteemed contemporary for spelling) Burgess, and it was later learned said Burgess was merely testing the new twin eight motor. This was later confirmed by Frank Russell. Publicity Engineer.

BURGESS HAS N. Y. OFFICE

The Burgess Company has established a New York office at 331 Madison Avenue, in charge of Aviator Frank Cofifyn.

Aeronautics is and always has been the best magazine for the technical reader, and 1 have sent many an inquiry your way when they wanted to subscribe "for a good aero magazine.—Advertiser.

K-W SPECIAL AEROPLANE MODEL MAGNETO.

This illustration shows the Model II K-W High Tension Magneto, made especially for aeroplane motors, and the makers claim it is the only Magneto made that will run an 8-cylinder motor at crank shaft speed.

The reason therefor is explained by reference to illustration of winding shown herewith, in which you will note that the winding, which is concentric with the armature, is mounted between the two halves of the rotor and stands absolutely still.

These rotors collect the magnetism from one pole piece and conduct it

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

IMPORTS

May, 1915 ..................... none

Same period, 1914, 1 aeroplane

($1,S56) ; parts ($3,920) ;

total ........................$ 5,776

11 months ending May, 1915,

parts only ................... 2,371

Same period, 1914, 1 aeroplane

($1,856) ; parts ($30,279) ;

total ........................ 32,135

through the center of the winding to the opposite pole piece, thus giving a powerful wave of current from a quarter revolution of the Magneto. Therefore, by the use of a 4-point cam, four sparks per revolution of the Magneto can be obtained, and the Magneto, running at crank shaft speed, will lire an 8-cylinder, 4-cycle engine. Of course, on 2-cycle engines the speed would have to be doubled.

The regular Magneto, using hard red brass castings, weighs 26 pounds, but where it is desirable to dispense with every ounce of weight possible, theMag-neto can be made 1 inch shorter and aluminum castings used, instead of hard red brass, and the weight brought down to 22 pounds.

This is the same type Magneto now being successfully used on a large number of traction engines put out in this country. Several large orders have been filled for British war trucks. This type of Magneto is used as standard equipment by several large stationary and traction engine builders. No engine has yet been found too large or that runs too slow for same. Similarly, no engine has yet been found too high speed, as the circuit breaker is quick acting.

The stationary circular winding is capable of insulation to a far higher degree than any type of rotating winding, thus rendering the Magneto extremely reliable and eliminating all danger of puncture at high speeds. The circular winding delivers a pure dynamic spark of high heat, thus exploding the mixture much more rapidly and with a great deal more power, as well as preventing the engine from carbonizing and fouling its spark plugs.

Full description and prices will he furnished on application to the makers, The K-W Ignition Company, 2870 Chester Ave., N. E., Cleveland, Ohio.

Same period, 1913, 13 aeroplanes ($50,920); parts ($1,776); total .......................... 52,696

DOMESTIC EXPORTS

Mav, 1915, 10 aeroplanes ($83,950); parts ($160,412); total. 244,362

Same period, 1914, 1 aeroplane

($4,000) ; parts ($558) ; total. 4,558

11 months ending May, 1915, 90 aeroplanes ($674,807), parts ($444,328) ; total ...........1,119,135

Same period, 1914, 30 aeroplanes ($164,424); parts ($37,135); total ........................ 198,559

Same period, 1913, 26 aeroplanes ($75,950) ; parts ($23,776); total ........................ 99,726

EXPORTS OF FOREIGN

May, 1915 ..................... none

11 months ending May, 1915.... none Same period, 1914, 1 aeroplane

($4,049) ; parts ($900)....... 4,949

IN WAREMOUSE MAY 31

1915, 1 aeroplane...............$ 1,856

1914, 1 aeroplane ($1,856) ; parts

($3,420) ; total .............. 5,276

THE GIBSON PROPELLER PATENT.

A patent issued to Hugo C. Gibson, who formerly conducted a propeller business, on July 20, 1915 (application filed June 4, 1910), No. 1,147,233, has a distinct bearing on the propeller-making industry, as it is claimed that this patent is basic and is particularly strong on account of the early date of application and the fact that priority had to be proved over foreign manufacturers.

Figure 1 is a plan view of a propeller made according to this invention. Fig. 2 is a plan view of the same in one of

the steps of manufacture. Fig. 3 is a sectional end elevation. Fig. 4 is a plan view of a modified form, and Fig. 5 illustrates the textile band.

According to the invention each of the parts which is to be one of the layers is first sawed out according to patterns of predetermined shape which leaves them with flat parallel sides and with edges at right angles thereto. Then these pieces are glued together with the portions thereof which are to form the hub in axial alignment with each other and with their parts overlapping one another with predetermined amounts. (See Fig. 2 and 3.) The shapes of the patterns and amounts of overlap are figured and plotted and transferred to wood or other material of which the propeller is to be made. The shapes are such as to cause the lines of intersection between adjacent layers to be the desired lines of the finished propeller taken at different horizontal sections.

The process is a familiar one to all propeller makers and need not be gone into at more length.

The claims have been abstracted following, with qualifying and amplifying phrases included; individual claims, of which there are 8, may be read with and without these:

The method consists in cutting a plurality of strips (of wood, with their grain longitudinally disposed; or different

1,147,233.

PntenWJuiy 211.1915.

WITNESSES

ATTORNEY

kinds of wood; or other material) to desired shapes, fastening said strips together in such predetermined relations that the lines joining the intersections of said strips, in any plane cutting said strips at right angles, are either one or both curved lines, and cutting away those portions of the strip which project beyond their lines of intersection; covering parts of said propeller with an endless band of stretchable or other textile material.

High Tension Magneto

Model H

Especially adapted for Aeronautical work. The only Magneto thai will Are an ~" speed. Requires no Coil or Battery. (.lives maximum, speed and power.

Under engine at crank shaft

Semi for Catalogue Eighteen

IGNITIOn C?)

CtmiijiD.Oiuo. USA

PATENTS

Manufacturers want me to send them patents on useful inventions. Send me at once drawing and description of your invention and I will give you an honest report as to securing a patent and whether 1 can assist you in selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 vears. Personal attention in all cases.

WM. N. MOORE Loan and Trust Building Washington, D. C.

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY

Books and Advice Free

Send sketch or model for search. Highest references. Best Results. Promptness Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer

624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

BALDWIN

sm Balloons H Dirigibles Fabrics Motors

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O.. New York

DflN'T w"te °* unka U\Jl* 1 yoll aIe jn,er.

ested in a reliable, efficient

aadeconomical power plant.

That is the only kind we

build. Four sizes.

Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works Muncie, Inc.

AERONAUTICS

E The Leading British Weekly = E Journal Devoted to theTechnique E = and Industry of Aeronautics E

(POUNDED 1907) =

E Yearly Subscription: S

~ Two Dollars Ten Cents. Post Free ~

— (Money Orders Only) —

■ Head Offizm: ■

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for AVIATORS

JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS CO.

TRENTON. N. J.

Charavay Propellers

For Efficiency

THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc. 1733 Broadway, New York

Sole Manufacturers of Sloane Aeroplanes

PATFNT^ Frederick W.Barker

Jl 1 JLJll 1 \J Attorney and Expert in

PATENTS, TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS

due's prepared and prosecuted I 28 Years in Praclice with the greatest care and

thoroughness, to ensure broad Direct CnurjeclioDs io all

scope and validity Foreign Cnnatries

P. O. Box 139, Times Square Station, New York City

BALLOONS DIRIGIBLES

Records prove we build the best Balloons in America. Nine 1st prizes. Three 2nd. and Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen World-wide Contests.

Write for prices and particulars.

HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 3233 Benton Blvd. Kansas City, MD

r--< BENOIST «s—

" Aeroplanes and Flying Boats

BENOIST AEROPLANE CO., Inc. Factory and Office

341 S. St. Louis Avenue

CHICAGO, III.

BALLOONS

Airships, Aeroplanes, Gas Generators, Safety Packs, Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' Balloons used by 95=6 of American and Canadian Clubs. MADISON SQUARE, BOX 181, NEW YORK

Aeronaut LEO STEVENS

o

o

CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN MOTORS (Aug. 1, 1915)

NAME

Rated No. Bore HP Cyl.

Stroke

Kemp ........

Maximotor.. Maximotor. . . . Maximotor. . Maximotor. . Maximotor . . Maximotor. .

tRoberts.........

tRoberts. . . . ■ , tRoberts..........

Rausenberger.

Robinson Kadial.

Selvage......

Sterling Flyer... Sturtevant ....

Sturtevant.....

Sturtevant......

Sturtevant ....

JThomas........

Trebert ........

\'an Bierck. . . .

Welles-Adams . .

Wright.........

Wright.........

Wright.........

so

8

4 25

40

4

4 5

no

4

5.

70

6

4 .5

90

6

5

120

S

4 5

150

s

5

05

4

5

100

r,

5.

200

0

0 5

150

12

4 125

100

(5

5.

70

8

,3.75

130

0

'5.5

100

4

4.5

so

6

4 5

140

S

4 .

50

4

4.5

150

8

X.B.

150

0

5 .5

3(1

4

4 375

lit)

6

4 375

Stated RPM

4 75 1 1200

5.5 5. 5 5

5.E

5. 5. 6 6. 6.

4 . 0.'

X.B.

Slated Lbs.

with All Arcessories but without Water.! Gas or Oil

1250

1250

1250 1

1250

1250

1250

1500 | 1500 1500 1200 I 1350 |

2000 1250 000

14-1500 1200

14-1500

2200

1500

1400

385

275 325 375 400 425 500 ■

250 340 080 590 300

250 N.B. 400 325 550 230

520 Nol

710-a

Not

 

IIP bv

Wt.

 

A.L.

P

or

A.M.

Rated

B

Formula

III'

   

(Lbs.)

1.11

57 9

5

 

1 11

32.4

0.

87

1 10

40.0

5

41

1 . 11

4S. fi

5

35

(J.

00.

4

44

1 11

04 8

3

54

1 . 10

SO

3

33

0

00.

-i

S4

0.

99.

3

50

0 92

107 3

3

40

1 .45

SI .6

3

113

1 20

GO.

3

 

1 .00

45

3

57 ■

N.B.

N.B.

N

.IS. 1

1 33

32 4

1

 

1 .00

4S 0

4

 

1 .3S

51 2

3

9

1 .00

32 4

1

0

 

k~

   

1 N.B.

N.B.

3

40

1 09

given 190 1 9 305 1 02

Not yet rea dy

30 0 40 0

0 53 5 07

Caol ing

W W W W

w w

w w w w

A

W W W W

w w

w w

Lbs. Stated Water BUB

-10 00 70 90 100 125

N.B. N.B. N.B. 42

50 N.B.

N.B. N B

N.B. N.B.

Lbs. Per BHP

o

Arrangement of Cylinders

S2

4

70

Vee

29

ti

87

Vert.

38

5

41

Vert.

42

5

35

Vert.

40

4

44

Vert.

50

3

54

Vee

03

3

33

Vee

N.B.

N

B.

Vert.

N.B.

N

1!

Vert.

N.B.

N

B.

Vert.

N.B

N

IS.

Vee

N.B.

N

B

Radial

70

3

57

N.B.

130

N.B.

Vert.

105

3

9

Vert.

83

3

9

V ert.

142

3

9

Vee

52

4

43

Vert.

150

3

34

Vee

150

ձ

73

Vert.

N.B. N.B.

N.B. I Vert. N.B Vert.

O z > c

H

O

in

o >

> m X m m H

Z

p

WIRELESS CONTROLLED AIR TORPEDO

Continued front page 21 plane, with a compressed air automatic stability device, loaded to capacity with explosives, could, by his device, be guided in its course of destruction from other aircraft, for instance, keeping the aeroplane in sight front a height above the range of anti-aircraft guns.

Russell taught himself to fly in one of the very earliest Curtiss machines. Had he taken his pilot's certificate it would have been numbered in the first dozen issued, along with Capt. Baldwin, Tod Shriver, Charlie Willard, "Bud" Mars and Charles K. Hamilton.

THOMAS AEROMOTOR CO. ORGANIZED.

To till the unprecedented demand for reliable, high powered aeronautical motors required by our own government and foreign nations, \Y. T. Thomas, of the Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., Ithaca, N. Y., has organized the Thomas Aeromotor Co.. papers for which have been filed at Albany. The incorporators are: YV. T. Thomas and E. B. Cress-well, of Ithaca, N. Y.; Harold N. Bliss, George H. Abel and Raymond Ware, of Boston, Mass.

Harold X. Bliss and George H. Abel were, until recently, in the designing work and production of the Sturtevant M fg. Co., Mr. Bliss acting as Chief Engineer. The new Thomas motor com-

pany starts out with every qualification for producing a motor which should prove capable of meeting the increasingly severe conditions of service under which present day aeronautical motors must work.

The construction of the first lot of these motors is well under way, and plans are completed for the productions in large quantities. There are incorporated in this new design many original ideas calculated to give an all-round efficiency claimed to be heretofore uu-attained in this country. The general layout calls for a compact, lightweight "Y" type motor of 150 to 180 H. P. operating at speeds of 2,000 to 2,500 R. P. M., any desired propeller speed being obtained by gear reduction. These high speeds have been made possible by the employment of large valves, exceptionally light pistons of a special alloy, and connecting rods machined all over from forgings having an elastic limit of 280,000 lbs.

Due to Mr. Thomas' connection with the new company, this motor has been designed to meet the particular requirements of the Thomas military tractors, which have proven so satisfactory both here and abroad. However, the designers have not lost sight of its equal adaptability to the pusher type. Provision has been made to take care of counterclockwise driven crankshaft, to provide for installation in twin tractors or pushers of the latest type war planes in use abroad.

The Thomas motor is equipped to meet all military requirements with the latest accessories such as self-starter, wireless drive, tachometer, etc. The first lot of motors will be coming through about September 1st.

AERO MART.

FOR SALE—50 H. P. Gnome, good as new; 9 pistons for a 60 H. P. Curtiss standard; 48 rings for same; 3 wheels 20 by 2V2. John Weaver, Box 7, Oklahoma City, Okla.

NOTICE

I would like to correspond with party who, for an interest therein, would furnish capital necessary for obtaining patents and marketing an improved form of aeroplane, embodying higher efficiency, stability and instantaneous respond to control. "Not a freak hut a tested design." Address R. J. D., care Aeronautics.

Imagine six wheelbarrow loads of castings for push rod bearings, of which eight are used to one engine, in one parts factory working on aeronautical war sub-orders from one motor firm! Trips through machine plants working on this engine reminds one of sectionls of the "famous Flivver factory.

.jgfe THE COAST LINE TO ^a.

£macki n ac^

DETROIT, ' -1 j " TOLEDO, CLEVELAND, BUFFALO, JPT. HURON, ALPENA, ֎IAGARA FALLS.- 1 ST. IGNACE.

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+

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AND

Aero Varnish

Wc were the first in the field, and the test of time is proving that our product is the best.

+ +

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֦r Samole Book A-6, Dala and Prices on Reqnesl X

I The C. E. Conover Co.

J MANUFACTURERS

% 101 Franklin Street, New York |

^ A LAKE TRIP FOR REST AND RECREATION^

Have a real vacation on the Great Lakes, the moat en-iovable and economical outing in America. The cool 1 ike breezes, the ever-changing scenes along the shore, and the luxurious steamers of the D. 6r C. Line are positive guarantees th^tt you will enjoy every minute of your trip, and return home refreshed and glad you went. Daily service between Detroit and Cleveland and Detroit and Buffalo. Four trips weekly from Toledo and Detroit to Mackinac Island and way ports. Two trips weekly, special steamer, Cleveland to Mackinac Island, no stops cnroute except Detroit and Alpena, Special day trips between Detroit and Cleveland during July and August. Daily service between Toledo and Put-In-Bay.

RAILROAD TICKETS AVAILABLE FOR TRANS POR r ATI ON on D. & C. Steamers between Detroit and Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland either direction. Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet and Great Lakes map. Address L. G- Lewis, G.P.A.. Detroit. Mich.

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company Philip H. McMillan, Pres., A. A. Schantz. V. P. & G. M. AH Steamers arrive »nd depart, Third Ave. wharf, Det.

ROBERTS

You Couldn't Expect More Value

100 H.P. 200 H.P.

A

340 lbs. 690 lbs.

You Couldn't Get More Satisfaction

$1,250 $1,850

Q-D" Motor — Simple No Vibration —10-Hour Test for Motor Guaranteed to Stand More Abuse and Heavy with Less Attention than Any Other Motor. IT WANTS IS GASOLINE AND SPARK

'v'liftrailar ROBERTS MOTOR MANUFACTURING COMPANY 30O Roberts Motor Block ' SANDUSKY, OHIO, U. S. A.

MOTORS

'More maryl^

OF AMERICA 2» West 39th Slreet, New Yorta

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

SELLERS AND MAXIM FOR ADVISORY BOARD

On July 27th a special meeting of the Board of Directors was held at the rooms of the Society, to take action upon the invitation received from the Honorahle Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, that the Society select two of its members as the representatives of the Aeronautical Society of America in the Advisory Committee for the Navy. A large and enthusiastic gathering answered the call, comprising: Frederick W. Barker, Acting President, in the chair, and the following directors : Rudolph R. Grant. Charles W. Howell, Earle Atkinson, Merrill E. Clark, Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin, Rudolph Hanau, Ernest D. Anderson, Edward Durant, Oscar Hermanson, Walter V. Kamp, Leo Stevens, William J. Hammer, Ernest L. Jones, Leon Goldmerstein, Frank O. Burridge, Matthew B. Sellers. Thos.

A. Hill, E. P. Hopkins and Walter L. Post.

A poll having been taken by mail of tlie members, careful consideration was given the candidates of the ballot, and, acting thereon, a number of nominations were made, the qualifications of each nominee fully and freely discussed, and after a vote was taken, the following gentlemen were selected as the Society's representatives: Hudson Maxim, Past President of the Society; Matthew

B. Sellers, Director and Member of the Technical Board.

Most earnest and thoughtful consideration was given the subject by each member of the Board, all agreeing the question to be momentous, and constituting one of the most important events in the history of the Society, because by this means the Society would be enabled to prove of direct service to the Lnited States Government in the important branch of aeronautical machines and appliances and the arts and sciences relating thereto. Hence the choice of the right men was imperative, and the Society believes that in selecting Messrs. Maxim and Sellers it could have done no better. The Directors declared the Society a unit in its determination to support its representatives to the utmost of its power and ability, so that the Navy Department will have the benefit of all the best data and earnest effort which the Society, through its technical Board, Aeronautical Engineers' Society, and individual members, are able to supply, in the cause of the advancement of aviation for the service of the nation.

Announcement is made that the paper by Charles R. Wittemann, entitled "Theory and Experiments in Following Plane Machines," which has been discussed by the Technical Board, and reviewed by the Aeronautical'Engineers' Society, is now in the press, and copies thereof will within a few days be mailed to all members.

This paper is being published under the Lee S. Burridge Foundation. Other papers are now in course of preparation, and members generally are invited to communicate with Rudolph R. Grant. Chairman of the Technical Hoard, regarding subjects upon which they intend to prepare papers for similar treatment.

The following new members have been elected: Harry L. Barnitz, Montague Palmer, Paul Brockett, Thomas F. Flinn,

Meetings are held every Tuesday evening, at 8.15.

WICHITA AERO CLUB FORMED

An aero club has been organized by Wichita men at a meeting addressed by Capt. H. E. Honeywell, the balloon builder of Kansas City. Great enthusiasm was aroused and a sub:>cription was started for the purchase of a spherical to be finished for the fall race scheduled to start from Wichita on October 4th. Captain Honeywell will train one or more members so the balloon can be piloted by a native Wichitan.

The picture herewith was taken from the captive balloon being operated by Capt. Honeywell at Electric Park, Kansas City, at an altitude of 1,000 feet. Great success is being attained, and eight or nine passengers in addition to

tion contest for the purpose of selecting the members to represent the club in the first national contest for distance for hand launched models took place August 1st at Hempstead Plains.

A great deal of interest has arisen in compressed air motors. Messrs. McMa-han and Schober have both built models equipped with compressed air motors. Schober claims a flight of over 20 seconds and McMahan 17 seconds. At the first national contest on August 22nd at Hempstead McMahan and Schober will compete against one another.

U. S. PATENTS ISSUED.

JULY 13TH.

Aeroplane. H. B. Chalmers. No. 1,1-45,972.

Aeroplane. R. D. Andrews. No. 1,145,060.

Bombs from flying-machines to other objects, means for attaching. F. A. Du-gro. No. 1.146.695.

Aeroplane. H. B. Chalmers. No. 1,145,973.

JULY 20.

Aerial Vehicle. A. Beurrier and J. A. Bigonrdan. No. 1.147,294.

Airship. J. W. Broderick. No. 1,146,842.

JULY 27.

Propeller, system of manufacture. A. H. C. Gibson. No. 1.147,233.

Hvdroaeroplane. T. Sloper. No. 1,148,340.

Aeroplane stabilizing device. T. M. Reynolds. No. 1.14S.050.

Airships, equalizing drive mechanism for. H. W. Atwood and D. D. Stern-bergh. No. 1.14S.2S0.

the pilot are being carried each trip; this in spite of inclement weather. The bag is of 33,000 cubic foot size and is inflated with hydrogen gas.

MODEL NEWS.

All the members of the Aero Science Club of America are preparing for the coming national contests. The elimina-

MORRISS FLYING TO NEW YORK.

Percy G. B. Morriss left Chicago on August 3rd with a message to Aeronautics in New York. He will travel in his Benoist fixing boat via the Great Lakes. Details of his trip will be furnished to Aeronautics.

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THE WRIGHT FLYING SCHOOL

Located at Dayton opens May 1st, for the season of 1915. Tuition $250. No other charges of any kind. Enroll now. Booklet on request.

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THE BURGESS COMPANY, Marblehead, Mass.

Sole licensees of the American-Dunne Patents

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