American Magazine of Aeronautics: Volume 16, 1915 - No. 1, 1915, March - No. 2, 1915, March - No. 3, 1915, April - No. 4, 1915, April - No. 5, 1915, May - No. 6, 1915, May - No. 7, 1915, June - No. 8, 1915, June - Aviation - Flying - Airport - Aerodrome - Aircraft

March 2, 2020

Discover the American Magazine of Aeronautics (Volume 16, 1915)
» No. 1, 1915, March
» No. 2, 1915, March
» No. 3, 1915, April
» No. 4, 1915, April
» No. 5, 1915, May
» No. 6, 1915, May
» No. 7, 1915, June
» No. 8, 1915, June


No. 1, 1915, March

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Hold the Principal American Records as Follows:

Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoy Muller, U.S.A., 17,185 feet. Altitude, with one passenger, Lieut. J. C. Carberry, U.S.A., 11,690 feet. Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron 0. Jones, U. S. A., 8 hrs. 53 min. Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U.S.N., 6 hrs. 10 min.

Motors Ready for Delivery

MODEL "S," 6-CYL., 60 H. P. MODEL "0-X," 8-CYL., 90 H.P. MODEL "O," 8-CYL., 80 H.P. MODEL "OXX," 8-CYL., 160 H.P.

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Practically every aeronautical record

was made possible by the use of the

Bosch Magneto

That fact alone is conclusive proof as to the worth of Bosch.

Where you cannot take a chance there you must have Bosch.

Be Satisfied Specify Bosch

Correspondence always Invited

Bosch Magneto Company

201 West 46th Street

New York

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTTCS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St., New York

Telephone, Circle 2289 Cable. Aeronautics. New Vork

ERNEST L. JONES Editor

11. B. SELLERS Technical Editor HARRY SCHULTZ Model Editor

FRANK CASH Ass't Editor

Entered as Second Class Hail Hatter. September 22. 1VUS. under the Act of March 3. 1879. $3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.

Postage free in the United States. Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries.

Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.

The maeazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received 6 days before date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must be made for receipt aod return.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS

With this issue is begun Vol. XVI, With No. 1. The issues for each six months have, heretofore, formed one volume. There should have been 12 is-

sues for Vol. XV, instead of the 8 zAiich have been published. Instead of continuing to name future issues consecutively, completing Vol. XV, to ovoid an anachronism, a new start is being

made with the current date, March 15, 1915.

All unexpired subscriptions are set ahead four months so that every subscriber tci7/ receive the full complement of issues due him.

AEROPLANES WITH VARIABLE INCIDENCE

By M. B. Sellers

A communication presented to the Russian Society of Engineers of Paris, by L. Kolpakoff-Mirochnitchinko entitled Anions a Incidence variables, is of considerable interest, in view of the success of the well known Paul Schmitt biplane. This machine, piloted by Garaix, made records of height and speed with 4, 5, 6 and up to 10 passengers. I shall give briefly the substance of this communication.

By "variable incidence" is here understood the property of an aeroplane to change the angle of attack of its planes without recourse being had to its auxiliary controlling surfaces. Two conditions must be realized: (1) The axis of thrust and the direction of the head resistance should be confused (i. e., in line) no matter what the incidence. (2) The centre of pressure (i. e„ support) of the machine should always be directly over the centre of gravity for any incidence.

As the centres of resistance and support are variable with varying angle of attack; it suffices to bring these back to their normal position by a suitable displacement of the lifting planes (as is done in the Paul Schmitt).

1—These conditions being reallized, the pilot can. at his pleasure, ascend or descend, without increasing the head resistance, and without employing the elevator, which often requires considerable effort; by simply changing the angle of the wings relative to the fuselage. Therefore, ascending, horizontal or descending path ivithout the use of the elevator.

2—In case the aeroplane should, from any cause, loose speed, the elevator would become inoperative; but, by changing the inclination of the wings, the speed could be quickly augmented, and the impending clanger averted; therefore, facility to rapidly regain the normal speed.

3—In leaving the ground the wings can be set at a zero angle during the run, till proper speed is attained; then the angle can be increased to that giving the most rapid ascent; hence: easy and rapid rise in starting.

A—Supposing that the normal (horizontal) attitude of the fuselage is the one of least resistance to penetration; then, in the ordinary aeroplane this resistance is greater when flying "cabre." Piut with the variable incidence aeroplane the fuselage may maintain its nor-

mal attitude while the incidence of the wings is increased, thus reducing resistance, and favoring slow flying (because the slowness of flight is limited by the increased total resistance due to increase in drift). Besides, the large angle of attack required for very slow flight is dangerous in the ordinary machine, but in the variable incidence machine, the fuselage being nearly horizontal and moving along its axis avoids the risk due to extreme incidence.

In the same way in augmenting the speed by reducing the angle of the wings, the body may he maintained in its normal attitude and the empennage will not act as a brake,—therefore, great variation of speed.

5—With the motor stopped, the descent can he made slowly with wings at maximum allowable angle of attack, the fuselage and chassis remaining horizontal ,and machine landing properly on its wheels; and on the ground it can be quickly stopped by extreme inclination of the wings. Therefore, sloiv descent, landing on even keel, and quick stoppage after landing.

Finally the axis of the propeller is always parallel to the trajectory, which is of some advantage.

ADVERTISEMENTS IN AERONAUTICS

Once and for all time let us announce that we do not publish advertisements free, nor do we print any advertisements on a basis of replies leceived from the same. Our representatives in soliciting for AERONAUTICS Lave been approached with such propositions, the inference being that aeronautical publications are doing this. Let us say that we value too highly the patronage of those firms and individuals who have persistently used our columns and paid therefor, to entertain any such proposition.

ADVERTISERS IN AERONAUTICS ARE PAYING FOR THEIR SPACE. When we sav that AERONAUTICS reaches tbe heads of the influential governments of tbe world we are making a statement

that is backed up by the subscription list and bv the results obtained. Advertising in AERONAUTICS makes an appeal to a larger buying power per paid subscription than that of all other aeronautical journals in the United States combined.

Established in 1907, AERONAUTICS has gained and maintained the confidence of all its subscribers and today its results gained for advertisers is testified to by the amount of PAID advertising that the magazine carries.

It is unfair to accept the advertisement of a big firm FREE for the sake of inducing smaller firms to sign contracts under the impression that the hig firm is paying for its space.

It is unfair to the subscribers to make them believe that AERONAUTICS supports a vast and varied number of industries.

A certain number of reliable firms have found it to their advantage to use the advertising columns of AERONAUTICS. Our subscribers have long since found that such advertisers as use AERONAUTICS are reliable. FOR THIS REASON WE DO NOT NEED TO PRINT ADVERTISEMENTS FREE. AERONAUTICS STANDS ON ITS MERITS. WE CAN CARRY AN ADVERTISER'S MESSAGE TO THE MOST IMPORTANT MEN INTERESTED IN AERONAUTICS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.

Results prove this.

/ AERONAUTICS

_._——-j.-<—-

NAVY OPENS BIDS FOR NINE HYDROS

Fourteen bids were opened February 27, 1915, for the furnishing of the U. S. Navy Aeronautic Station, Fensacola. Fla.. of two lots of hydroaeroplanes and motors, as below. Delivery of one hydroaeroplane of the first lot to be made not later than April 15, 1915, and the balance by June 15, 1915; delivery of the second lot to be made in pairs by the above respective dates. Alternate bids with greater time for delivery could be submitted, but the Xavy reserved the right to award on the time stated above.

The bids were as follows, with the items bid on mentioned by figures in parentheses which correspond to the schedule given below :

Aircraft Company: (1) $6962, (2) $5142, (3) $716. (4) $2760, (la) $7962 and $6780, (2a) $5000 and $4837, (3a) $725 and $716, (4a) $3000 and $2760. If automatic stabilizer accepted with eacli 'plane cost of Item 2 power plant in each case will be reduced $190.

P»urgess Company: (1) $6400, (2) $4325, (3) $280, (la) $5350. (2a) $4325, (3a) $280. Has inherent stability. Wireless outfit and lighting not included as no definite approved type specified.

Curtiss Aeroplane Company: (1) $10,500, (2) $7000, (3) $425, (4) $3000, (la) $10,500, (2a) $7000. (3a) $425, (4a) $3000. Informal—no guarantee.

Gallaudet Company, Inc.: (1) $1800; for one machine.

Grinnell Aeroplane Company: (1) $6500. (2) $8000, (3) $500.

Wm. C. Hurst: (1) $7500. (2) $3500; informal—no guarantee.

Peoli Aeroplane Corporation: (1) $3100, (2) $3700, (3) $500. (la) $3100, (2a) $3700, (3a) $500.

Shaw Aeroplane Company: (I) $4499,

(2) $3415, (3) $586; informal—no guarantee.

P.. F. Sturtevant Company: (2) $4325, (2a) $4325. Price does not include wireless and lighting outfits, but includes fitting such if furnished by Government.

Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Company: (I) $4600 and $5850, (2) $3550 and $6380, (3) $750. These prices for Type H.S. and S. respectively. Prices do not include wireless or lighting outfits.

The Tvgard Engine: (2) $14,000. (2a) $14,000. '

The Wright Company: (1) $9740. (2) $5200, (3) $60, (la) $7500, (2a) $4940, (3a) $60. Price does not include wireless and lighting outfits, compass, chart holder or sextant.

B. Stephens & Son: (1) $3000, (2) $3400, (3) $200: if Sturtevant motor is furnished Item 2 will be $4200.

G. H. Armitage: (1) $3800, (2) $4300,

(3) $250; informal—no guarantee. Prices were itemized as follows:

BID A—3 Hydroaeroplanes and 4 power plants:

I. Aeroplane—Includes the aeroplane proper, with stabilizers, controls, control surfaces and leads, armor, launching truck, engine covers, cockpit covers, etc., together with the necessary crating.

2. Power Plant—Includes motor, propeller, radiator, gasoline and oil tanks, piping, controls, gasoline and oil gauges, wireless outfit, lighting outfit, power transmission system and the necessary shipping crates.

3. Instruments—Includes instrument board complete, compass and drift indicator, lightweight sextant, chart holder, incidence indicator and necessary packing for shipment.

4. Automatic Stabilizers—If proposed. BID B—6 hydroaeroplanes and 8

power plants :

la. Same as above. 2a. Same as above. 3a. Same as above. 4a. Same as above.

QUICK DELIVERY A FACTOR.

Machines having characteristics differing from above will be considered under certain conditions. Bids will be awarded on merits of design, completeness of specifications and price and time of delivery.

Decision will be made as to design on the basis following, in the order given : Speed, radius of action, climb, glide and reduction of head resistance. The power plant will be considered from the view of propeller efficiency, fuel consumption, weight and compactness.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.

Two-seater, w'ith fullest practicable view in all directions for pilot and observer who are to be protected in a stream line body.

To have, with full load, speed range 50-80 miles per hour, and a radius of action of 4 hours at full speed.

Climb 250 ft. per minute for first 10 minutes.

Glide at least 6 to 1, still air, engine dead.

CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN.

Certain standard Government requirements must be adhered to. Information must be given as to material used in construction, grade, manufacture, breaking strength, clastic limit, per cent elongation; maker of motor, magneto and carburetor, with particulars.

Other requirements are:

Protection from weather and spray for all parts by the use of approved paints, metal plating or non-corrosive material.

Portable covers for cockpit and power plant.

All interior woodwork will be given protection against moisture.

The hull or boat structure should be utilized in reinforcing the main structural girders. The principal hulls shall be subdivided into water-tight compartments so arranged that the flooding of any one of them shall not seriously endanger the machine when adrift. Ready means of draining while afloat, which, if practicable, shall be operated from cockpit.

Suitable provision in fuselage for mounting the outfit.

The control surfaces to give positive

control when flying at slow speed. The controls are to be capable of operation by either person unassisted or in conjunction, and the pilot should be able to take charge from the other by force.

Duplicate leads are required to the ailerons or rolling rudders, to the warps, and to the steering and diving rudders. The duplicate leads should, so far as practicable, follow different lines from those of the principal leads.

The wings shall be capable of being readily and quickly removed, or closed or folded.

Suitable fittings for hoisting aboard ship from the water.

All parts, and particularly the power plant and wings, shall be thoroughly secured to withstand the impulse necessary to launch the machine from a catapult and to withstand the shock of rough landings.

A transportation truck is to be provided with each machine, with wheels to permit use on soft wet sand.

POWER PLANT.

To be provided with starting means from either seat.

The carburetor provided with means for heating, and with means for muffling to prevent fire. Provision to prevent danger of fire in case machine should turn upside down.

Double independent ignition and double magnetos.

The motor protected from moisture and spray.

The ignition and auxiliary circuits must be thoroughly protected from short circuits from spray.

All aluminum parts to be given protection against the effects of salt water.

All oil piping annealed.

A positive system of pumping gasoline from the reserve tanks to the service tank shall be provided unless gravity feed from all tanks is used.

Gas, water and oil service pipes will lie protected against vibration.

A positive means of cutting off the gas at the service tank shall be readily accessible from either seat.

At least one reliable method of stopping the motor shall be provided, to be operated from either seat.

Fuel-tank capacity for at least 4 hours flying at full power, and provision for an additional 200 pounds of gasoline.

The service feed tank shall have a capacity for at least one-half hour's flight, and shall be so fitted as to prevent danger from fire in case the machine should turn upside down.

So far as practicable, the entire power plant should be assembled as a unit on a good rugged foundation, which can be readily removed or replaced with a minimum disturbance of connections.

Provision is desirable, on the engine shaft proper, for driving the wireless and lighting generators and stabilizer generators, but where this is not practicable rigid and substantial connections to the engine bed are required so as to preserve the proper alignment for driving these auxiliaries.

The motor shall, if practicable, be so installed as to permit of dropping the lower crank case without the removal of the motor from its foundations.

PROPELLERS. Efficiency should exceed 70 per cent. Protected from the action of spray and broken water. The hub face plates shall be thoroughly interconnected independently of the propeller bolts. A safety nut shall be provided, so that in case the propeller bolts carry away the propeller cannot come off the hub.

MOTOR TESTS.

Before installation one motor to be selected, shall be put through the complete set of tests in succession as described herein. The remaining motors shall be put through test D. These tests shall take place before a designated Government representative.

Test A.—One-half hour run on the block to determine the maximum brake horsepower and the revolutions necessary to deliver the rated horsepower, to be followed by the calibration run for determining the b. h. p. r. p. m. curve.

Test B.—Motor and propeller to run one-half hour at full power while inclined upward at an angle of 10°.

Test C.—Motor and propeller to run one-half hour at low speed while inclined at an angle of 10' downward. The low speed should not exceed 25 per cent of the speed for full power.

Test D.—Four hours' run of the motor with calibrated moulinet at full power. After the 4-hour run the motor shall be disassembled and the motor and auxiliary parts shall be weighed. It will then be carefully examined and conditions within noted, particular attention being paid to the amount of wear and of carbon deposit. If the above tests and inspections are satisfactory, the motor shall be reassembled and given an additional 4-hour run, without any adjustments or replacements during same, and during which observations shall be made in exactly the same manner as in the previous 4-hour run.

During the above trials records of the revolutions obtained and the corresponding power developed shall be made every 10 minutes, together with notes as to the general action of the motor while running. The engine shall be thoroughly balanced and vibration shall be a minimum. Oil and gasoline consumption will be measured for each of the above trial runs, and notes made as to the temperature of the circulating water at the inlet and outlet. No adjustments or replacements are to be made during the above trials. Special attention will be paid to making certain that during the inclined runs the lower cylinders are at no time being flooded.

TRIALS.

"Full load'' comprises the machine complete in order of flight, including in addition 380 pounds for pilot and observer ; fuel oil and water for at least 4 hours' flight at full power; and the

outfit and equipment; or an equivalent load in place.

Outfit and Equipment.

Pounds.

Machine gun and mount............. 30

Box of ammunition................. 60

Instrument board .................. 20

(The instrument board to include a watch-chronometer, an inclinometer, a tachometer, a barometer, and a speedometer.)

Armor protection for engine and crew 40

One compass and drift indicator..... 6

Sextant ............................ 2

Chart holder ....................... 2

Incidence indicator................. 2

Emergency rations, including drinking water ......... ............... 20

Tool kit ........................... 10

Fire extinguisher................... 8

Sea anchor and line................. 6

First-aid kit........................ 8

DEMONSTRATION TRIALS. Before entering the prescribed acceptance test, each machine shall be flown by a representative of the builder. During these trials the machine shall carry the specified full load, and demonstrate to the satisfaction of the inspector that it is capable of meeting the requirements.

ACCEPTANCE TRIALS. Then the machine will be given acceptance trials at United States Xavy Aeronautic Station, Pensacola, Fla. Each additional machine must perform consistently with the original of its type.

SEAWORTHINESS.

The machine must ride at anchor or adrift in a 25-mile wind in open water for 4 hours without danger of capsizing.

When adrift, it should normally head into the wind.

Under way at low speeds, it should steer readily.

It should be provided with a bow chock and cleat for towing and mooring purposes, and with means for steering while being towed.

With "full load":

The machine shall be capable of getting away in a calm in smooth water in a distance of not over 1500 feet (from a start with the engine throttled down to one-quarter of the full speed revolutions at the starting mark).

It should also be capable of_ getting away and of alighting in a 25-mile wind in rough water in the open sea.

It should be capable of landing at high speed before the wind without danger of nosing under.

The hull should, to as great a degree as possible, combine the following qualities :

Begin planing at or below 20 miles an hour in rough water.

Be free from suction effects.

Have in general a skid-form profile.

Have a sufficiently easy bow to allow of plowing through a moderate sea without undue pounding or wetness.

Have a sufficiently strong bottom to sustain punishment at high speed.

The machine should not capsize on a skidding landing or when running at

high speed on the surface with wind and sea abeam.

AIR WORTHINESS.

To have efficient longitudinal, lateral, and directional stability in strong and variable winds up to 35 miles per hour and to be capable of banking steeply without danger.

Longitudinal control shall be such as to enable recovery after a steep glide, and to enable the machine to readily assume the gliding attitude in case power should fail while climbing.

Any machine proposed shall have initial or natural lateral, longitudinal, and directional stability in flight, such that moderate variations from the neutral attitude shall produce positive righting moments. Any special arrangement of the planes as to their plan form, dihedral angle, or the adjustability of the angle of the main planes or of the stabilizers for this purpose shall be clearly described, together with the effects produced.

Inherent or natural stability will be demonstrated by steadying the machine in horizontal flight and then holding the controls in a fixed position. Under such conditions the machine should hold its course and trim for an appreciable period without requiring correction or involving the machine assuming a dangerous attitude.

Automatic stabilizers, if used, must be of demonstrated efficiency and reliability. They must be sensitive, capable of adjustment, as small and light as practicable, and should be applicable to any standard type of control without requiring undue rearrangement. They should be capable of being instantly thrown into or out of action as required. They should not interfere with the directional control of the machine. When the automatic stabilizer is in operation, the control of direction should be attained either through the regular controls or in a manner exactly similar to that ordinarily employed. If such an installation is proposed, it should be made a separate and independent item and be accompanied with complete plans and specifications, with price, and price list of spares.

The lower limit of speed should be attained at an angle which is not in dangerous proximity to the stalling angle, and without the use of the "reverse control" or the jockeying of the engine power.

Climbing, turns, fuel and oil, speed range and gliding tests will be made.

Bidders will submit following data with their proposals: Full particulars of their machines, with power curves, drawings, etc.

WHO GOT THIS ORDER?

The Chinese Government has decided to give rewards to Chinese inventors of airships, says the Peking Daily Nczvs.

A Canton telegram to the Shun Pao reports the Chiangchun Lung Tsi-kwang, of Canton, has arranged to buy two aeroplanes from an American firm at a cost of $32,000. The aeroplanes have arrived, and the trials are being arranged for.—Consular Report.

NEW 140 H.P. STURTEVANT MOTOR

The latest motor especially designed to suit aeronautical requirements by the B. F. Sturtevant Company is of the eight-cylinder V type, four-cycle, water-cooled; bore 4 inches, stroke inches; normal speed 2000 r.p.m. The propeller shaft is driven through a reducing gear which can he furnished in different gear ratios so that the propeller turns at any desired speed between 1000 and 1500 r.p.m.

Cylinders, of the L head design, exhaust and intake valves on same side, are cast in pairs of semi-steel with integral water-jackets. Large openings in the back and top, closed by aluminum cover plates, enable very accurate moulding and thorough cleaning.

Valves, hardened tungsten steel, heads and stems from one piece; large diameter and easily removed for inspection or grinding without disturbing any other part of motor. They are operated direct from one central camshaft which lies between the two groups of cylinders above the crankshaft.

Pistons are of same material as cylinders, ribbed in the head for strength and cooling; three compression rings. The piston pin is chrome nickel steel, bored hollow and hardened.

Connecting rods are of H section, machined all over from forgings of a special air-hardening chrome nickel steel, which after being heat-treated has a tensile strength of 250,000 pounds per square inch. They are, consequently, very strong and yet unusually light and, being machined all over, are of absolutely uniform section, which gives as nearly perfect balance as can be obtained. The big ends are lined with Sturtevant white metal and the small ends are bushed with phosphor bronze. The connecting rods are all alike and take their bearings side by side on the crankshaft.

Crankshaft is machined from a billet of the highest grade chrome nickel steel

weight. It is carried in three large bearings lined with renewable bushings of Parson's white brass.

and is ribbed on the bottom to assist in cooling the oil. The camshaft is contained within the

The base consists of two castings of a special aluminum alloy. The upper half is designed with a view to strength and rigidity rather than extreme lightness. It extends considerably below the cen-

properly heat-treated to obtain the best properties of this material. Large diameter and bored hollow throughout, insuring maximum strength with minimum

tre line of the crankshaft to further increase its strength. The lower half is of light construction, designed for the purpose of containing the lubricating oil

upper half of the base between the two groups of cylinders and is supported in six bronze bearings. It is bored hollow throughout and the cams are formed integral with the shaft and ground to the proper shape and finish. The gears operating the camshaft, magneto, oil and water pumps are contained within an oil-tight casing and operate in a bath of oil.

The propeller shaft is carried on two large annular ball bearings and driven from the crankshaft by hardened chrome nickel steel spur gears. These gears are contained within an oil-tight casing integral with the base on the opposite end from the timing gears. A ball thrust bearing is provided on the propeller shaft to take the thrust of a propeller or tractor as the case may be.

Lubrication is of the complete forced, circulating system, the oil being supplied to every bearing under high pressure by a rotary pump which is operated by gears from the crankshaft. The oil passages from the pump to the main bearings are cast integral with the base, the hollow crankshaft forming a passage to the connecting rod bearings and the hollow camshaft distributing the oil to the camshaft bearings. The entire surface of the lower half of the base is covered with a fine mesh screen through which the oil passes before reaching the pump. About two gallons of oil are

contained within the base and this is replenished as fast as used by a secondary oil pump operated by an eccentric on the camshaft. This draws fresh oil from an external tank which can be made of any capacity desired.

The carburetor is of the Zenith type especially designed for this motor. It is of the double horizontal design with one float chamber and two jets, each supplying one group of four cylinders. It is located between the cylinders and supplied with a liberal amount of hot air from the exhaust so that the mixture is not affected by changes in weather conditions.

Ignition is by two Bosch or Mea water-proof magnetos placed face to face on each side of the carburetor between the two groups of cylinders. The spark plugs are located in water-cooled bosses in the centres of the cylinder heads.

The water circulation is accomplished by a centrifugal pump which delivers a large quantity of water through the cylinder jackets and maintains a uniform temperature around all parts of the cylinders. The screw caps over the valves

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RECORD FOR NEW THOMAS TRACTOR.

The illustration is of the new Thomas pilot, passenger and 15 gals, of gasoline

military two-place tractor, which was de- was 81.1 m.p.h. over a measured course,

scribed in the issue of "October 15, 1914." Climb with pilot, passenger and 15 gals.

The Thomas brothers have been thor- of gasoline for the first 1000 ft. 1 minute

oughly testing on the head of Cayuga Lake, and they believe they have accomplished an American record for a quick rate of time with pilot and two passengers, besides a heavy load of gas. The figures are as follows:

Machine loaded with 40 gals, of gasoline, 3y? gals, of oil, pilot weighing 165 lbs. and two passengers of 170 and 155 lbs. respectively, besides the regular equipment of instruments required by the army, the climb in 10 minutes was exactly 4000 ft. Also the speed with

25 seconds: 4000 ft. 7 minutes 35 seconds. A 90 h.p. Austro-Daimler engine is fitted. The machine lists at $8000.

With a 100 h.p. Sturtevant or Curtiss motor, the price on this would be $6500.

A scout racette type biplane with 60 h.p. Sturtevant or Curtiss engine sells at $5500. An exhibition machine with same motors sells for $4500. The new 1915 flving boat with same engines brings $6500.

The Thomas company is bidding on the Navy specifications.

"Within two years, in my opinion, the postal aviator will be as common a sight in this country as the railway mail clerk is now."—-Assistant Postmaster-General Wood, January 14, 1915.

* * * If the club goes in for aviation, I'm going to resign."—Statement of same man in 190S.

Aero Club President Takes Flying Boat Trip.—Headline in a 1915 newspaper.

"I'm opposed to the club's going in for aviation; this is a balloon club.

Palm Beach, Fla., February 3.—E. K. Jaquith, accompanied by Lionel Armstrong, of Pasadena, Cal.. made a trip in an aeroplane from here to Miami in an hour and five minutes this afternoon. Mr. Armstrong made an altitude flight of 2000 feet with Jaquith this morning.

uncooled. Information concerning the radiator is not given as the requirements are usually different in each installation.

A starting crank is provided by which the motor can be readily started from the machine. The crank handle can be extended to pass through a control board if desired.

Light weight and extremely efficient mufflers can be supplied also, one for each group of four cylinders which effectively silences the exhaust with only a slight loss of power.

Every motor is first coupled to a dynamometer and required to show its rated horsepower. It is later subjected to a rigid test with a propeller under the same conditions which it operates in actual service.

The weight of the motor complete with carburetor, magnetos, starting crank, propeller hub, bolts and front plate, but without radiator and propeller, is 550 lbs.—3.9 lbs. per b.h.p. The price of this motor is $4,000.

Another model, a six-cylinder, 80 h.p., is sold at $2,400.

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

IMPORTS.

December, 1914 ......:......... none

Same period 1913, parts........ $1,865

12 mos. ending Dec, 1914, 1 aeroplane ($1,856) and parts

($12,054)—total ............. 13,910

Same period, 1913, 1 aeroplane ($900') and parts ($20,590) —

total........................ 21,490

Same period, 1912, 16 aeroplanes ($61,100) and parts ($1,776) —total ...................... 62,876

DOMESTIC EXPORTS.

December, 1914, 6 aeroplanes ($63,500) and parts ($90,004) —total ...................... 153,504

Same period, 1913, 1 aeroplane C$6,375) and parts ($1,002) — total ........................ 7,377

12 mos. ending Dec, 1914, 40 'planes ($253,499) and parts ($145,997)—total ............. 399,496

Same period, 1913. 19 'planes ($61,325) and parts ($25,606) —total................... 86,931

Same period, 1912, 35 'planes ($113,251) and parts ($13,176) -total ...................... 126,427

FORE1GX EXPORTS.

December, 1914 ............... none

December. 1913. 1 aeroplane____ 4,049

12 mos. ending December, parts

only ........................ 207

Same period, 1913, 3 'planes r$14.381) and parts ($900) — total ........................ 15.2S1

IX WAREHOUSE DECEMBER 31.

1914. 1 aeroplane............... 1,856

Forty aeroplanes, with a total valuation as above, figure $6,337.47 each. If the parts were made up, at this rate, the number of additional aeroplanes would amount to over 23, making 63 the total exported for the year.

THE 1915 BENOIST BOAT

The Benoist airboat for 1915 is being made in two standard models, as follows, by the Benoist Aeroplane Company, of Chicago, 111.:

Model "A'' is a two passenger machine requiring 75 h.p. for efficient service. It has a spread of 36 ft., chord of 5 ft., and a gap of 6 ft. The standard machine is constructed with a spruce hull of the following dimensions : Length, fore and aft, 23 ft.: width at passenger seat, 38 in.; step situated 30 in. back of front strut, and is 5 in. deep. The part of the bottom in front of the step is doubled Va in. spruce, while the rear bottom is single ii in. spruce. The sides are made

of }i in. spruce. The complete hull is finished in Valspar varnish, three coats on the inside and six coats outside. This year the standard boats may be equipped with the motor set in the hull of the boat or up between the planes, as preferred by the purchaser. The area is 365 sq. ft. Weight, with 75 h.p. motor, 1180 lbs. Useful load. 650 lbs. Farman-type lateral stabilizers, 16 sq. ft. Fixed tail stabilizer, 10 sq. ft. Elevator flaps, 18 sq. ft. The wings are covered with Irish linen, treated. The upper works of the boat are of mahogany. The controls may he the Benoist modified Far-

man or Deperdussin type, as preferred.

The Model "B" has the following specifications : Spread, 51 ft. 6 in.; chord, 5 ft., and a gap of 6 ft. The hull is 42 in. wide and 24 ft. fore and aft. This model requires 100 h.p. The motor may be placed either in the hull or up between the planes, according to the wishes of the purchaser, the same as in Model "A." Area, 497 sq. ft. Weight, with 100 h.p. motor, 1390 lbs. Useful load, 800 lbs. Stabilizers and elevators, same as in Model "A," 16, 10 and 18 sq. ft. respectively. Other specifications are practically the same as in Model "A."

SLOANE TRACTOR BIPLANE

The Sloane "E-2" Tractor Biplane has been developed to meet the leading military specifications.

This model can also be furnished as a hydroaeroplane.

This model is arranged for pilot and observer seated in tandem and is equipped with either double or single control. It is equipped with 80 H.P. Gyro motor. It has a flying range of from 40 to just over 75 miles an hour. Its guaranteed

climbing speed with full load is 4,000 feet in 10 minutes.

The planes are similar in design and construction to monoplane wings. The frame-work is built up of ash and spruce; the front main beams measuring 2Y% in. deep by l}i in. thick. Ribs close together, joints securely mortised and fastened; internally braced with heavy wire; unbleached linen treated with Naiad aero varnish; spread is 36

ft. 6 in, chord 5 ft. 6 in., the supporting surfaces being 400 sq. ft. Bottom set of planes are attached directly to the fuselage; upper planes are attached to short uprights mounted on top of fuselage.

The fuselage is of rectangular section, 30 in. wide hy 35 in. deep; cockpit tapering longitudinally to a flat horizontal pointed section 15 in. wide at the rear. Ash longitudinals 1j4 in.

square in front, tapering to 1 in. at rear. Braced by 8 sets of uprights, joined and fastened by special clamps without weakening longitudinals. Strongly cross wired and braced with additional wooden diagonals at points of greatest stress. Streamline effect of fuselage is preserved by enclosing the whole nose, with motor, and mounting in a round streamline aluminum cowl. Additional streamline wind shields protect cockpits.

The Gyro motor is mounted in special ball-bearing brackets in extreme nose, partly covered by oil shield, readily detachable for inspection or removal of motor.

Landing chassis consists simply of two pairs of struts arranged V fashion carrying two 26 in. by 3 in. streamline disc wheels mounted on opposite ends of a tubular axle, together with a single wheel located well forward and similar-

ly supported. Wheels attached by rubber band shock absorbers. Tail is supported by an ash skid sprung on with rubber shock absorbers.

Control is the regulation Deperdussin wheel and foot bar type, which operates by a turning of the wheel the ailerons, by a fore and aft movement of the elevator and by foot bar the rudder.

The drawing to scale shows dimensions of various parts.

SLOANE TARCTOR BIPLANE

WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT.

The new suit of The Wright Company against the Curtiss Aeroplane Company is not yet set down for hearing on the motion for preliminary injunction. The answering affidavits of The Wright Company are not yet filed, and when they are the date of hearing is to be agreed upon. A month or two may elapse before the case comes to hearing.

The defendant has filed in court a number of affidavits in opposition to the granting of a preliminary injunction by the court. These affidavits cover:

A denial of infringement, somewhat of a repetition of the same defense that was made in the former suit, and a statement about the old Langley machine of 1903. which the defendant claims flew in 1914.

The plaintiff will claim that the Lang-

MOUNTING A GYRO MOTOR

ley machine in 1914 was not the Langley machine of 1903.

The rebuttal affidavits on behalf of The Wright Company will be duly filed in the near future, after which the hearing will be had on the injunction motion.

MOUNTING A GYRO MOTOR

The drawing shown herewith shows the mounting scheme for tractor biplanes, using the 90 H.P. Gyro Duplex Motor, Model "K," 4JA in. by 6 in. bore and stroke, 7 cylinders, 215 lbs. The diameter of this motor is 35j^ in.

The next higher power model is the "L," 110 H.P., 9 cylinders, same bore and stroke, weight 270 lbs., 37lA in. in diameter.

TWO NEW ROBERTS MOTORS

The Roberts Motor Manufacturing Company, of Sandusky, Ohio, announces

simply giving it plenty of gasoline.'' As in all Roberts two-cycle motors,

two new models to supplant the 50 h.p. and 75 h.p. models formerly made and meet the present demand for higher power.

A new departure for this company is the use of iron cylinders instead of aerolite. The 100 h.p. is known as the "1915 6-X'' model. The six cylinders are 5x5 in., iron, with aerolite base and manifolds. The weight is 340 lbs. Two 2-in. Kingston carburetors are used and any make of magneto desired. For the motor a speed variation of from 200 to 2600 is claimed. The normal speed is 1400 to 1600. At 2000 r.p.m. the load curve drops to 6 per cent, and the full horsepower is obtained at 1400 to 1600. "In our recent tests the motor showed absolutely no vibration and ran for 10 hours without any attention whatever,

the oil is mixed with the gasoline. The gasoline consumption was found to be .8

of a pint per horsepower hour. The motor is guaranteed to stand more abuse or heavy work with less attention than any other motor on the market. Every motor is given a 10-hour test. It is claimed that the motor can be taken apart and fully reassembled in one hour's time. The timing system is so simple that it can be entirely removed and replaced in one minute. The Roberts plant has a capacity of 50 motors per month for the next 60 days. This model sells at $1250.

The 200 h.p. motor is of the same design, but the bore and stroke are &/2 and 6 in. respectively. This motor weighs 690 lbs. It is known as the "1915 6-XX," and sells at $1850.

These prices include carburetor, magneto, grease cups, spark plugs and necessary wire.

COLT AUTOMATIC GUN.

The Colt automatic seems to be the only gun on the market in the United States suitable for mounting on aeroplanes, land or water. The Benet-Mer-cier gun, shown in the issue dated October 30, 1914, on the latest Burgess-Dunne, was built by the Colt people to U. S. Government specifications. The Ordnance Department of the Government is known to be working along this line and has been conducting tests recently at Sandy Hook.

"1 do not know of any trials of the Colt automatic gun on aeroplanes, for there is no reason why they should be used for this purpose, that is, unless you want an automatic gun on an aeroplane. Such information as we have received seems to point to the fact that guns mounted on an aeroplane are not considered desirable abroad in this war, and the aviators use rifles and revolvers by preference. Of course, such news at the present time is not to be depended on entirely," advises a high naval aircraft authority.

The Colt consists of a detachable barrel connected with a breech casing in which the mechanism for charging, firing and ejecting is contained.

The cartridges, of any caliber desired, are automatically fed to the gun by means of belts from left to right. The belt containing 250 cartridges lies in a

quick detachable box attached to the breech casing.

The automatic action of the gun is effected by means of the pressure of the powder gases in the barrel. To operate, the feed belt is entered; the lever is thrown downward and rearward once (by hand) as far as it will go; this opens the breech and feeds the first cartridge from the belt to the carrier; the lever is then released, and the spring causes it to swing forward, close the vent and transfer the cartridge from the carrier to the barrel; also cocking the hammer, closing and locking the breech.

On pulling the trigger the cartridge is fired. After the bullet has passed the vent and before its exit from the muzzle, the powder gases expand through the vent upon the piston and gas lever, which in turn act on the breech mechanism, opening the breech, ejecting the shell and feeding to the carrier another cartridge. The gas lever, returning, under the action of the retractor spring, forces the cartridge into the chamber, closing and locking the breech. If, instead of releasing the trigger, it is held back, the same operation will be repeated as long as cartridges are supplied, producing a continuous fire at the rate of four hundred shots or more per minute.

Changes of elevation are made by means of the worm gear, which engages in the teeth of the arc, and is operated by means of the hand wheel. The gun may be secured at any desired elevation by the arc clamp.

The gun weighs about 35 lbs., the mount weighs about 28 lbs. At 200 yards for accuracy, 100 consecutive hits were made in 16 seconds.

This gun will swing horizontally through a complete circle of 360°. The muzzle may be depressed 39° and elevated 31°, giving a vertical range of 70°. By changing position of mount, the gun can shoot almost perpendicularly downward.

The length of barrel is 2S in.

NEW BOOKS.

AIRCRAFT IN WAR. By Eric Stuart Bruce, M.A. 12mo, cloth, 177 pp., illustrated. Published by George H. Doran Company, New York; or obtainable through Aeronautics. Price, 50 cents.

Here is an absorbing little book covering the development of aircraft, the types of modern airships in various principal countries, the German airship fleet, advantages and disadvantages of airships, types of aeroplanes in the big armies of the world, Germany's aeroplane equipment, the first use of the aeroplane in war, the new arm in Armageddon and the present deficiencies and future possibilities of the military aeroplane.

THE FLYING BOOK; The Aviation World, Who's Who and Industrial Directory. Small Svo, paper, 173 pp., illustrated. Published by Longman's, Green & Co., New York; or obtainable through Aeronautics. Price, 60 cents. This little book, besides two articles of interest, contains drawings and principal details of the best known aeroplanes and motors of every country, a trade directory of principal firms all over the world dealing in aeronautical material, a "who's who" of prominent aviators and some notes on the organization of military aviation in the armies and navies of some of the principal countries.

ization was considered inefficient owing to its speed reducing feature.

Permanently fixed vertical vanes, or vanes normally presenting an actuating surface for the purpose of preventing side slip or overhanging on turns, were considered as introducing such a dangerous element as to call forth unanimous condemnation.

The following resolutions of a general technical nature were adopted:

"That it be recorded as the opinion of the Conference that a free pendulum stabilizing device is not practical.

"That it is the opinion of the Conference that any stabilizing device which would reduce the cpeed of the machine either permanently or when in action is not to be approved of.

"That it is the opinion of the Conference that vertical vane actuated devices introduced to counteract side slip or overhanging on turns is likely to produce exactly the wrong result when acted upon by side gusts.

"That the Conference warn inventors against injudicious deduction from the action of small paper models of the behavior of a full size machine.

"That the Conference expressly abstains from endorsing or condemning any individual invention presented before it.

"That the Conference recommends the calling of a similar conference next year, by the Aeronautical Society of America, the program for such conference to be established during the intervening period.

Resolutions of thanks to the Aeronautical Society of America and especially to Mr. Leon Goldmerstein, Chairman of the Technical Board, for their pains taken in the organization of the Conference; to Mr. Elmer A. Sperry for his courtesy in showing the Conference the extremely interesting work being done at his plant in Brooklyn; to Mr. E. D. Anderson for his kindly placing automobiles at the services of the Conference and for his arranging the special Choralcello Concert, and to Mr. Louis R. Adams for his procuring the services of the moving picture photographer.

After the meeting on the 5th, the Conference inspected Mr. Hammer's noted collection, showing historically the development of the incandescent lamp. Luncheon was served in the Society's rooms and the delegates, on leaving the building, were photographed by a moving picture operator. The Conference then visited the Sperry Gyroscope factory in Brooklyn, where many scientific devices were inspected and their manufacture witnessed. In the evening the Conference attended a dinner tendered by the Aeronautical Society and a concert at the Choralcello Studio.

An exhibition of books on aeronautics and kindred subjects was arranged by Mr. W. C. Cutter, Librarian of the Engineering Societies, and was inspected by the Conference on the 6th.

TROUBLES OF AN EDITOR.

To the Editor:

The writer, who although associated with the aeronautical industry for the past four years as sales manager of the * " aeroplane and

motor company, and later as sales manager of the * 'plane and motor company, while

never having the pleasure of meeting you personally, is undoubtedly known to you through his former connections.

Since severing my connection with the (latter) company, last November, "* * 1 have heen in touch with a numher of motors companies and at the present time am negotiating with two well known motor manufacturers with the view to interesting them in the aeronautical field, and it is with reference to this matter I am writing you.

Personally the writer helieves that the present time, owing to the European War, and also to the lack of high class American aviation motors, offers exceptional opportunities to the motor manufacturer who can produce a high class motor suitable for aeronautical use which is really fit to he called an aviation motor. We all know that there is a dearth of high class aviation motors on the American market, and what motors we do produce in general do not compare very favorably with the European makes.

It is true that the * * * motor has done some very good work, but it is not exactly satisfactory as it gives considerable trouble, and besides does not deliver the power it should for its size. The writer also understands tliat the * * * are not satisfied with

THE FIRST JOINT CONFERENCE ON AVIATION.

United States Navy, and William J. Hammer, the Aeronautical Society and the American Society of Electrical Engineers.

The conference was opened by Acting-President F. W. Barker, of the Aeronautical Society, and organization was effected with Prof. Arthur Gordon Webster as permanent Chairman.

The members of the Technical Board presented the following inventions to the conference for consideration, a number of the inventors being present with models for demon-tration:

Henry Morse, pendulum device for stabilizing. Theodore Gibon, indirect pendulum device for stabilizing.

Thomas L. White, air velocity device (Ven-turi tube) for stabilizing.

J. M. Davis, inherently stable design of aeroplane.

John Roche. -.

George Bold, universally mounted aileron, pendulum controlled.

Theodore Windell, pressure plates to offset banking.

E. Ebbinghaus, general design and pendulum device.

M. E. Clark, collapsible vane stabilizer, compressed air control.

R. R. Grant, utilizing side wind gusts to alter wing curvature for stabilizing.

Prof. Allila Pedery, mercury damped pendulum device.

Walter H. Phipps, hinged aileron. H. L. Coakley, rudder at an angle to offset banking, manually controlled.

Louis R. Adams, trussed framework for aeroplane.

Charles Colhona. device for varying lift of dirigihle balloons by compression of the hydrogen.

David H. Coles, device for utilizing exhaust gas of engine, in dirigihle balloons.

F. A. Peterson, propelling wings with feathering device.

The principles of these inventions were thoroughly and ably discussed by the delegates and it is believed that the several recommendations made by the conference will assist materially in the perfection of practical and commercial stabilizers.

Stabilization by means of devices controlled or actuated by free pendulums was exhaustively discussed and it seemed to he the concensus of opinion that the free or undamped pendulum was a totally unreliable means for the purpose. The conference was fortunate in having present a delegate who had experimented exhaustively with the free pendulum and found it could not be relied upon to do what was desired, but, on the contrary, would invariably do what was not desired.

The Venturi tube principle in combination with servo motors was debated at length and doubt was expressed that as this is a constant speed device it might fail to produce the desired effect, and while no strong objection was made to the principle it seemed to be the opinion of most of the delegates that it would have to be more thoroughly tested to ascertain its true worth.

The principle of presenting normally negative angles of incidence in devices for stabil-

OF AMERICA 29 West 39th Street. New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

President T. R. MacMechen, who recently returned from England for a short visit has given some highly interesting talks at the Regular Thursday Evening Round Table Meetings, at which he described the work upon which he is engaged, and also generally reviewed the operations of aeroplanes and dirigibles in Europe, affording the members in this manner an insight concerning actual aeronautical conditions in warfare such as has not been obtainable through published accounts.

At the meeting on February 11th Mr. E. C. Mulligan described and invited discussion on the nniflow steam engine with relation to its possibilities for aeronautical use, and with a view to the co-operation of aeronautical engineers in adapting this type of steam engine for the piopulsion of aircraft.

Among other subjects that have so far had some preliminary discussion at the Round Table Talks are the Senrab Kerosene Carburetor and the Acme Slide Valve Internal Combustion Engine, to which devices further consideration will be given at future meetings.

The Aeronautical Engineers Society, which is the engineering branch of the A. S. of A., will hold its first business meeting, for the purpose of electing officers, on Thursday evening, the 4th of March, at S o'clock, or Just before the opening of the Round Table Talk.

New members who have been duly elected, subject to the Rules of the By-Laws, are A. J. Spain and George A. Black.

The First Joint Conference on Aviation was called to meet on February 5th and 6th in New York at the Aeronautical Society of America's rooms in the Engineering Societies Building. 29 West 39th Street, through the initiative of the Technical Board of the Aeronautical Society of America.

The delegates present were: Leon Goldmerstein. Lewis R. Compton, Earle Atkinson and Charles W. Howell, representing the Technical Board of the Aeronautical Society; Prof. Arthur Gordon Webster (Clark University), American Mathematical Society and American Physical Society: Prof. E. V. Huntington (Harvard University), American Mathematical Society; Dr. Edgar Buckingham (Bureau of Standards), American Physical Society, Elmer A. Sperry (Honorary Vice-President), American Society of Mechanical Engineers; Lieut. Commander P. E. Dongan and Lieut. C A. Blakely, the

the * * * motor and are looking for something better.

The * * * motor is a good motor and, by many, is considered the best American aviation motor; but it also has its troubles. These troubles, however, could be eliminated if there were sufficient capital behind the motor and with proper management undoubtedly would come to the fore. But as long as the motor remains in the present hands it will not become a serious contender in American aeronautics.

As to the * * * , the old * * * did good work and was a satisfactory motor, but the * * * gave a lot of trouble; and as to the new * * * there is not much known as yet. Although the writer understands that it is doing some good work, it is still an uncertainty and must be proven before it can receive serious consideration.

The * * * is a motor which appeals to amateurs because of its low price, but it will hardly receive serious consideration from the better class of aviators or the Government in its present form because of its inability to stand up under service.

The * * * motor, as far as the writer knows, has never been sold to any but * * * and besides it is too small a motor for the average plane.

The * * * motor, while a very good motor, has not become very popular undoubtedly because it is a type which does not permit the

highest efficiency in motor construction and therefor does not appeal to the aeronautical world.

The * * * motor has done some very good work of late but it is still somewhat of an experiment. Its scope also is limited in that air-cooled motors made in sizes over 100 H. P. have not exactly proven satisfactory owing to difficulties in cooling. The general tendency is towards larger, higher powered motors, and when it comes to this type the water-cooled motor seems more desirable. I also understand that the Government is not favorably inclined towards (this type of) motor.

The * * * motor is a newcomer and, therefore, must be proven before it will receive serious consideration. Being an air-cooled motor its scope like the * * * is also limited.

If the market is as I believe and the American aviation motor situation as I stated, it seems to me that there really is a need for another high class aviation motor witb a very good market for a motor that will do the work and stand up under service.

Both of the parties with whom I am negotiating have been very successful in the automobile racing game, the one party producing nothing but racing motors, and either one, I believe, with what assistance I can give them, is capable of producing a high class aviation

motor. Their entering this field, however, depends upon my ability to convince them of the possibilities of this industry and the demand for such a motor, and this is the reason I am writing you.

In order to substantiate my views, and also to assist me in convincing my parties that there really is a demand for a high class aviation motor. I would like to have an expression from you giving your views of the American aviation motor situation. I would also like to have you advise me as to what type, style and size motor you believe to be the most desirable and best suited to meet all the requirements; in fact any suggestions or recommendations you care to make will be gratefully received.

I have appointments with both of my parties during the Chicago Automobile Show, whicb opens in about a week, so would consider it a great favor if you would let me hear from you at an early date as I would like to have what information you see fit to give me to use in trying to win my parties to the cause of aviation.

Thanking you in advance for your kindness and hoping to he able to reciprocate in the near future in the way 01 advertising, etc., I am, Yours very truly,

Xow, what would yon answer this gentleman; and how?

SLOANE

AEROPLANES

AEROPLANES

FLYING BOATS

HYDROAEROPLANES

MOTORS

INSTRUMENTS

ACCESSORIES

MANUFACTURED SOLELY BY

The Aircraft Company, Inc.

1733 Broadway, New York

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

The Wright Company

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Piee St.

GET THE WORLD'S largest aeronautical catalogue, 6 red stamps; or our aeronautical motor catalogue just off the press, 4 red stamps. Blue prints, $1.75, all standard aeroplanes and aerial driven cycle car—the latest fad. Heath propellers for air, water and land represent the survival of the fittest. Six years' propeller production proves perfection. Three red stamps for propeller catalogue. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co., Chicago.

_\VILL SACRIFICE latest flying boat, $775. Completely equipped. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co., Chicago.

WANTED—50 to 60 H.P. aeronautical motor in good condition; no junk. Arch. Irwin. General Delivery, Topeka, Kans.

- (4x)

A BEGINNER in aeronautics wishes to buy a second hand aero motor for my own made monoplane of approximately 50 H.P. It must he reasonable and in good working order. G. Muller, 1633 N. I5th st., Philadelphia, Pa.

WANT TO BUY an 80 H.P. Gnome or an 80 or 90 H.P. Curtiss. Address John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics. (3x)

FOR SALE—On account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. E. M., 1522 Norwood av., Toledo, O.

MUST SELL—Practically new 30 H.P. 4 cyl. water cooled Curtiss motor complete with propeller; Shebler carburetor and Bosch magneto, $275. Demonstration given. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co., Chicago, 111.

Page 13

PATENTS

SECURED or FEE RETURNED VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY

Send sketch or model for FREE opinion as to Patentability. Write for our Guide Book, and Whit to liteoi with valuable Li.l of IotcoIiodi WmteJ sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in Aeroo«Dtica and have a special Aerooaoh'cil Deportment. Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each.

Main Offices: 771 NINTH STREET,N. W WASHINGTON. D. C.

PATENTS

Manufacturers wan! me to send them patents on useful inventions. Send me at once drawing and description of your invention and 1 will give you an honest report as to securing a patent and whether I can assist you in selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. Personal attention in all cases.

WM. N. MOORE Loan and Trust Building Washington. D. C.

DON'T wn,e us un,ess

V* * you arc interested ia a reliable, efficient andeconomical power plant. That is the only kiod we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works Muncie, Ind.

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattao for Skida \V\ diameter and under any length.

J. DELTOUR. Inc. ,M„Tii''nst

< BENOIST «c

AEROPLANES FLYING BOATS

AEROPLANE COMPANY

Factory and Office

341 S. St. Louis Ave

(Incorporated)

Chicago, Ills.

PATENTS

C. L. PARKER

Ex-member Bi«aifnin£ Corpi, V. 8. Paieni OHU» Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patent* American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGiU Bid*. WASHINGTON. D. C.

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY rnrr BOOKS. ADVICE AND SEARCHES I* KLL

Send sketch or model (or search. Highcil References Best Results, Promptness Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

BALLOONS--

IAirships, Aeroplanes, Gas Generators, Safety Packs. Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by QS% of American and Canadian clubs. AERONAUT

Madison 5q. Box 161.NewYork

LEO STEVENS

BALLOONS DIRIGIBLES

Records prove we build the best Balloons in America. Nine 1st prizes, Three 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen World-wide Contests.

Write for prices aod particulars. HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 4460 Chouteau St. Louis, Mo.

THE U. S. NAVY USES

֊ Because they are the best by a large measure and Proved Beit by test and official report. <!Others use Pleio Paragons because they are not only best but also cheapest. <lFor Efficiency— For Ecoaomy, investigate P«r«goos. No charge for information — No pay but for resells. <3\Ye have the only propeller factory in America. Large stock. Quick shipments.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

paragon propellers exclusively

   

DATCMTC Frederick W.Barker

1 1 Ull 1 kj Attorney and Expert in

PATENTS, TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS

Cases prepared mid prosecuted 28 Yeara in Practice with the greatest care and

thoroughness, to ensure broad Direct Cooaectiona id all scope and validitu 1 Foreign Coootriei

P. O. Box 139, Timea Square Station, New York City

Antony Jannus Roger Jannus

JANNUS BROTHERS

NEW 120 H. P. FIVE PASSENGER FLYING BOAT now being tested. Design based on nearly 200,000 miles of pioneer flying. Roger Jannus and Knox Martin at New Southern Hotel, San Diego, Calif. Continuous Passenger Carrying and School Work with two Flying Boats. Florida course announced later.

NEW FACTORY

Battery Avenue and Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md.

Booklet on Request

 
 

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1!

 

1

ll

IS

1 ALL AERO BOOKS FOR SALE BY

i AERONAUTICS

[ 250 W. 54 St.. Ntw York

 

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DROPPING MESSAGES FROM AEROPLANES.

PEOLI HEADS NEW COMPANY

Joseph P. Day, with several New York men of means, has formed the Peoli Aeroplane Corporation, and it has now built an armored war aeroplane in Washington, D. C. Cecil Peoli, the constructor, promises a sensational long distance flight soon. A motor hitherto unknown on the aero market is to be used.

Among the stockholders are Nicholas F. Brady, son of the late Anthony N. Brady, and president of the New York Edison Company; Hugh L. Cooper, a consulting engineer of 101 Park avenue ; J. Clarence Davies, a real estate dealer of 156 Broadway, and Harold Roberts, president of the American Real Estate Company, 527 Fifth avenue.

Peoli is a graduate of "Captain Tom" Baldwin's famous school for fledgeling man-birds—and one who reflects honor on his tutor.

BUSINESS TROUBLES.

Notices are being sent out for a meeting of creditors of the Moisant International Aviators to be held March 9, 1915, at the office of Charles A. Tipling, 1 Bridge Plaza, L. I. City, N. Y. This company was adjudged bankrupt on February 18, 1915.

AEROPLANE INSURANCE.

It will be welcome news to owners of aeroplanes and aeroplane manufacturers to know that insurance can be written on aeroplanes stored and in course of manufacture.

This fact has come out in connection with the fire sustained November 21, 1914, by Mrs. Eva M. Shneider, at Hempstead, L. 1., when some aeroplanes and tools, comprising all the contents of the Shneider shed, were destroyed. It has developed that these machines, parts and tools were insured for a period of two months by the Century Insurance Company, the face of the two policies being $2500 each. The insurance was to have expired naturally on November 25th. The loss claimed by Mrs. Shneider was $702S.35. Mrs. Shneider is alleged to own the machines with which business is done under the name of "Fred Shneider." with an address at 1020 East 178th Street, New York, after a bill of sale involving $5000 was executed by Fred Shneider to his wife, March 25, 1912. in consideration of the sum of $1 paid Shneider by his wife, according to a sworn statement of Shneider's in supplementary proceedings.

NAVAL AIR APPROPRIATION $1,000,000

The air appropriation for the Navy has again been set back to the $1,000,000 mark and this amount is now assured for Naval Aeronautics.

Proposals will be issued shortly inviting bids for dirigibles.

A considerable number of ways have been suggested for an aviator to signal his side when on reconnaisance flights or in directing fire; wireless telegraphy, and various systems of optical telegraphy, such as the Means Smoke Signal Service, have been experimented with.

Additional difficulties are met in delivering messages with sketch maps

showing the position of the enemy's troops, guns, etc. This can be done by returning to the base and alight for the purpose of delivering the same, but oft-times it may be desirable to save valuable time by dropping messages or maps without alighting.

A weighted pouch is often used, but a more elaborate apparatus is illustrated in the accompanying sketches from Flight. French aviator, Paul Fugairon, has invented and tested the same with good results near Brest. It consists of a hollow cylinder pointed towards the lower end and fitted at the top with a lantern-shaped cap. Into the lower, pointed end of the cylinder has been poured an amount of lead through a passage in which passes the needle, T. The top of the needle is connected_to_a small crank lever, which engages with collar, E., on the firing pin, B. The coil

BOOKS RECEIVED.

"HOW TO RUN AND INSTALL GASOLINE ENGINES"

By C. Von Culin.

The instructions given in this book will enable any person to properly install, care for and operate his own engine. The book contains much valuable information and is sold for 25 cents by The Norman W. Henley Publishing Co, 132 Nassau St.. New York.

spring. R, retains the firing pin, B, in its position, the two brackets, S, serving as guides. Over the top of cylinder is fitted a cap, L, the top of which is formed lantern-shaped with four open windows, C. Held by four clamps inside the cap are materials for a Bengal fire, which is ignited by the explosion of a cap of mercury fulminate placed

in the outer end of the bent tube, U. The needle, T, striking the ground, is forced up against the action of the spring, thus pulling down the firing pin, B, by means of the crank lever resting on the collar, E. The crank lever, having moved down sufficiently, releases the firing pin, B, which driven upwards by spring, R. strikes and ignites the cap of mercury fulminate, from which the fire is transmitted to materials for the Bengal fire through the bent tube, U.

The result is a bright Bengal fire which is visible not only at night but in the day time as well, which burns long enough to enable a soldier on the lookout to locate its position.

There might be attached to the cylinder some form of parachute to retard the fall enough to render the dropping cylinder ՠharmless to those beneath, yet allow sufficient forcible contact to operate the needle, T.

SPAIN NEW AIR MARKET.

A military aviation camp will shortly be established on municipal property at Tabladilla, about a mile outside the city limits of Seville, Spain.

It is suggested that manufacturers of aeroplanes and motors send copies of their catalogues, terms, prices, etc., to the American consulate at Seville in duplicate: one copy will be kept on file and the other sent to the parties interested.

or

100 H.P. - 340 lbs. - $1,250 200 H.P. - 690 lbs. - $1,850

A "Q-D" Motor—Simple—No Vibration—10-Hour Test for Every Motor—Guaranteed to Stand More Abuse and Heavy Work with Less Attention than Any Other Motor.

All it Wants is Gasoline and Spark. Send for New Circular

roberts motor manufacturing company

Sandusky, Ohio, U. S. A

ROBERTS Motors

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

el arco radiator company

64th St. & West End Ave., New York City Abo Maoofaetorars of Automobile Radiators of all types

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

6-cylinder, 100 H. P.

Builders as well as Aviators are

MAXIMOTORS'

most ardent supporters Built in Four Sizes from SO-ISO H.P.

detroit

1528 JEFFERSON AVENUE E.

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Giue for waterproofing tbe canvas covering" of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas hut attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use In combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and (or waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc.

\ W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Ma... U. S. A.

Iu anszvering advertisements please mention this magazine.

Page 16

aeronautics!

ORDER NOW

FOR SPRING DELIVERY

90 H.P. Gyro "Duplex

(Cut shows 110 H. P. Motor)

Best Motor For Exhibition, Loop ՠt he - Loop and All Practical Flying

Orders Filled in Rotation as Received

The Gyro Motor Co.

774 G1RARD STREET WASHINGTON, D. C.

NEW YORK OFFICE 331 MADISON AVENUE

Slur levant

iltEQ. U. S. PAT. OFT.)

140 H. P. Aeronautical Motor

The latest addition to the Sturtevant line, embodying the most advanced European practice.

Eight cylinder, high speed type with propeller driven at slower speed through a reducing gear.

Extremely compact design. High volumetric efficiency.

Low fuel consumption.

Minimum vibration.

Two magnetos.

Weight 4 lbs. per horsepower.

Constructed entirely of domestic materials.

The largest manufacturers of aeronautical motors in the country. Prompt deliveries in any quantity.

COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS ON REQUEST

B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY

Hyde Park, Boston, Mass.

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.


No. 2, 1915, March

VOL. XVI. No. 2

MARCH 30, 1915

15 Cents

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Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoy Muller, U.S.A., 17,185 feet. Altitude, with one passenger, Lieut. J. C. Carberry, U.S.A., 11,690 feet. Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron 0. Jones,U.S. A., 8 hrs. 53min. Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U.S.N., 6 hrs. 10min.

Motors Ready for Delivery

MODEL "S," 6-CYL., 60 H. P. MODEL "O-X," 8-CYL., 90 H.P. MODEL "O," 8-CYL.. 80 H.P. MODEL "OXX," 8-CYL., 100 H. P. MODEL "V 8-CYL. 160 H.P.

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The Ball-bearing Motor

MODEL A8V 110-120 H. P.

SIMPLICITY

and PRICE

THE MAXIMOTOR has always been sold at a price that put it within the reach of all.

WE have been enabled to give Sterling Worth at Maxi-motor Prices because of the simplicity of design, and the ease and rapidity with which these motors can be built.

MANUFACTURING in Detroit, the home of the gas engine, has played no small part in reducing the cost of production.

Let Us Send You Our Catalogue and Prices

DETROIT

1530 Jefferson Ave. Michigan

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St.. New York

Telephone. Circle 2289 Cable, Aeronautics. New York

ERNEST L. JONES Editor

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor

HARRY SCHULTZ Model Editor

FRANK CASH Ass't Editor

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22. 1908, under the Act of March 3. 1879. $3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.

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Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received o days before dace of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must be made for receipt and return.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to he continued.

NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS

ll'itli the preceding issue was begun Vol. XVI. with Xo. 1. The issues for each six months have, heretofore, formed one volume. There should have been 12

issues for Vol. XV. instead of the 8 which have been published. Instead of continuing to name future issues consecutively, completing Vol. XV. to avoid an anachronism, a new start was made

with the issue of March 15, 1915.

All unexpired subscriptions arc set ahead four months so that every subscriber zvill receive the full complement of issues due him.

RESISTANCE OF BODIES IN MOTION IN A FLUID

Different Regimes.—By M. B. Sellers

It may be remembered that M. Ria-bouchinski,* in comparing various "wind tunnels," refers to the fact that M. Rateau. Prof. Prandtl and Prof. Mallock found that between 30 and 40° inclination, the pressure on a plate exposed to a current of air was subject to more or less violent fluctuations, now high, now low; and that these investigators attributed this condition to different types of eddies formed behind the plate.

In his own wind tunnel M. Riabouch-inski found no such pronounced fluctuations, but in a model of the Prandtl tunnel, where the rod supporting the plate was bent and joined to the plate at its middle, so as not to interfere with the flow around the edges, the same fluctuations were observed as reported by Prof. Prandtl; but with the rod attached to the edge of the plate they did not occur. When the return portion of the Prandtl tunnel was removed no fluctuations were observed. JNI. Ria-bouchinski's conclusion was that the current in the Prandtl tunnel was steadier and thus the eddies or vortices formed about the plate were longer preserved.

This brings to mind that M. Rateau,t in determining the centre of pressure on a plate found, in the neighborhood of 40°, two positions of equilibrium for the same position of the axis.

Captain Jules Constanzi,** using a cylindrical vertical tube (21.7 mm. diam.) partly submerged, to a depth of 385 mm., in water, finds two sets of resistance values for speeds of translation from 0 to 5 m. p. s.; the plotted values arranging themselves along two divergent curves, having their common origin at zero speed and pressure. These curves represent two regimes of resistance, which we may call the lower and higher regimes.

If we take A' = _^_and find and plot

SV:

K for these values of R. then the values of K will be grouped along two approximately horizontal and parallel lines: that is, for each regime the resistance is about proportional to the square of the speed.

With a tube of elongated section 23.5 by 75 mm. the two regimes were not continuous, but instead, there seemed to be a transition from the lower to the higher regime between 3 and 4 m. p. s., the higher regime of this tube blending with the lower regime of the other.

The resistance in water of a tube of lenticular section being determined and the values of K plotted (resistance on speed) K was found to decrease rapidly between 2 and 4 m. p. s., showing presumably a passage from a higher to a lower regime. M. Riffel found a similar condition for streamline aeroplane struts; and Capt. Constanzi, in his small wind tunnel, finds that a tube of fusiform section shows K decreasing (within the range of the experiment) ; whereas for a round tube, he finds K constant. Capt. Constanzi concludes that the change in value of K corresponds to the passage from one regime to another, which occurs also in air. but at a higher speed ; the relation being that between the viscosities of the fluids.

Capt. Constanzi tested two spheres: one 10 cm., the other 20 cm. diameter. The larger showed a change from a higher to a lower regime at about 1.35 m. p. s.. the smaller at about 2.75 in. p. s.; outside this region of change K was nearly constant These two speeds are in inverse ratio to the diameter of the spheres. For the same speed, the coefficient of the smaller sphere is higher than that of the larger sphere, as is also the case with wires and dirigible bodies.

M. Eiffel.*** experimenting with spheres in air observed similar phenomena. Rord Rayleigh.tt basing his conclusions on M. Eiffel's experiments, has shown that the change of regime occurs at corresponding speeds following the law of similitude of Osborne and Rayuolds. If we plot the values of K on VD as abscissas (D = diameter), the curves will almost superpose.

Capt. Constanzi's experiments confirm this deduction, as also those of M. Maurin at the Institute of St. Cyr, with eight spheres ranging from 17 mm. to 9S mm. radius. The roughness of the

surface and the character of the support are not without influence.

Finally, Capt. Constanzi refers to experiments on the resistance of wires, made in the Goettingen laboratory and in the National Physical Laboratory. The points representing the co-efficients of resistance of the different wires, in function of speed, are scattered over the diagram without appearance of order. But it suffices to dispose them in function of "VD" to have them range themselves along a curve, at first descending, later becoming horizontal; the descending portion corresponding to the change of regime.

Capt. Constanzi concludes from what precedes that the descending part of the curve of K corresponds to the passage from one regime to another, which occurs following the law of Osborne and Raynolds at different speeds—that is, the smaller the model the higher the speed.

"There exists, therefore, for several forms, spheres, tubes, wires and 'carenes' a double regime of resistance, and we pass from one regime to the other at different speeds, which depend on the dimensions of the bodies and on the density of the fluid. Probably the two regimes follow the quadratic law as has been shown in certain particular instances.''

"Therefore, in experimenting with models it is important to know whether one is in the first or second regime. In the first regime the phenomena are not comparable to those which occur in full sized apparatus, unless the law of Raynolds is not yet proven. Finally this, double regime which at lower speeds depends on viscosity, is encountered again at high (ballistic) speeds; in which case, compressibility is the preponderant disturbing phenomenon."

ւulletin de l'Institute de Koutchino, Pt. IV. 113.

fAerophile. Aug. 1st. 1909.

**"Rcndiconti" of tlie Italian Military Aeronautic Laboratory. Vol. I: also Technique Aeronautique, Aug. 1st. 1914.

"*G. Eiffel. ('. R. Acad. Sc.. Dec. 30. 1912.

ttLord Ravleigh, C. R. Acad. Sc., Tune 13th, 1913.

NAVY DIRIGIBLE SPECIFICATIONS

With $1,000,000 appropriated by Congress for naval aeronautics, with additional funds which can be drawn on in the same manner as has been done in the past to provide money for the work that already has been acomplished, the navy is now in a. position to carry a good part of the plan framed by the Naval Board of Aeronautics, and first published in full in Aeronautics for October 30, 1914, p. 122, and January 31, 1914. p. 19.

The first proposals issued ,ne for two non-rigid dirigibles, "vedette" type, complete with necessary power plant, equipment and outfit, in accordance with specifications, inflated at Pensacola, Fla.

Bids are desired on the following basis:

1. Dirigible—Includes the dirigible proper, with car stabilizers, controls, control surfaces and leads, blowers and fittings, engine covers, cockpit covers, etc., with crates.

2. Power Plant—Includes motor, propeller, radiator, gasoline and oil tanks, piping, controls, gasoline and oil gauges, power transmission system, crates.

j. Instruments—Includes irstrument board complete, chart holder, gauges, etc.

4. Automatic stah'llzers, if proposed.

Dirigibles having characteristics differing from those specified will be considered. Decision as to merit of design will be based on extent to which proposed designs conform to or exceed the requirements and in this respect the following points are considered of import-

ance in the order given : Completeness with which detail information asked for is furnished, staunchness of design, useful load, speed, altitude attainable, rate of ascent, descent and directional stability. Merits of power plant will be considered from the viewpoint of suitability for purpose, propeller efficiencj', fuel consumption, weight and compactness in the order given.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. Dimensions not to exceed 175 ft. by 50 ft. high by 35 ft. wide, useful load 2,000 lbs. or more. Composed as follows: Crew, 1,450 lbs.; tool kit, fire extinguisher, rations, 50 lbs.; fuel, oil and water for 2 hours, 100 lbs.; air and ballast, 400 lbs. With full load—to be capable of ascent to at least 3,000 ft. without casting ballast, descending at a rate of at least 6 ft. per second from above altitude; speed, 25 m. p. h. or more; duration, 2 hours or more, full speed; car capacity, 8; enclosed body; car to be of such form and buoyancy to allow resting on or mov;ng through water; 2 balloonets, with means of "trimming" by their use, to act in conjunction with the pitching controls; twin screws, swivelling; at least 1 ripping panel at bow and at stern; substantial means for mooring by nose to mooring mast in a wind 50 per cent, greater than the speed; gas leakage limited to 1 per cent, in 24 hours in shed, normal conditions.

POWER PLANT. Two motors, light as practicable consistent with reliability, economy and service. To obtain quick delivery stand-

ard aeroplane motors accepted, provide mountings, insure absence of vibration. Transmission to provide for swivelling proppellers to assist in ascending, descending or maneuvering. Propellers to be more than 70 per cent, efficient at full speed.

There are also requirements covering protection from weather and moisture by paints, varnishes, etc., covers, color scheme, make of fabric used, its strength, coating, etc.

Complete plans, specifications and descriptive matter are required covering: General arrangement plans, principal dimensions, performance; envelope (strength of cloth, seams, color, permeability; stabilizers and rudders; gas valves, operating means, capacity) ; balloonets (cloth, strength, seams, etc.) ; ignition, lubrication and all other details of motor and performance; transmission, blowers, propellers (no. pitch, diameter, etc.), fuel supplies, car and suspension, equipment, weight schedule.

In the original plans as formulated by the Navy Aeronautic Board $85,000 was figured as the probable cost of these two airships.

NO ARMY AVIATION PARK.

Congress cut the armv s appropriation down to $300,000 and refused to give the money asked for the purchase of an aviation site in the vicinity of San Diego. No more aircraft will be purchased other than those at present under construction during the balance of the present fiscal year, as there are practically no funds available for this purpose.

MAXIMOTOR MODEL A8V 110-120 H. P.

In building the "Maximotor," Max Dingfelder has followed standard practice in design, but has cut down weight by elimination and combination of parts. Ball-bearings have been adopted for the crank and cam-shafts.

The latest model to be added to the line of 4s and 6s is an 8 cyl. "V" of 110120 h.p. The construction details of this motor follow:

The crank shaft is cut from a solid billet of chrome vanadium, 2'A in. in dia., and hollow bored. Connecting rods are drop forged from 3 1/3 in. nickel steel: 9'A in. centers. The crankcase is of the barrel, or single piece, type, cast from the finest grade aluminum alloy, and well webbed. Cast in pairs, the cylinders are from the very finest, close-grained semi-steel. Water jackets are very long, of welded pressed steel. Nickel steel tubing is used for the camshaft, with cams pinned by 3 nickel steel taper pins. Pistons are of the same material as cylinders, accurately machined with convex head, strong and light. Intake valves are 2'4 in.; exhaust. l"s in. Cast iron head fused to nickel steel stem by patented process. A gear-type pump placed in deepened

front of crankcase runs in oil fed from service tank. Riming at engine speed, oil is forced through the hollow crankshaft under high pressure. A supple-

moved, complete with cams, by removing 5 set screws. All small parts have been reduced to the minimum to facilitate replacement of parts. Finish:

*MAXp'"'ToR

mentary system sprays the cyinders and pistons with lubricant. Ignition is by Bosch magneto, of course. The water pump is of a centrifugal type of large capacity with double outlet, insuring perfect cooling.

Crank-shaft and cam-shaft run in ball-bearings. This latter can be re-

Nickel plated and highly polished.

The cylinder bore is 4'A in. and the stroke 5 in. The net weight is 400 lbs. Speed, 200-1600 r.p.m. Crank-shaft length, 4S in. Thrust with 8 ft. by 6 ft. Paragon flexing propeller, 700 lbs. Consumption, S gals, gasoline; oil, 3 qts. hourly.

HEINRICH MILITARY TRACTOR BIPLANE

This machine has heen designed especially to meet the 1914 specifications and requirements of the United States Army and the foreign governments. It has been developed to meet the severe requirements of a machine for military purposes where a machine is called upon for very fast flying speed combined with a low landing speed, a speed variation of better than 50 per cent, high climbing speed, good gliding angle, a large degree of natural stability, economy in power. It will arise from the land in a very small and confined space and has a very clear and wide range of vision for pilot and observer. The land-

a climbing speed of 800 feet per minute, and with a passenger and pilot and fuel for four hours it has a guaranteed climbing speed of 4,000 feet in 10 minutes, and a flying speed of 80 m.p.h. Flving light it has an extreme speed of 90" m.p.h.

The motor mentioned in these specifications is a 8 cyl. 110-h.p. Gyro rotary-motor. The gasoline consumption of this motor is 10 gals, per hour, and the oil consumption is 154 gals, castor oil. Weight of motor 270 lbs. Weight with gasoline and oil for a four hours' run 570 lbs.

The wings of this machine are of the

deep at the rudder. The longerons are of ash \Vz in. square at the front, tapering to 1 in. at the rudder. The fuselage is corner braced with seven sets of ash struts double channelled, and then cross wired, making a box-girder of the whole. The second and third struts are made extra large to take the extensions to the upper plane, the lower ends being slotted to take the lower plane beam ends. The top of the fuselage is streamlined off from the hack of the pilot's seat to the tail plane. The stream line effect is preserved by enclosing the motor under an aluminum hood allowing just the hottoms of the cylinders

ing chassis combined with very little resistance is compact and robust. The machine is easily handled and quickly dismantled with simple, efficient and effective controls, and capable of making a 500-mile-cross-country flight with a passenger.

The seats are arranged in tandem for pilot and passenger with ample room allowed in front cockpit for two passengers if necessary. The controls are placed in duplicate for military work. With a 110-h.p. Gyro motor this machine has a guaranteed speed range of from 45 to 80 m.p.h. Flying light it has

one-piece type. The wing sections are I beam with ash center and spruce straps, these are reinforced under the upright stanchions and where the cross-wire come in inside of wing. The front and rear beams are also I beam section with ash centers and spruce straps. The wing tips are laminated ash 4 ply. The covering is Irish linen, unbleached, thoroughly coated with a special coating and gray varnish. The total lifting area in main planes is 285 square feet.

The fuselage is rectangular in section, 40^-2 in. wide by 33 in. deep in the front tapering to 13 in. wide by 2 in.

to project for cooling, slots are made in the hood on either side of the propeller allowing air to enter and circulate around the motor. The hood is carried back to the pilot's seat, carrying out the stream-line effect and protecting the pilot and passenger from the wind and shielding the dash board upon which are mounted the instruments. The entire fuselage back of the passenger seat is covered with Irish linen and treated the same as the wings, forward of the seat the machine is covered with aluminum.

The rotary motor is mounted with

both front and rear mountings, the struts taking the rear mounting, being extra large and unchannellcd, 2 in. by 3 in. The front and rear mountings are of 3-32 in. reinforced steel. The motor is direct connected to an 8 ft. by 6 ft. propeller.

The gasoline and oil is fed to the motor from a gravity feed tank in front of the passenger seat, this tank holds 10 gals, castor oil and IS gals, gasoline. The gasoline tank is further supplied by a combination pressure and hand feed pump system. The hand pump only being used in case the pressure feed fails.

This gasoline is supplied from a 25-gal. tank under the passenger seat.

The landing chassis is of the wheel and skid type, two struts of ash \% in. by 3 in. support the fuselage on either side and are fastened to the skid on the bottom by a 1-16 in. steel fastening. The skid is of laminated hickory, 5 ply, 2l/2 in. deep by 2 in. wide and 4 ft. 6 in. long, turned up in front and projecting far enough out to protect the propeller. The wheels are stream-lined 26 in. by 4 in. attached to the skid with rubber rope shock absorbers. The whole is then cross braced with two steel tubes and

^CHRISTOFFERSON FLYING

cross-wired.

The tail skid is also of hickory and is hung on rubber rope shock absorbers.

Lateral balance is maintained by ailerons attached to the trailing edge of the upper plane. The vertical rudder is of the balanced type with 10 sq. ft. of surface. The elevators have 16 sq. ft. of surface. The fixed tail plane, or stabilizer, has 28 sq. ft. of surface. All control wires are in duplicate. Either the "Three in one" or the "Deperdus-sin" control is provided with these machines. The weight loaded is 1,430 lbs.; empty, 8S0 lbs. The price is $7,500.

BOAT

The Christofferson flying boat, so far as the surfaces, control areas, etc., are concerned, follow identically the construction and workmanship of the tractor biplane.

The hull is especially designed for rough water work, and follows closely the fuselage construction of the military tractor biplane. The hull length over all is 26 ft. 2 in., and the greatest depth 2 ft. 10 in.; breadth amidships 2 ft. 10 in. The bottom is flat and is fitted with runners, which make possible alighting upon a frozen surface. On this account, also, the boat may be driven at a great rate of speed from the water up onto

the beach. The speed range, when fitted with a 100-h.p. motor, is 45 to 75 miles per hour. The boat carries three persons besides the pilot, and has a climbing speed almost equal to that of the tractor.

The top plane proper measures 23 ft. 9 in., for each section, of which there are two (47 ft. 7 in. total). The sections are attached to special steel tubing supports by means of steel pins, which can be quickly removed. The outer ends of the top section curve toward the back beam from the last strut out.

The ailerons are a continuation of the

plane and are attached to the rear beam of the plane by special steel hinges.

The two sections of the bottom plane each measure 17 ft. 2 in. in spread, and are attached to the fuselage by means of quick detachable steel sockets.

The upper and lower planes are separated 5 ft. 9 in. by means of laminated stream-line struts, which fit into special patented sockets that serve as a support for the guy wires. These sockets are so constructed as to allow the top and lower planes to be folded together. This arrangement makes it possible to set up the machine very quickly, as there is

CHRPTOfFELR50N'

no "lining up" necessary. This latter feature is accomplished by the use of patented quick detachable turnbuckles constructed of chrome nickel steel and tobin bronze. These turnbuckles are so constructed that by pulling back a metal sleeve a lever is released which in turn releases the guy wire. This lever is so constructed as to automatically tighten the wire as it is pulled back into place upon reassembling.

The beams or spars of the main planes are of the "I-beam" type, built up of laminated spruce. These beams are spaced 3 ft. 6 in. apart.

The ribs are spaced according to their relative location to the fuselage, those up close being nearer together and those away from the fuselage being further separated. The ribs are constructed of selected Oregon spruce and basswood, and are also of the "I-beam" type.

The entering edges of the planes are fitted with strips of walnut so made that a neat, sharp, efficient nose is obtained. The planes are interhraced by means of wooden rods, both laterally and crosswise. This wood bracing is glued to each rib it passes through, and makes practically a solid mass in point of

strength and durability. The cross section of the surfaces is especially shaped to obtain the highest possible speed, greatest lift, and least drift.

The entering edge turns up slightly, as also does the controlling edge. The section is set at an angle of incidence of two degrees, wdiich gives a rise of 4^4 in. from the controlling edge to the entering edge. The planes are set at a positive dihedral angle of I'A degrees.

The wire bracing used is Roebling's steel cable, 2,300 to 4,000 pounds tensile strength. Where the wire passes around turnbuckles and through sockets it is protected by a copper sleeve.

The surfaces are covered with a very high grade of Irish linen, heavy weight, tested as to strength and treated.

The elevator flaps are 9 ft. in spread, 3 ft. 2 in. from front to back, with an area of about 22 sq. ft. It is constructed in the same manner as the main planes, with I-beam ribs, beams and cross trimmings. The corners are rounded.

The rudder is somewhat oval in shape, 3 ft. 8 in. long. 3 ft. 6 in. high, and is constructed in the same manner as the elevating planes. The stabilizer is built in one piece, and attached to the fuselage

by means of special clips. In packing it comes off in one piece with the elevating plane. The vertical fin, attached in the same way as the stabilizer, is taken off in one piece with the rudder.

The ailerons operate together and by means of a special lever device which enables all control wires to pass along the lower beam, thus facilitating inspection. The ailerons are attached to the main planes by special steel hinges. The construction of the ailerons follows generally the main plane construction, except that a steel tube is used as the front beam. The ribs are set into steel sockets brazed to this tube, thus making a very strong structure.

POWER INSTALLATION.

The motor is a Curtiss 100 h.p. The climbing speed with 100-h.p. (with full load, consisting of pilot, observer, fuel for five hours, and 150 pounds additional weight), is four to five hundred feet per minute. The speed range is from approximately 45 miles per hour, minimum speed, to 85 miles per hours maximum speed.

The type of control is left to the selection of the purchaser, and any desired system will be installed.

BEACHEY KILLED.

Lincoln Eeachey, known by sight to hundreds of thousands of people all over the country and by reputation to the whole world, met death in one of his hair-raising "dips to death" at the exposition at San Francisco on March 14th.

He began the steep dive several thousand feet up and when he straightened out his monoplane it gave way under the strain and Beachey, strapped to his machine, fell entangled in the remnants into San Francisco Bay.

Beachey had had built for him a new monoplane and this was the machine he used in the fatal flight.

A diver from the U. S. S. Oregon located the wrecked machine and it was hauled to the surface of the water. An examination by a surgeon showed that Beachey "was still alive when he struck the water and had sustained no major injury as a result of the fall, except a broken leg." There were evidences of a struggle to free himself from the mesh of twisted wires and parts and the direct cause of death was drowning.

Lincoln Beachey's loss is felt keenly by the vast circle of acquaintances who admired him and his exploits. He was universally acclaimed at least one of the greatest aviators who ever lived. No one will question his right to the palm among American flyers. He began his career with one of Captain Baldwin's airships at Oakland. Cal., in 1905, and, up to the Winter of 1910-1911, followed the airship "game." He then went to Ham-mondsport and, with some difficulty, learned to fly a Curtiss machine and joined the Curtiss exhibition flyers. Later he branched out for himself and formed a team with Barney Oldfield. He had often talked of looping the loop and when Pegoud was said to have done it Beachey started in to out-Pegoud

Pegoud—and he did. Beachey sailed his airship around the Capitol in 1906, and over Manhattan Island; he flew his aeroplane from Bridgeport to New Haven and over Niagara Falls: won the race from New York to Philadelphia and made a new height record in the course of his career.

In May, 1913, he gave up flying hut renewed his activity in the Fall after having a new miniature Curtiss machine built, fitted with a SO h.p. Gnome motor. The trial of this machine resulted in the death of a young lady who was observing his capers from the top of the navy's tent at Hammondsport.

DEATH OF FRANK STITES.

Los Angeles, March 16.—Frank Stites, an aviator employed by the Universal Film Company, lost control of his biplane this afternoon and fell to his death.

The accident occurred during the making of a motion picture of a supposed battle in the air between two aeroplanes. According to the most coherent version of the accident a premature explosion of a bomb in an anchored aeroplane just as Stites flew over it caused his machine to somersault earthward.

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

The exports for January show the effect of the war on prices. $14,263 is the average price for the machines shipped to the Allies (?) during this month. The mean valuation for 1914 was $6,337.47 each.

IMPORTS.

January. 1915.................. none

Same period 1914, parts only. . . $5,643 7 mos. ending Jan.. 1915, parts

only ..................... 2,239

Same period, 1914. parts only.. 26,233

Same period, 1913, 12 aeroplanes ($50,020) and parts ($1,776),

total ........................ 51,796

DOAIESTIC EXPORTS. Januarv, 1915, 5 aeroplane ($71,315)," parts ($21,87S)......... 93,193

Same period. 1914, 2 aeroplanes

(S12.50O), parts ($2,614), total 15,114 7 mos. ending Tan., 1915, 23 aeroplanes ($176,915), parts ($143,630). total .................. 320,545

Same period, 1914, 14 aeroplanes ($53,525), parts ($15,594), total .................. 69,119

Same period. 1913, 22 aeroplanes

($61,450 (.parts ($17,703), total 79,153 EXPORTS OF FOREIGN.

January, 1915 ................. none

Same period. 1914.............. none

7 mos. ending Jan., 1915....... none

Same period, 1914, 1 aeroplane

($4,049). parts ($900)....... 4,949

IN WAREHOUSE JANUARY 31.

1915, 1 aeroplane............... 1.856

1914 ........................... none

Mr. Fay, of Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Company, has been at the B. F. Sturte-vant Company's plant at Hyde Park witnessing tests on the new eight-cylinder 140 h.p. Sturtevant aeronautical motor.

C. A. Coey. of Chicago, is about to receive from Captain Bumbaugh, of Indianapolis, "what 1 believe to be the smallest passenger-carrying balloon in the world; you probably are aware of the fact that 1 own the largest, one in the world-—'The Chicago.'

"The new balloon will hold 9,000 cubic feet and I am having a private aerodrome built on my farm near Chicago and 1 expect to have a great deal of fun this summer taking short trips. I believe it is the only private aerodrome in this country."

FREDRICKSON TWO-CYCLE ROTARY MOTOR

While the two-cycle motor has almost passed out of existence, save for the one or two notable makes which have been very practical, there are still many believers in it through the absence of valves, cams, springs, gears, push rods, etc., and the doubled number of impulses to a revolution of the crankshaft.

C. E. Fredrickson has conceived the idea of placing a valve in the crankcase at the base of the cylinder and utilizing the lower part of the cylinder as a compression chamber, doing away with crank case compression.

The world rights of this motor have been acquired by the Worlds Motor Co.. which proposes to manufacture aviation motors.

This aviation motor is of the rotating cylinder or revolving type and is to be manufactured in three, five and ten-cylinder models.

In the three and five-cylinder models the body of the crank case is in one casting, including the valve and cylinder seats. The cylinder seats rise slightly from the crank case and in these are machined the valve seats and they also have the necessary clearance for the valves to operate, leaving the cylinders free of any attachments except their anchoring bolts. The two ends of the crank case are formed of two steel plates held together by five bolts passing through the entire case with a nut on each end. These bolts also reinforce the crank rase for the cylinder anchor bolts, which are not threaded in case, but are threaded into a 3'/. per cent, nickel steel lug at an angle, making a four-point anchorage per cylinder with one-half the usual number of parts. These anchor bolts pass through lugs of ample size cast in the head of the cylinder with castellated nuts screwed down against the cylinder head.

The cylinders are of the usual two-cycle type, of cast iron with cooling fins. The pistons are also of the usual type with the regular type of baffle plate or peak.

The valves are of a sliding or oscillating type. The seat is above the valve and all valves and seats are ground to fit. The valves are held in po-ition bv guide plates below them and, as the motor is of the revolving type, centrifugal force ~eals the valves against the scats al 875 r.p.m.

The gases are taken into the crank case through a hollow crank shaft in the usual manner, and at the lowest point of the piston stroke are admitted under the piston through the valve which slides on its seat as the connecting rod changes its angle. This valve remains open until the piston completes its outward travel, when it closes, imprisoning the gases between piston and valve, thus relieving the crank case of any com-

pression when the piston starts its down or back stroke. The piston in its backward travel now compresses the gas in the rear of the cylinder and, at the proper time, releases it through the by pass chamber into the combustion chamber, as is customary in two-cycle practice.

The mixture in the crank case is always uniform and as the valves admit an exact amount at each opening, each cylinder receives the same combination in both character and volume. The gas is carried practically

a complete revolution in the warm cylinder.

Ignition is by means of a single distributor, high tension magneto, the high tension current being carried by a single cable to a brush which presses against a circular distributor bolted to the crank case. This distributor is of fibre with one brass segment per cj'linder. From these segments are taken the ignition wires which go direct to the spark plugs.

For lubrication the oil is mixed with the gasoline and an auxiliary force feed oiler, gear driven, is mounted on the frame. This oiler forces jets of oil to the connecting rod bearing at the crank shaft, from whence it escapes through the connecting rod collars into the crank case.

The five-cylinder motor with a bore of 4I4 in. and a stroke of 4J4 in. weighs 192 pounds with cast iron cylinders. Including all bolts, nuts and screws, there are only 204 pieces. The entire engine runs on two annular ball-bearings.

Every advantage has been taken of centrifugal force. It is utilized to seat the valves and aid the gases and oil in their passage from crank case

to cylinders. The crank case is only seven inches wide and the motor revolves in a space of two feet and ten inches.

SOME PRACTICAL HINTS

The manufacturers of aviation motors during the past year have been greatly handicapped, due to the fact that there were very few purchasers for exhibition flyers, and the Government business has not been very clearly defined.

Our motors have been sold to several foreign governments during this year

and in every case a severe and closely watched test has been run pending the purchase. Perhaps the most rigid test was run for the Norwegian navy. They required our Type A-4. 100 h.p. motor to develop not less than 130 brake test horsepower continuously for three hours and a half. This motor had to turn at a speed not less than 1,480 r.p.m. during the entire time. This was done, after which the motor was disassembled and carefully inspected, showing everything to be in perfect shape.

It is our belief that both the United States army and navy (provided they wish a more efficient power plant supply them) should induce manufacturers to participate in tests both on block and in the air. In this way the manufacturer could be brought into personal contact with just what is required.

This could be done as foreign governments have done—offer a cash prize for the motor winning certain tests, either installed in a plane or on the block.

At any rate the United States army and navy must co-operate to a greater degree and offer more inducements to the American manufacturer in order to obtain motors that are more reliable and suitable to their needs than the ones they are now using.—Hall-Scott Motor Car Company

7672

THE HUNTINGTON PASSENGER BIPLANE

The first machine produced by Howard Huntington, of his contemplated series, has. during March, had its first trials on Long Island under the guidance of Harold Kantner, the well-known Moi-sant monoplane pilot.

In this, biplane wings have been combined with a Nieuport type of fuselage, which has been refined considerably. The framework is so put together by the use of special sockets that U-bolts and their protruding nuts and ends are done away with. There is no tendency displayed to swing around when landing. The Nieu-port landing gear has been modified so

that it is more practical. It enables the machine to land straight on rough ground and the wing-tips do not hit. There are very heavy coiled springs in tubular telescoping absorbers running down to the ends of the axles, which prevent side rocking on rough ground.

The machine was designed for 70 miles an hour; and, although climbing and circular timed trials have not been made, the performance seems to fulfill the expectations. The engine is an 80-h.p. Gyro. The weight was figured to be 96S lbs., and the actual weight, empty, came to 925 lbs.

The total supporting surface is 352 sq. ft. and it is expected that S lbs. to the square foot can be carried. The fuel and oil capacity has been arranged for five hours' flying. The machine spreads 36 ft., 5-ft. chord. The gap is unusual for this chord, being 6 ft. To this fact is attributed its claimed increased efficiency. The planes are staggered 14 in. The angle of attack is 4 deg. on the upper wing and 2Vz deg. on the lower. In flight, the lower wing is neutral. The elevator measures 7 ft. by 22 in.; the rudder 2 ft. 4 in. by 3 ft. 9 in. The fuselage measures 22 ft from tip to tip thereof.

The ailerons are placed between the main surfaces and are actuated downward only. They are returned to normal position by fabric-covered strong elastic bands. One single wire runs from each aileron to the modified Dep control. Later on, the lateral stability will be handled by flaps cut out of the main wing for comparison with the present arrangement.

Four different makes of propellers are being tried, all of the same diameter and pitch, S and 6 ft. respectively, among these being Paragon, Curtiss and Simmons.

Another machine is in course of construction, to he fitted with a 110-h.p. Gyro motor.

These machines are soon to be placed on sale. Mr. Huntington, who is secretary of the Aero Club of America, is taking, in general, standard designs and incorporating minor changes and ideas with a view to great efficiency. Jt ma}' be that later on this construction work will he turned into commercial channels.

Recently an inquiry to Aeronautics as to the facilities of the aeroplane factories of this country for the production of 1.000 aeroplanes caused some little stir among those manufacturers who were in a position to start work on such an estimate. Doubt was expressed as to the ability of the existing manufacturers to fulfil such an order on short notice. An optimist much given to statistics proved that 800 aeroplanes were built in this country in 1912. This was encouraging news until some crapehanger suggested that a foreign order for 1,000 aeroplanes meant 1.000 aeroplanes capable of being flown upon completion.

The Parisano Aerial Navigation Co. of America, Inc., of 220 West 42d Street. New York, is about to make trials of its

new machine. This is a unique monoplane, as there are two propellers and two rotary motors, the propellers being at the front and rear end of a large tube approximately the same diameter and driven by chain from the motors, which are set in the open bottom of the tubular structure. The four-wheeled chassis, with riders' seats, is below the motors. A triangular, in cross-section, open fuselage extends rearward and supports a standard type of tail.

STATUS OF CAPTURED AVIATORS IN WAR

If the aviators belonging to the forces of one belligerent are captured, they have the status of prisoners of war, provided, of course, they belong to the military or naval establishments. Under the interpretation of the agreements at the second conference at the Hague, aviators are to be considered solely as prisoners of war, and whether they have dropped explosives or fired from aircraft is not considered in fixing their status.

The death rate among the English aviators in the front is 2 per cent. No data are available on the other belligerents, but the percentage, doubtless, runs about the same.

NEW COMPANIES

Curtiss Aeroplanes & Motors, Ltd., Toronto. Can., $50,000.

Huntington Aircraft Co., 18 E. 41st st., New York.

Parisano Aerial Navigation Co. of America, 220 W. 42d St., New York, $100,000. R. Ebie. John J. Byrne, William Swain.

Fanning Aircraft Destroying Gun Co.. Davenport, la., $1,000,000. C. E. Fanning.

Aviauto Mfg. Co., $5,000. Bernard A. Law. Martin Baier. Sidney F. Miller, James E. Fingan, 154 Nassau St., New York.

FRENCH AEROPLANES MADE 10,000 FLIGHTS.

Paris, March 7.—The following note is appended to tonight's official communique :

"Statistics covering the aerial operations from the beginning of the mobilization to January 31 of this year show the following:

"During these six months the aerial squadrons made about 10.000 reconnoitring flights, corresponding to more than 18.000 hours of flight. These flights represent a distance covered of 1.080,000 kilometers (1,125,000 miles), or, in other words, twenty-five times around the world.

"These remarkable results were not obtained without sorrowful losses, which were at least equal to and in many cases heavier than those suffered by other branches of the army so far as the dead, wounded and missing are concerned."— The Sun.

THE SCHOBER GLIDER-By Harry Shultz, Model Editor

Some time ago the Aero Science Club held a series of model glider contests. Those who have never witnessed a contest of this kind cannot realize the entertainment to be found there. To see these miniature machines glide onward for a hundred yards or so on level ground seemingly without propulsive power is rather weird to those not understanding the principles of aeronautics. At the recent Aero Science Club contest, generally five or six of these models, all thirty inches in span, were in the air at once, and 'he spec-

wind. Flights of over ninety seconds have been made in this manner.

One of the best known glider enthusiasts of the Aero Science Club is Mr. Frank Schober. The model herein described is one of the first constructed by him, and was one of the finest specimens of model making we have seen.

The writer had the pleasure of witnessing the first trials of this glider at Forest Park, Brooklyn, N. Y„ last Winter. The snow was about a foot deep at that time and only one with a great amount of enthusiasm could be

ՠ"tide. Jj,(eifcL£ions.

tator had a rather difficult time keeping watch on all at the same time.

The correct method of Hying model gliders is down a slope or hill, the glider being headed into the wind, which should preferably be coming up the hill. The glider is generally weighted at the nose to keep the head down into the

persuaded to flounder about in it. Nevertheless, we mounted to the top of one of the numerous hills there and to our dismay then found that the wind was blowing down the hill instead of up. Mr. Schober tested the glider with the wind behind it and it made some wonderful flights. Sometimes it would land

with a thud on the frozen ground at the foot of the hill, bounce off and sail away for ISO feet more. An end was put to the sport, however, when the glider came into severe contact with a huge tree trunk, the skids and the front portion of the fuselage being damaged.

The fuselage is built up of 54 in-square spruce, the joints being made by tiny pins and then glued. The fuselage is 34 ins. in length and 3 ins. in width and 3 ins. in depth at its widest part, which is 5 ins. from the front of the fuselage. In the front of the fuselage is mounted a piece of lead, the same being shaped to conform to the contour of the body. This weight acts to keep the nose of the glider down into the wind and also strengthens the front of the fuselage. Secured to the rear end of the fuselage is a strip of metal, preferably aluminum, which acts as a bearing for the pivoting rod of the rudder. This rod is a dowel, or the like, and turns stiffly in the bearing so that the rudder remains in any position in which it is placed. The ruder is 4 ins. by 4 ins., and is made of two strips of spruce, the encirclnig strip forming the edge being of flat rattan.

The planes measure as follows: Main plane 34-in. span, chord at center 7 ins., chord at tips 6 ins., tail plane 10-in. span at front edge, 6V2-U1. chord and 13-in. span at rear edge. Both planes have double ribs of spruce 54 >n- wide by 1/32 in. in thickness, the front or main plane having 21 ribs, the ribs being spaced approximately 154 ins. apart, and the tail plane having 6 ribs, the edges of both planes are of flat rattan. The planes, rudder and fuselage were covered with a strong red silk and treated with varnish, the planes and rudder being double surfaced. The front or main plane is placed approximately 7 ins. from the front of the fuselage.

The skid arrangement at the front end of the fuselage is made from heavy umbrella ribs, the portion of the ribs where secured to the fuselage being flattened, drilled and nailed to the fuselage, underneath the covering.

BRITISH PILOTS WANTED. The secretary of the Governor-General of Canada is making a campaign to ascertain the names of British born aeronautic pilots and mechanics living in the United States who might be willing to serve with the Royal Flying Corps during the term of the present war. Those applying must be British born or have British nationality. They must be medically fit and have normal vision.

Page 27

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OFFICIAL BULLETIN

ANNUAL MEETING HELD The annua] meeting of the Aeronautical Society of America was held on Thursday evening, March 25, when the following officers and directors were elected to serve for the ensuing year: President, T. R. MacMechen; first vice-president, Frederick \V. Barker; second vice-president; William J. Hammer; third vice-president. E. D. Anderson; fourth vice-president, C. \V. Howell, Jr.; fifth vice-president, Louis R. Adams; secretary, Edward Du-rant; treasurer, Lewis R. Conipton; counsel, Walter L. Post. Directors: Louis R. Adams, Lee S. Burridge, Capt. T. S. Paldwin, William J. Hammer, Thomas A. Hill, Leon Goldmer-stein. Earle Atkinson, C. W. Wurster, E. L. Jones, Capt. W. I. Chambers, U. S. N., T. R. MacMechen, Rudolph Hanau, Ernest D, Anderson, A. Leo Stevens, Matthew B. Sellers, Lewis R. Compton, Frederick W. Barker, Oscar Her-manson, Rudolph R. Grant. E. P. Hopkins, Walter V. Kamp. Merrill E. Clark, Edward Durant, Charles W. Howell, Tr., Archibald Hart.

At this meeting, also, the organization of the Aeronautical Engineers* Society was approved and formally ratified by the members of the parent body, the Aeronautical Society of America.

The creation of branches of the Society in various large cities throughout the country was discussed at length, the purpose being to provide different centers in places distant from New York, where men interested in aeronautics could gather to consider matters connected with air-craft, to be submitted, with the findings of the branch, to the headquarters of the Society in New York. Authority was given the directors to formulate and carry out plans for the establishment of branches where desirable.

President Thomas Rutherford MacMechen gave an address on "Air-craft in the War," with a comparison of the present condition of aeronautics in the United States.

Mr. MacMechen said in part:

HOW APPROPRIATIONS FOR AERONAUTICS WASTE THE PUBLIC MONEY.

"Congressional appropriations in the interest of aeronautics—that is to say, for the establishment of aeronautical branches for the army and navy—are entirely thrown away if the authorities who have the matter in their hands are devoted to experimental machines, especially in this day of advanced development.

"Investing money in machines that do not possess practical endurance, for the avowed purpose of learning to handle big machines by handling small machines, is folly.

"It is. in fact, established by aeronautical development that a small machine of whatever type will not act like a big machine; that the operation of two sizes calls, in many cases, for radically different handling. Yet we have the spectacle of aeronautical boards of the army and navy advocating the foregoing plan of 'feeling their way' in a field which they admit by their plan to be unfamiliar to them

"This waste of public money applies especially to the dirigible, which in any size is a iiuch more expensive craft than the aeroplane. Whatever may be the popular notion of the useful nt-ss of dirigibles for military operations, military experience amongst those governments having the greatest actual experience with diri-

gibles have very clearly demonstrated the exact value of certain types of the dirigible for specific work, and this knowledge explains the continued investment of great sums of money in the dirigible. Confirmation of this statement is indeed found in the fact that the naval board of the U. S. had invited bids for the building of two baby dirigibles of a type long since experimented with and practically discarded by the power that has bad the most experience with the dirigible. If this is not true, what excuse can the U. S. authorities offer for investing in dirigibles at all?

"It is generally said that the proposed investment in baby dirigibles is based on the assumption that they are conserving public money and learning to handle the dirigible in its smallest size, a size now demonstrated to be entirely impractical for any useful purpose, and woefully inefficient as an instrument from which to learn how to operate the large and really useful airship.

"No baby dirigible gives its operator the slightest clue of the involved technique of the large machine. Consequently the investment of the LTnited States in such dirigibles is an absolute waste of public money.

"This type of dirigible is well known. It is so small that it can carry engine power sufficient to manage them only in the slightest winds. They cannot be driven excepting at very slow speed, a speed at which no dirigible can really be a practical machine, as the science has fully demonstrated. If it were possible to carry sufficient engine power a mere gas hag cannot be taken against the air at any practical speed because its body will buckle in the air. Its skin, or balloon cloth, must be kept so light that it cannot protect its gas from constant fluctuations caused by atmospheric changes. This is the law on the subject as demonstrated by the engineering science. Yet an aeronautical board in this country flies in the face of precedent and wastes the public money.

"It is demonstrated practice that the thicker the envelope of a non-rigid dirigible is, a thing only made possible by size and carrying capacity, the better is the gas protected against atmospheric changes. It is only necessary to add tliat the double skin, outer covering and inner balloonetts of the rigid dirigible most adequately protect the gas against atmospheric changes, which consequently explains the rigid airship's greater endurance and incomparably superior radius of action, not to speak of the certainty which these great ships afford in the matter of carrying great loads over immense distances and reach the objective point. Therefore the adoption by the German government of the rigid airship as the only all-around practical weight carrier of the air.

"Now what have the Zeppelins done which justifies the present investment by the German government of more than 30 million dollars in a fleet of such machines? Newspaper accounts of what the Zeppelins have been doing and the popular conception of the value of their flights do not give either a reasonable or a true picture of the Zeppelin's work.

"I will now refer to some of the actual lessons gained by the Zeppelins' operations, and I shall ask you to fix your minds upon the points about to be impressed. . . ."

Members are reminded that the Round Table talks held every Thursday evening are always intensely interesting and should not he missed. Matters of technical and general aeronautical interest are brought up and considered each week, and every member should make a point of attending if possible in order to keep abreast of the times, for undoubtedly progress is now being made in the art of aviation, and the Society is taking its full share in the activities.

New members who have been elected are: Hans Nordman and Henry L. Coakley.

Aeronautical Engineer's Society

On Wednesday evening, March 17, at the rooms of the Aeronautical Society of America, 29 West 3°th Street, there was held the foundation meeting of a body which is to be known

as the Aeronautical Engineers' Society, A. S. of A., the last letters being the initials of the preseiH society, the Aeronautical Society of America.

Under the rules of the Aeronautical Engi-n;ers* Society, A. S. of A., none but members of the Aeronautical Society of America are eligible for membership. Among its charter members are: Lee S. Bur ridge, president of the Sun Typewriter Company; Thomas R. Mac-Mehon and Walter V. Kamp, inventors of the Zeppelin-destroying dirigible now building in England; Leon Goldmerstein, inventor, engineer and editor; Frederick W. Barker, acting president of the Aeronautical Society of America; A. Leo Stevens, the balloonist, and Adolph 1). Wittemann of Wittemann Brothers, the well-known builders of aeroplanes.

The principal object of the Aeronautcial Engineers* Society is to create in this country as high a grade of design of aerial machinery as the stress of war has developed in Europe. As stated in its by-laws, the purposes of the society are: *'<T) To constitute a body for the promotion of the science and art of aerial navigation and branches of engineering kindred to it; (2) To create and promote an intercourse between persons earnestly interested in the above referred to fields of endeavor; (3) To create a body which, by the constitution of its membership and achievement should be entitled to represent the interests of aeronautical engineering before proper bodies in this country and in international intercourse."

The officers of the Aeronautical Engineers' Society, A. S. of A., are: Charles W. Howell, Jr., chairman; Leon Goldmerstein. first vice-chairman; Walter V. Kamp, second vice-chairman : and Lewis R Compton, secretary and treasurer.

There is no entrance fee, and the annual dues arc $25. Only engineers and persons of aeronautical prominence are acceptable for membership.

Aero Science Club of America Bulletin

On Lincoln's Birthday a number of trials were made by the members of both the New York and the Long Island sections of the Aero Science Club at the Liberty Heights Field for Tractor Duration Records. On the 2lst and also on the 22nd of that month these tractor trials were repeated at that field with the result that two new American Tractor Records were established as follows: Single Tractor Monoplane Duration.... 27 sec.

Single Biplane Tractor Duration.......21 sec.

The first being made by Mr. L. Ness: the biplane record by Mr. C. V. Obst, Pres*t of the Club.

At Van Cortlandt Park, a demonstration of the practical value of negative and plain wing tips was given by Mr. A. K. Barker and Mr. Frank Broomfield, both of the Aero Science Club. This demonsration was the result of a debate on that subject held about a month be-fire, in which discussion neither of the aforementioned model flyers was able to gain the advantage over his adversary. Three judges were present to witness the trials, and the general results were declared to be very satisfactory. At this interesting demonstration James Barker, one of New York's most promising young amateur flyers, made some very remarkable flights with his small single-propelled tractor and had the satisfaction of nearly equalling the records held by more expert flyers.

Louis Fenouillet, one of the oldest model flyers in America, and a most active model experimenter and worker in the line of man-carrying gliders, lost his well-made original type biplane glider His brother, who was uy-ing the apparatus at the time, escaped injury. The accident is said to have been due to the inexperience of the young enthusiasts who were towing the glider at the time of the fall. Mr. Fenouillet has had special hydro floats made for the purpose of an over-water flight in this machine from Bath Beach, Brooklyn, to the aeronautical field at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island, and his chances of making a world's record by this feat were regarded as Continued on Page Ml

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AERONAUTICS

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NEW WORLD RECORDS.

Lieut. Byron Jones, of the U. S. Signal Corps, on March 12 made a new world endurance record by flying 7 hours 5 minutes with two passengers.

The machine used was a Burgess tractor with a 75-h.p. Renault motor reconstructed by Grover Cleveland Loen-ing, the S. C. aeronautical engineer.

It has recently been necessary for the Aircraft Co., Inc., New York, to double its forces on account of the increased amount of work. They And the prospects for the coming season very good for a large output. They have a very expert corps of men at work now and will probably make another addition to the force in the very near future.

The Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Co., Ithaca. X". V., lias just issued a handsome little catalogue of their 1015 machines. Send for one of these—and don't forget to enclose a stamp.

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sembler, now with Splitdrof company, seeks position with aviator or areoplane manufacturer for general service to learn that line of business; reference of highest character. J. H. Yelle, Y. M. C. A., Newark. N. J.

FOR SALE—On account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. E. M„ 1522 Norwood ave.. Toledo, O.

WANT TO BUY an 80 h.p. Gnome or an 80 or 90 h.p. Curtiss. Address John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics. (Ix)

WANTED—50 to 60 h.p. aeronautical motor in good condition: no junk. Arch. Irwin, General Delivery, Topeka, Kans.

INDEX TO VOLUME XV.

Note.—Volume I started with the first issue, that of July, 1907; Volume II started with the issue of January, 1908; Volume III, with the July. 190*S, issue; Volume IV. with the January. 1909, number; Volume V, with the July,

1909. number; Volume VI. with the January.

1910, issue; Volume VII, with tbe July, 1910, issue; Volume VIII, with the January, 1911, number; Volume IX, with the July, 1911, issue; Volume X, with January, 1912; Volume XI, with 1 uly. 1912; Volume XII, with January. 1913; Volume XIII, with July. 1913; Volume XIV, with January 15, 1914. and Volume XV. with July 15. 1914.

There are only eight numbers in Volume XV. as explained in the issue of March 15, 1915.

Only principal articles are ii dexed. News notes in general and smaller mentions are not indexed.

Accidents. Fatal: pAGE-

Cooke, Weldon 1".................. 78- 91

Gerstner, Lieut. Fred'k J.......... 120

Hill, Thomas 1..................... 105

Piceller. William .................. 7S

Terrell, Frank P.................... 105

Aero Club of Pennsylvania [bulletin... 10R-106 Aeronautical Society Bulletins.

28-58-76-92-108-126

Aeroplane Speedometer (XJ orell)..... 30

Aeroplanes:

Burgess i>unne .......34-S8-101-116-117-119

Army Competition for Constructors.. 9-74

Contrabrand, Arc ................. 3S

Curtiss Model J..................... 69

Curtis* Model X................... 104

Martin, Glenn ..................... 90

Schmitt, Paul ..................... 24

Sellers Ouadroplane ............... 21

Signalling to ...................... 45

Sperry Wins Stability Prize........ 13

Stability of .........'............... 67

"Steco" ........................... 70

Thomas Military Tractor ........... 106

Transmission Gear for.............. 5b

Aero Science Club Bulletin .23-58-89-92-108-126 Aircraft in the Early Part of the European War......................36-55-73

Aircraft Industry, the:

In France......................... 5

In Germany and Other Countries... 31

Air Fleets of Foreign Countries...... 22-106

Anenio-Tachometer, Morell ........... 30

Army Aeronautics, U. S.:

An ti-Aircraft Gun ................. 120

Burgess-Dunne ...............25-88-117-1 19

Bomb-Dropping Tests (Scott)........ 74

Buys Martin Tractor............... 16

Competition for Constructors........ 9-74

Flying Statistics ................... 23

Mackay Trophy Competition........ 120

New Duration Record.............. 91-116

Resume of Progress in Signal Corps. 87

Aviaphone, The Turner............... 102

Articles. Principal:

Accessible Circle. The............... 41

Aerial Bombs and Projectiles........ 94

Aerodynamical Laboratories......... 52

Aircraft in War, the Hague, and,

hy Arthur K. Kuhn.............. 35

Aircraft in War, by Brig.-Gen. Geo.

P. Scriven ...................... So

Airhole at Landing................. 15

A Suggestion for the Power Plant of an Aeroplane, bv Prof. David

L. Gallup .........'.............. 19

Carburetors from a Functional Standpoint, by Ralph S. Barnaby...... 115

Converse Automatic Stabilizer, the. . 39 Hydroaeroplane in Coast Defence Reconnaisance, the, by Capt. V. E.

Clark ..............'............ 99

How to Find the Way Across the

(>cean, by Leon Goldmerstein..... 3

International Code of Aerial Law.... 21 Law of Similitude, the, by M. B.

Sellers ........................ 7

Leonardo da Vinci, by Chas. Beecher

Bunnell ........................ 3b

Measuring Horsepower in tbe Air. . 23 Measuring Tension of Stays in Full

Flight ................."......... 47

Naval Aeroplanes at Sea............ 40

Review of Aeronautical Progress, by

John J, Long.................... 5l

Signalling to Aeroplanes............ 44

Soaring Flight, by O. Chanute...... 53

Some Experiments with Biplanes, by

A. A. Merrill.................... Si

Stability of Aeroplanes, by Orville

Wright......................... 67

Wireless as Connected with Aeronautics, by William Dubilier, R.S.A.,

A.A.I.E.E...................... 5

Velocity of Rise and Lifting Power

of Balloons .................... 44

Authors:

Barnaby, Ralph S.................. 115

Bunnell, Chas. Beecher............ 35

ChanuLe, Octave .................. 53

Clark, Capt. V. E.................. 9*

Dubilier, William ................. 5

Gallup, David L.................. 19

Goldmerstein, Leon................ 3

Kuhn, Arthur K.................... 35

Long, John J...................... 51

Merrill, Albert A.................. S3

Scriven, Brig.-Gen. George P....... 67

Sellers, Matthew B................. 7

Wright, Orville .................. 67

Balloons:

Honey well's New Company and

Records........................ 91

National Race Won by Goodyear.... 12

Beating Wing Machine, The.......... 110

Denine Glider ....................... 27

Deposition of Metal on Wood......... 110

Flying Boats:

De Villers Convicted............... 119

Jannus .......................... 105

Sloane...........................

Curtiss' Transatlantic "America". .3-22-57-71

Fox-Philiipps Skimmer .............. 41

German Commercial Airship Lines..... 39

Germany Protests Curtiss Machines.... 126

Heinrich in N. Y. Race.............. 8

Hydroaeroplanes:

Burgess-Dunne ..................24-88-101

Ruled as Motor Boats.............. 104

The Hvdroaeroplane in Coast Defence 99

0. S. "l licenses Granted............ 122

Who Invented—Curtiss and J a mi in

Patents ........................ 126

International Code of Law, The....... 20

Kantner Wins N. Y. Race........... S

King. Samuel A.—Death of.......... 94

Leonardo da Vinci, by Charles Beecher

Bunnell ......................: - 35

Measuring the Tension of Stays in

Full Flight ..................... 47

Model Aeroplanes, Harry Schultz, Editor:

A. B. C. Self-Rising................ 26

Construction Details............... 124

Funk Speed Model................. S9

Obst Flying Boat.................. 59

Schultz Speed Model.............. 89

Motors:

Ashmusen 12-cvl. 105-11.T.......... 124

Demont 300-H.P.................... 47

Kemp 75-H.P..................... 72

Maximotor 100-H.P................ 24

Naval Aeroplanes at Sea........... 40

Navy, United States:

Aeronautic Service ................ 118

Aeroplanes. To Buy................ 118

Appropriation Passed ..............

$5,000,000 Recommended for......... 101

Burgess-Dunne .................... 24-101

Dirigibles, To Buy.................. 101

Mav Get $1,187,600................ 122

Plans for Work, 1915.............. 123

To Have Constructors' Competition.. 118

Tests Hydroplane ................. US

Aeronautic Service ................ 118

Fropellers:

Maximum Speed of................ 25

Width of Blades of................ 42

On the "America".................. 57

Records, American:

Jones. Lt. Byron G. Duration....... 116

Martin's Passenger Duration......... 90

Capt. Muller's (Lt.) Altitude Record 91 W. C. Robinson Makes Distance

Record......................... 91

Thompson, De Lloyd—..Altitude---- 42-72

Schmitt Monoplane in N. V. Race..... S

Scott (Riley E.) Bomb Dropping...... 74-121

Sperry Wins Stability Prize........... 12

Stability :

Automatic, Converse System......... 39

Automatic, Selenium Cell for...... 25

Carey System .................... 71

Of Aeroplanes, by O. Wright........ 67

Pendulum Systems ................ 110

Tables:

Airhole on Landing................ 15

Aerial Bombs and Projectiles........ 94

Accessible Circle, The.............. 41

Kilograms in Eng. Lbs. and Cwt..... 44

Measuring II.P. in the Air.......... 23

Speed Table ...................... 102

Velocity of Rise and Lifting Power

of Balloons .................... 44

Transmission Gear for Aeroplanes.. Wright:

England Acquires Patent Rights.. Starts New Infringement Suit

Curtiss .....................

Zeppelin's ''Failure of" in the War. ,

56 90

100 119

Aero Science Club of America Bulletin

Continued from Page ?S being very good indeed. Unfortunately, unless he is able to construct another machine very shortly this flight will have to he cancelled and the ariangements for towing by a racing motor boat stopped.

Mr. J. J. Curran, an aviator of the Aeronautical Society of America, has very kindly offered to allow the members of the Aero Science Club to have the use of his machine at Oak wood Heights for "grass-cutting" practice flights. The machine is a 30-horsepower Anzani-motored Bleriot monoplane of excellent workmanship and finish.

On the evening of the 6th. Mr. Frank Schoe-ber of this club demonstrated very satisfactorily to his fellow members tbe new three-cylinder rotary compressed air and steam engine, on which he has been working for the past few months, in conjunction with Mr. Rudie Funk.

The machine is a flash boiler type, using gasoline for fuel and having a reciprocating pump of special design and very light construction fur keeping the boiler furnished with water Total weight of the engine is 5 l/z ounces, having a bore and stroke of y& in Crankcase is of machined cast aluminum, cylinders of phosphor-bronze machined from solid castings and fitted with special quick-detachable devices, enabling them to be inserted or removed entirely in a few seconds without any bolts, threads or other standard means. Pistons are of special aluminum alloy, connecting rods of brass, fastened to the hollow crankshaft to move without friction. The total weight of the complete machine ready for installation is but one pound and ten ounces, with water and gas for a two or three-minute run. With a 20-inch propeller of high pitch a speed of over 3.000 R.P.M'. has been obtained, and a very high thrust given by the handmade propeller.

Plans for a canard-type monoplane have been completed and work started on this six-foot model, which will weigh complete with engine installation appromixately 3 \\ pounds These two experimenters have made rapid progress with their motor experiments, and although it is but their second machine, it has been more successful than any other similar mechanism so far produced in this country.

From their past performances in model flying it is safe to judge that when this model is in working order more than a few of the official American model records will go in rapid succession to these enthusiastic young experimenters.

For information and particulars address the Secretary, 29 West 39th St., N. Y. City, care of the Aeronautical Society of America.

MODEL AEROPLANE MEET

A series of model aeroplane contests will be held at Concord, Mass.. during the spring of 1915. the events being held on the following dates:

March 13, distance, launched from the hand; March 27. duration. launched from the hand; April 24, distance, rising off the ground; May S, duration, rising off the ground; May 22, duration, rising off the water.

The competitions will last from 2.15 to 5 p. m.. and each contestant may have as many trials as he wants during that time.

The contests are open to any model driven by rubber bands, and the models need not be constructed by the entrant himself.

At each meet there will be a silver medal awarded to the winner, and a bronze medal for the best record by a boy under sixteen years of age, using a model constructed entirely hy himself. Several cups also will be given to those securing the greatest total number of points in the four contests in which he makes the best showing; that is, those who compete in all five contests will have their worst score omitted. Points will be given to every competitor on a percentage basis.

The entry fee will be twenty-five cents for a single contest, or fifty cents for the whole series, provided entry is made before March 1. Further information may be secured from, and entries should be sent to

Edward P. Warner, Concord, Mass.

Page 31

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No. 3, 1915, April

VOL. XVI. No. 3

APRIL 15, 1915

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Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St., New York

Telephone, Circle 22S9 Cable. Aeronautics. New York

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22. 190S, under the Act of March 3. 1379. $3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.

Postage free in the United States. Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries.

Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERO NAUTICS PRESS.

ERNEST L. JONES Editor

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor

HARRY SCHULTZ Mod.-l Editor

FRANK. CASH Ass't Editor

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received b days before daie of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must be made for receipt and return.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

THE FUTURE OF THE AEROPLANE INDUSTRY

By Leon Goldmerstein, Associate Editor A. S. M. E. Journal, Chairman Technical Board the Aeronautical Society of America

I have been asked several times, by several financiers on one hand, and by aeronantical engineers on the other, as to the probable demand for flying machines after the war is over, and the type that would find the readiest market. The following briefly gives an answer to these questions.

For quite a time to come yet, governments will continue to be the chief purchasers. In the present war the aeroplane has made good only in one of two possible directions, and still proved to be invaluable.

at present principally scouting m achines.

As a scouting machine, the aeroplane has not only entirely displaced cavalry but has changed the entire method of warfare. With the present extensive use of motor cars and tractors for the transport of troops, which permits the shift, in one night, of some 50,000 men from one place to another, 40 miles distant, the aeroplane reconnaissance is the only thing that protects an army against being surprised by superior forces of the enemy, and one without a sufficient supply of air scouts feels the lack of tlrmi most keenly.

the aeroplane thus far a failure in offense.

On the other hand, as a method of offense the aeroplane has, thus far, proved to be a failure. Brilliant dashes have been made, especially by British aviators, but in no case has anything been achieved that is of real and decisive importance. A couple of Zeppelins have been destroyed, a submarine base partly wrecked, an ammunition train blown up; not much to show after seven months of war.

Why this is so is due mainly to the flying capacity of the present-day machine. It has really (i. e., barring exceptionally daring exploits) an economical radius of but about 100 miles, which is sufficient for scouting purposes in as far as they cover what is known as tactical reconnaissance.

practical bomb-throwing.

On the other hand, bomb-throwing is efficient only- when the number of bombs thrown is so large that a few misses do

not materially affect the results, and that is exactly what the present-day machine is unable to do. If it is to be used as a bomb-thrower at all, it must be able to reach the vital spots far in the rear of the enemy's army, say 50 to 100 miles behind the actual battlefront line, and, of course, must have enough fuel to get back to within its own lines. That means 100 to 200 miles of flight which is, in its turn, equivalent to a maximum of 100 lbs. in projectiles. Well, nowadays, 100 pounds in projectiles, even with high explosives, means good newspaper stuff but rather indifferent actual results.

Nevertheless, the armies on both sides have used, as one may estimate from available data, since the beginning of the war, something like 10,000 to 12,000 machines, of which probably three-quarters are already out of business.

the offensive aeroplane.

What is required now is a large machine capable of carrying at least two men, fuel for a journey of 500 miles at 70 miles an hour, and in addition to that, about half a ton of useful load. It must be able to fly at a speed ranging from 40 to—at least for a short period—90 miles an hour; the main requirements, however, being an ability to fly for a long time at a moderate speed of, say, 70 miles an hour. Such a machine must be either inherently stable, or have some stabilizing device so as to relieve the pilot of the constant and intense stress on his attention. On the other hand, however, it is not necessary that the machine be absolutely foolproof as it will be always in the hands of an expert.

Of the engine, one thing above all must be required, and that is reliability in flight. No particular lightness is required as the machine must be able to stand some rough usage, but what must be made absolutely certain is that after the engine has started it will go through high and low, mist, snow and cold. The aeroplane engine of today is designed somewhat along the lines of that of a racing automobile. The proper example to follow for the military machine is the heavy duty engine of a fishing boat on Lake Michigan or Superior.

the future demand.

It is naturally difficult to say what the future demand for such machines when available may be, but some idea may be formed already. The basis on which the French artillery programme is established today is that of being able to discharge 200,000 shrapnel shells a day. Some data indicate that approximately 5,000 shells have been hurled b3' the Germans at the Russian fortress of Osso-wetz without having reduced it. These two figures show that in order to make aerial bombardment effective it must be done in huge quantities and a capacity of 10,000 shells a day is hardly too much. Now, 10,000 shells at 30 pounds per shell, mean 300.000 pounds, or 300 machines of large size. Considering that a flight of 400 to 500 miles in one trip in all kinds of weather is very hard on a machine, and that after each such trip it will have to go back to the shop to be overhauled and tuned up. one may safely assume that an engine will make not more than two such trips a month, which means that the army will have to have about 12 times as many machines, or 3,600 in all. Since, however, the condition of war service are extremely rough, a reserve of at least 50 per cent, will have to he maintained, bringing up the total to about 5.000 machines, apart from the small scouting aeroplanes and dirigibles of special service.

A large machine of the type described would cost about $25,000. Five thousand such machines will represent a market of $125,000,000 for an army of the size of the French ; or for the entire Europe, close to a billion dollars.

Is there any need to say more about the financial possibilities of the new industry'

NEW TREBERT ENGINE.

A novelty in rotative motors is to be on the market soon—the Trebert 8-cyl-inder revolving, connecting-rodless engine, air-cooled, of course.

Smile awhile; while yon smile, Another smile, and soon there's

Miles and miles of smiles; And life's worth while—

If you'll but smile.

NATIONAL NAVAL MILITIA AERO CORPS

Capt. Mark L. Bristol, Director of Aeronautics, Navy Department, is organizing in the Naval Militia an aeronautic service that will reinforce the regular service in time of an emergency. The equipping, training and development of this service will as far as possihle he along the same lines as the regular Naval Aeronautic Service.

It is recommended that each Naval Militia organization consider at once the possibility of establishing an "Aeronautic Corps." For the present the "Aeronautic Corps" of the Naval Militia will be confined to the use of aeroplanes, although tlie establishment of dirigible and balloon divisions in the future should be collaterally considered.

The smallest tactical units for an aerial fleet are considered to lie a section of two aeroplanes, with spares and appurtenances, and this fact should be

considered in the formation of an "Aeronautic Corps."

The crew for each aeroplane will consist of two officers and six mechanicians, and an additional officer should be in command of each section.

In establishing such an "Aeronautic Corps" it is believed that the first step should be to interest those officers and men who are already fliers, or who have had previous experience in aeronautics, and to enroll these members of the Naval Militia in the Aeronautic Service; also to enlist officers and men for this service who arc experienced in handling aeroplanes.

The course of instructions and training in aeronautics will be in general accordance with that prescribed for the regular Navy.

The Office of Naval Aeronautics, Navy Deartment, will co-operate in drawing up a course of instruction and

training for any "Aeronautic Corps" that may be established as a part of any Naval Militia organization.

It is requested that this subject receive the earliest possible consideration, and that the Division of Xaval Militia Affairs be informed of any steps taken, or that will be taken, toward the establishment of an "Aeronautic Corps."

Captain Bristol is very much pleased at the response from the country at large. Its primary object is, of course, to form a reserve for the Navy, but this service should also stimulate interest in Naval Militia, give a number of men who are interested in aviation a chance thus to gratify their interest and at the same time serve their country, the latter being the desire of every one who has the national spirit.

There are 22 States and the District of Columbia that have Naval Militia organizations.

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

The Naval Appropriation Act, approved March 3. 1915, provided for and established a N'ational Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the President to appoint not to exceed twelve members, to consist of two members from the War Department, from the office in charge of military aeronautics; two members from the Navy Department, from the office in charge of naval aeronautics; a representative each of the Smithsonian Institution, of the United States Weather Bureau, and of the United States Bureau of Standards; together with not more than five additional persons who shall be acquainted with the needs of aeronautical science, either civil or military, or skilled in aeronautical engineering or its allied sciences. The members of the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, as such, shall serve without compensation. It shall he the duty of the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to supervise and direct the scientific study of the problems of Might, with a view to their practical solution, and to determine the problems which should be experimentally attacked, and to discuss their solution and their application to practical questions. In the event of a laboratory or laboratories, either in whole or in part, being placed under the direction of the committee, the committee may direct and conduct research and experiment in aeronautics in such laboratory or laboratories. Rules and regulations for the conduct of the work of the committee shall be formulated by the committee and approved by the President.

The sum of $5,000 a year, or so much thereof as may be necessary, for five years is appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated to be immediately available, for

experimental work and investigations undertaken by the committee, clerical expenses and supplies, and necessary expenses of members of the committee in going to, returning from, and while attending, meetings of the committee. An annual report to the Congress shall be submitted through the President, including an itemized statement of expenditures.

Mere is the committee:

Ccn. George P. Scriven, Chief Signal Officer and Lieut-Col. Samuel Reber, aviation section. Signal Corps, representing the Army; Capt. Mark L. Bristol, Director of Aeronautics, Navy Department, and Naval Constructor Hold-en C. Richardson for the Navy; Dr. Charles D. Walcott. secretary of the Smithsonian Institution; Charles L. Marvin, Chief of the Weather Bureau-, Dr. S. W. Stratum, Chief of the Bureau of Standards. Assistant Secretary of the Treasury liyron R. Newton, Prof. W. F. Durand, Stanford University; Prof. Michael 1. Pupin, Columbia University: Prof. John F. Hayford, Northwestern University, and Prof. Joseph Ames, Johns Hopkins University, represent the contingent of "additional persons who shall be acquainted with the needs of aeronautical science, or skilled in aeronautical engineering or its allied sciences."

Dr. A. F. Zahm is Recorder of the Advisory Committee.

FLYING AT SAN DIEGO

The summary of the flights at San Diego January 1st to March I3th, is as follows: blights, 027; time in air, 227 hours and 52 minutes: passengers carried, 376.

The fiscal year of the government begins on July 1st and the Army Appropriation Hill carrying the appropriation of $300,000 for aviation purposes is not effective until that date. The present fiscal year ends June 30th.

NO AEROPLANES FOR COAST GUARD

It is regrettable to state that there are no plans in contemplation at the present time for the use of land or water aeroplanes in connection with the Coast Guard, because there is no appropriation available for this purpose.

NAVY INTER-AEROPLANE 'PHONE

The Navy is experimenting with some instruments at the present time for communicating between the operators of an aeroplane when in flight. It is not yet decided as to the value of these instruments.

The Hague, March 29.—Herr Hoog-straen, the noted bird trainer of Delft, solemnly assured newspaper correspondents to-day that he is training a great flock of pelicans to attack military aeroplanes.

"The experiments have been proceeding ever since the war broke out," said Herr I loogstraen. "The pelicans fear a German Taube no more than a fish. They are exceptionally clever. With their sharp, pointed beaks they will constitute a real menace to air pilots."—The Sun.

The helican!

"I have received an astonishing number of replies from your readers and feel that my ad. is worth the reasonable rates you charge for it."—Aeroplane Advertiser, April, 1915.

CHRISTOFFERSON MILITARY BIPLANE

Silas Christofferson has been making rapid strides on the Pacific Coast and his machines have made some corking flights.

In the 1915 military tractor the fuselage is divided into two sections, the front section being 10 ft. 6 in. in length and the rear one 9 ft. 6 in. The rear portion is oval in shape, while the front it square, gradually rounding off at the rear end to correspond with the rear section. The rear section is solidly braced with wooden truss membqrs, while the front is solidly braced with wire trussing. The entire fuselage, with the exception of the motor section, is covered with a thin veneering of wood, which retains the streamline shape and greatly increases the strength.

The motor section is fitted with sheet-metal covering similar to that of an automohile hood. The occupants' cockpits, oval in form, are 20 in. in width. The passenger's cockpit is 27 in. from front to back, while the pilot's is 24 inches. There is a 2 ft. space between the pilot's cockpit and the observer's, which could be utilized for wireless instruments, bomb-dropping apparatus.

photographic apparatus or reserve tanks. From the passenger's cockpit to the engine hood there is an 18 in. space which could be utilized for a reserve oil tank.

The fuselage conforms to the latest ideas in regard to streamline shape. The bottom portion of the fuselage, underneath the engine, is used for the radiator, which conforms in shape with the fuselage, thus doing away with a large amount of head resistance.

The main gasoline tank is located underneath the observer's seat. The gasoline is forced by air pressure to a "gravity" tank, which supplies the carburetor.

Where the two sections of the fuselage join special fittings are used, which facilitate rapid assemblage.

The top plane proper measures 22 ft. 6 in. for each section, of which there are two (47 ft. 10 in. total). The sections are attached to special steel tubing supports by means of steel pins, which can be quickly removed. The outer ends of the top section curve toward the back beam from the last strut out.

The ailerons are a continuation of the

plane and are attached to the rear beam of the plane by special steel hinges.

The two sections of the hottom plane each measure 15 ft. 3 in. in spread, and are attached to the fuselage by means of quick-detachable steel sockets.

The upper and lower planes are separated 5 ft. 9 in. by means of laminated streamline struts, which fit into special patented sockets that serve as a support for the guy wires. These sockets are so constructed as to allow the top and lower planes to be folded together. This arrangement makes it possible to set up the machine very quickly, as there is no "lining up" necessary. This latter feature is accomplished by the use of patented quick detachable turnbuckles constructed of chrome nickel steel and tobin bronze. These turnbuckles are so constructed that by pulling back a metal sleeve a lever is released, which in turn releases the guy wire. This lever is so constructed as to automatically tighten the wire as it is pulled back into place upon reassembling.

The beams or spars of the main planes are of the "I-beam" type, built

up of laminated spruce. These beams are spaced 3 ft. 6 in. apart.

The ribs are spaced according to their relative location to the fuselage, those up close being nearer together and those away from the fuselage being further separated. The ribs are constructed of selected Oregon spruce and basswood, and are also of the "I-beam" type.

The entering edges of the planes are fitted with strips of walnut, so made that a neat, sharp, efficient nose is obtained. The planes are interbraced by means of wooden rods, both laterally and crosswise. This wood bracing is glued to each rib it passes through, and makes practically a solid mass in point of strength and durability. The cross section of the surfaces is especially shaped to obtain the highest possible speed, greatest lift and least drift.

The entering edge turns up slightly, as also does the controlling edge. The section is set at an angle of incidence of two degrees, which gives a rise of 4's in. from the controlling edge to the entering edge. The planes are set at a positive dihedral angle of 1 1/20".

The wire bracing used is Roebling's steel cable, 2,300 to 4,000 pounds tensile strength. Where the wire passes around turnbuckles and through sockets it is protected by a copper sleeve.

The surfaces are covered with a very high grade of frish linen, heavy weight, tested as to strength and treated.

The elevator flaps are 9 ft. 6 in. spread, 2 ft. 7 in. from front to back,

LONDON RAID SURE.

Paris. April 13.—Count Zeppelin's secretary is said to have stated:

"Our air lleet now comprises 1,366 units, of which 36 are dirigibles. We have had far heavier losses than anticipated, nine dirigibles having been put out of action since the beginning of the war. But the destroyed units have been replaced by new types, armed with long-range cannon and mitrailleuses.

"By July 15th we are to deliver fifteen airships of a greatly perfected type, each being armored aand capable of carrying two tons of explosives. With these we shall be able to undertake safely the London expeditions in the thickest fogs and on the blackest nights.

"We shall employ a new process of causing atmospheric perturbations, which will make it impossible for enemy machines to cross German lines without dropping like flies."

PEOLI IS KILLED IN NEW BIPLANE TRIAL.

Washington, April 12.—Cecil M. Peoli was killed at College Park, Md., to-day when a biplane of which be was the designer fell a distance of about 100 feet in a trial flight. He had been expecting to demonstrate his machine by flying from Washington to New York.

Peoli, but 21 years old, was at the head of the Peoli Aeroplane Corporation, which had its main office at 31 Nassau street, New York. The company was formed last January to back Peoli in the building of aeroplanes of

with an area of about 22 sq. ft. It is constructed in the same manner as the main planes, with 1-beam ribs, beams and cross trussings. The corners are rounded.

The rudder is somewhat oval in shape, 3 ft. 8 in. long, 3 ft. 4in. high, and is constructed in the same manner as the elevating planes. The stabilizer is built in one piece, and attached to the fuselage by means of special clips. In packing it comes off in one piece with the elevating plane. The vertical fin, attached in the same way as the stabilizer, is taken off in one piece with the rudder.

The ailerons operate together and by means of a special lever device, which enables all control wires to pass along the lower beam, thus facilitating inspection. The ailerons are attached to the main planes by special steel hinges. The construction of the ailerons follows generally the main plane construction, except that a steel tube is used as the front beam. The ribs are set into steel sockets brazed to this tube, thus making a very strong structure.

The landing gear is of an improved type, consisting of three wheels, one in front under the motor, and two back a short distance behind the center of gravity.

The rear wheels are 26 in. in diameter, and fitted with 4-in. aeroplane tires, and are spaced 5 ft. apart. The spokes of all of the wheels are encased in a metal covering, which tends .to cut

his own design. The company was a bidder under the recent navy specifications.

Among the principal stockholders were Joseph P. Day, real estate dealer; Nicholas F. Bradjr, son of the late Antony N. Brady and president of the New York Edison Company; Hugh L. Cooper, consulting engineer, of 101 Park avenue; J. Clarence Davies, real estate dealer, of 156 Broadway, and Harold Roberts, president of the American Real Estate Co., 527 Fifth avenue.

Peoli, a former model flyer, induced Captain Baldwin to teach him to fly, and under Baldwin's management made many exhibition flights in this country and Canada with invariable success. His loss is keenly felt by all who knew him.

NEW COMPANIES.

The Cooper Aircraft Company has been formed and is now located at Bridgeport, Conn. The officers are John D. Cooper, president; J. H. Cross-ley, vice-president, and R. N. Blakeslee, secretary-treasurer. John D. Cooper will be remembered as foreign representative for the Curtiss Aeroplane Company and Blakeslee is another pilot of note, hailing from the Pacific slopes. The company sets out to manufacture seaplanes, submarine destroyers and military tractors. The first machine will be completed about the first of May.

Standard Ordinance Corporation, armament, munitions of war, armored cars, boats, aeroplanes, food supplies, corn-

down the head resistance. The back wheels are equipped with spring shock absorbers of special design, and are supported by a "tj" shaped wood structure, very strong and solid. This wood frame is laminated. The front wheel is 20 in. in diameter, fitted with a 4-iti. tire. It is braced to the rear "U" frame by means of wooden beams and to the fuselage also by means of wooden beams.

The motor is a Curtiss 100 h.p. The radiation system is very efficient in cooling and reduction of head resistance. The radiator takes the place of the bottom of the fuselage under the engine. There is a reserve tank for a large amount of water.

The climbing speed with 100 h.p. (with full load, consisting of pilot, observer, fuel for five hours, and 150 lbs. additional weight) is 400 to 500 ft. per minute. The speed range is from approximately 45 miles per hour, minimum speed, to S5 miles per hour, maximum speed.

The type of control is left to the selection of the purchaser, and any desired system will be installed.

During the year 1914 H. E. Honeywell made seven ascensions, using two balloons and 400,000 cu. ft. of gas. One ascension was made with oil gas. Twenty-two passengers were carried. On November 1 he made his 204th ascent. Honeywell states "things look pretty good for the new year."

mission, brokerage; $50,000; S. L. Cohen, R. O'Rourke, M. Sundheimer, 31 Nassau street.

AT ITHACA, N. Y.

Practically established in their new factory at Ithaca, N. Y., the Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. are showing considerable activity.

The new Military Tractor, under the skillful pilotage of Frank H. Burnside, has to its credit some very remarkable performances; climbing with pilot and passenger 700 feet in one minute. Fully loaded with gasoline and oil for four hours' flying (280 pounds), and with three people aboard, the climb was 4,000 feet in ten minutes. Speed range was from 38 to 81.1 miles per hour.

During the week ending March 26th Burnside put the machine through some very rigorous tests, carrying a passenger on each flight; incidentally giving the students their first instruction in the tractor type.

Col. B. M. Brower, of the Cornell University Cadet Corps, was taken up several thousand feet for reconnaissance, the Corps at that time being out on field duty.

Despite the cold weather, training has been carried out on the frozen surface of Cayuga Lake, and considerable progress has been made. Lawrence Lyon, William S. Brock. B. C. Harrington, Stanley S. Boxhall and Frank King all show exceptional ability in handling the Thomas control and should be ready to fly for their pilot's license soon.

"HOLES IN THE AIR"

By W. J. Humphreys, Ph.D.

"The bucking and balking, the rearing, plunging, and other evidences of the mulish nature of the modern Pegasus," rhetorically states W. J. Humphreys, Ph.D., of the U. S. Weather Bureau in the Smithsonian Report, "soon inspired aerial jockeys to invent picturesque terms." "Holes in the air" is one of these. This expression covers real conditions met but an actual hole in the air is impossible for, did this occur, the surrounding air would rush to fill this space at a rate of 750 miles an hour so that an aviator could scarcely be expected to get into the hole. The claim that there are spots where the density is less than the surrounding air, on encountering which the aeroplane drops suddenly, the "half-hole," is likewise held to be a friction. "Along with these two impossibles, the hole and the half-hole, the vacuum and the half vacuum, should be consigned to oblivion that other picturesque fiction, the 'pocket of noxious gas'" which one of our foremost pilots claims overcame him temporarily while flying.

AerM Fountains. If a mass of air becomes warmer than the surrounding air at the same level, an upward current is at once started, sometimes at a velocity of even 10 feet a second. These vertical current occur principally in warm, clear weather. The long columns of smoke from chimneys is an illustration. Crossing such a column with one wing, with the other in stationary air, lateral stability is affected and shocks felt on entering and leaving. On squarely entering the column, the angle of attack is suddenly increased, the pressure on the wing and the angle of ascent. On suddenly leaving the column there is an instantaneous decrease in supporting power. If the elevator is operated in the column to prevent the machine rising to higher levels, there is a rapid descent on leaving and "the half hole is met. This is not necessarily harmful. Probably the real danger arises from over adjustments" in too hasty attempts to correct for the abrupt changes. "Such an adjustment might well cause a fall so sudden as to strongly suggest an actual hole in the air." An evidence of these columns which attain greater heights is the rolls and billows of the cumulous clouds they produce.

Aerial Cataracts. One kind of cataract is a counterpart of the aerial fountain, likely to occur at the same time, but in the opposite direction from that of the rising column. Another kind is a flow of a heavy surface layer of air up and over a precipice and found among barren mountains in high latitudes where, cooled by the snow, these cataracts "rush down the lee side of steep mountains with the roar and force of a hurricane. Where such conditions prevail the aviator should keep well above the drifting snow and avoid any attempt to land within the cataract itself."

Aerial Cascades. This term is applied to winds which, following the surface contour, sweep down to the lee of a hill but at a considerable elevation, with frequently a counter current at the ground. This might lead a

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pilot to think of another hole but these Professor Humphreys considers harmless if the pilot keeps his machine well above the surface.

Wind Layers. Layers of air differ in intensity and glide one over the other as air flows over water, with the same wave-producing effect. Gliding down, with power shut off, from one layer to another, say into a layer moving in the same direction as the machine and with the same velocity, instantly dynamical support ceases, power of guidance is lost and a drop for some distance is inevitable. The machine "must inevitably fall to ruin unless rare skill in balancing, or, possibly, mere chance should bring about a new glide after additional velocity had been acquired as the result of a considerable fall. Warping of wings, turning of ailerons, dipping and twisting of rudders, would be utterly useless at first, totally without effect so long as wind and machine have same velocity. A skilful pilot may secure a new glide with a properly constructed machine, and, finally, if high enough, make a safe landing." However, this is an extreme case and of rare occurrence but none the less it may be met with. If the new layer is in the opposite direction an increase, instead of a decrease, in the lift is found. Ordinarily these layers flow more or less across each other and the pilot has to contend with abrupt changes and experiences a "choppy aerial sea, in which his equilibrium is by no means secure—in which 'holes' seem to abound everywhere." When fine weather, if changing for a storm, beware of these conditions and always land head-on in the surface wind.

Wind Billows are caused by layers of air of different density and these billows are set up between the layers. Meeting these sudden changes in velocity and direction of wind more "holes in the air" are encourrtered. There is risk passing from one layer to the other.

At the surface the wind is tumuluotis due to friction and obstacles and there are swirls and gusts. If violent it is difficult and dangerous to fly but the turmoil decreases with altitude and the pilot should fly the higher the windier it is. In strong winds the pilot should not land on the lee sides of or close to steep mountains and hills or even large buildings. Land in an open place a distance away or on top of the hill itself. If landing on the hill is necessary, take the windward side. If necessary on the lee side, head into the axis of the eddy. On clear, still nights there are cool currents flowing down valleys and in landing one must head up the valley.

All these sources of danger are less effective as the speed of the aeroplane increases.

The experiences of the Turks in the Balkan War proved the sensibility of wooden aeroplanes to the influences of the weather, making necessary steel machines for military purposes.

RUMPLER MONOPLANE

The world's record for altitude made by Lirmekogel on a Rumpler monoplane attracted wide attention to this new machine, the construction of which shows the recent progress made in aviation in Germany: now these machines are being used in the war.

For a long time the Rumpler establishment has championed the type "pigeon." which offers the great advtantage of a stability almost automatic, due to the special form of the wings (Xanonia-form, so-called) ; on the other hand, the superabundance of bracing (notably the girder under the wings) offered too much resistance to advance to the extent that the speed hardly exceeded 100 kiloms. per hour (62 m. p. h.).

In the monoplone type of 1014 the classic form of the wings has been re-

tained while reducing the bracing to what was strictly necessary, viz.. four cables above and four below for each wing. At the same time, the flexible ends of the wings and tail have been replaced by flaps of the ordinary type. The wing surface of the new monoplane is 29 sq. m.; its weight empty, 650 k. g.

The incidence of the wings diminishes from root to tip. which attacks the air at a decidedly negative angle. The lateral balance is definitely assured by ailerons having 1.40 sq. m. surface each. Their operation is such as to give only a reaction dowmvard and not upward, so that the additional resistance is always on the side of the higher wing. The lower hraces are fastened to bracing post entirely independent of the chassis.

The fuselage of rectangular section has a length of 9 m. at largest part, giving plenty of room for the pilot's seat and that of the observer, as well as for all the instruments needed.

The empennage comprises a fixed triangular surface, terminated by an elevator in two parts, a vertical keel and rudder.

The motor group comprises a 6 cylinder Alercedes motor, water cooled, of 115 h. p. at 1400 r. p. m.. driving a Resehke propeller 2.70 m. diam., 1.48 m. pitch. The cylinders are of cast steel with autogenous-welded water jacket. Cooling is by radiator, system Wind-lioff.

This radiator of aluminum tubes is fastened directly to the motor so that the water in the cylinders is always

under pressure which prevents pockets of vapor; and, further, in case of leakage of water there remains always water in the cylinders.

The landing gear is formed by two lateral triangles of steam-line section steel tubes, to which are attached by means of elastic, an axle carrying two disc wheel (wheels with spokes covered with cloth). A powerful brake fastened to the anxle, permits landing in 50 metres or so.

The controls are of the military type, the elevator is operated by fore and aft motion of lever, lateral balance by rotation of wheels, and direction by pedals. All the control cables are carefully guided by bronze pullevs in fibre blocks.

The chief materials used in this machine are ash and American white pine for the framework of wings and fuselage steel in form of pressed sheets, formed tubes, and cables, and cast aluminum

LODGE WANTS AIRSHIPS TO BE DIRIGIBLE.

Senator Lodge, complaining of the lack of aeroplanes, says:

"I refer, of course, to what are generally called air craft, or, more specifically, aeroplanes and hydroplanes, (sic.) * * * * In the army we have at this moment thirteen aeroplanes and no Zeppelins or dirigible airships, (sic.)

"The money appropriated for this branch of the service in the navy, I am informed, has not been expended, and it is stated that the delay has been owing to the failure of the American manufacturers to furnish aeroplanes, to the differences of the experts as to the best type, and to the fact that we are waiting to get some aeroplanes from abroad in order to test them."

Naturally, we desire our airships to be dirigible but we have not yet heard of any hydroplanes in full flight. Evidently Senator Lodge got his technical knowledge from the Arm-Chair Aviators' Home Companion.

FREE AERONAUTICAL PAMPHLETS.

Among the publications of Smithsonian Institution are a number devoted to aeronautics. These following may be had free upon application to Smithsonian Institution, Washington. D. C. (for other aeronautical works see the book catalogue published by Aeronautics) : Recent Progress in Aviation-. Bv Octave Chanute (1910). Traveling at High Speeiis on the Surface of the Earth and Above It. By H. S. Hele-Shaw (1911). Aviation in France. By Pierre-Roger

Jourdain (190S). International Air Map and Aeronautical Marks. By Cb. Lallemand (1911).

Langlev Aerodynamical Laboratory.

Advisory Committee on the (1913). Research and Experiments in Aerial

Navigation. By Samuel P. Langley

(1897, 1900, 1901, 1904). What Constitutes Superiority in an

Airship. By Commandant Paul

Renard (1909).

for the support of controls. Autogenous welding was employed for all pieces which are not subject to tension.

This monoDlane has given the following results : With full military load, comprising fuel for 4 hours' flight besides 200 kg. useful load, it climbs 800 m. in 6 inin. The maximum height attained was 6300 m. for the oilot alone and 5500 m. with passenger. The normal speed is 120 kiloms. an hour.

Finally it was endeavored in the mode of construction to facilitate dismounting and erecting.

RUMPLER BIPLANE.

The machine on which Basser established the world's record of duration with 18 h. 12 min., is the first biplane put out by the Rumpler establishment. In construction it shows much similarity to the monoplane type 1914; thus, the fuselage, the tail, the moto-propulser

Hydromechanic Experiments with Flying Boat Hulls. By Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson (1914). Price, 10 cents.

The Flying Apparatus of the Blowfly. By Wolfgang Ritter (1911).

The Exploration of the Free Air by Means of Kites at Blue Hill Observatory. Bv A. Lawrence Rotch (1S9S).

The Greatest Flying Creature. By S. P. Langley (1901).

Relation of Wing Surface to Weight. By R. Von Lendenfeld (1904).

The Present Status of Military Aeronautics. By Dr. George O. Squier, Major, Signal Corps, U. S. Armv ( 1908).

Review of Applied Mechanics. Ey L.

Lecornu (1912). Holes in the Air. Bv W. J. Humphreys,

Ph.D. (1912). Report on European Aeronautical

Laboratories. Bv A. F. Zahm, Ph.D.

(1914).

Experiments with the Langley Aerodrome. By S. P. Langley (1904).

Samuel Pierpont Langley. Memorial Meeting (1906).

Count von Zeppelin's Dirigible Airship (1899).

The American airman Wright was the first in the whole world to build an aeroplane which would actually fly, and ever since that time we have been experimenting and inspecting and reporting and contracting and considering; in fact we have been doing everything except building aeroplanes. On July 1 last France owned 1,400 aeroplanes, while Uncle Sam owned 23, all of them out of date. However, we recently ordered from abroad an up to date French aeroplane with two Salmson motors and an up to date German aeroplane with two Mercedes motors. We were in hopes that at last we were in a fair way to establish a little brood of aircraft; but just then the European war broke out. Wicked foreigners commandeered our purchases, so here we are again just where we started.—Representative Augustus P. Gardner.

group and the body are identical with the corresponding parts of the monoplane.

The principal cell presents the characteristics of the "Arrow" biolane: the V horizontal and the vertical dihedral angle are both 3°. The incidence of the wings diminishes progressively toward the tips (extremities). The lateral balance is assured bv ailerons controlled (or operated) in both directions.

The characteristics are as follows: Surface, 38 sq. metres; spread, 13 m.; height. 3 m.; total length, 8.65 m.; 6 cylinder Mercedes motor. 105 h. p.; hourly fuel consumption, 38 litres, oil 2 kg. Chauvier propeller, 2.7 m. diam. by 1.48 m. pitch. Fixed empennage, 2.8 sq. m.; elevator, 1.4 sq. m.; vertical keel, 1.3 sq. m.; rudder, 8 sq. m.; ailerons, 2.4 sq. m.; vt. empty. 650 kg.; speed normal, 105 k. p. h.; climbing rate (11 minutes, full load), 800 m. Useful load, 740 kg.

Lieut. Saufley, U. S. Navy, has been on duty at the works of the Sperry Gyroscope Company to study the theory and construction of the Sperry stabilizer and observe any trials of this device the manufacturers desired to make for their own purposes in getting it ready for the tests that will be carried out at Pensacola.

Almost any arms manufacturer in this country could build guns for aeroplanes if they were given the plans. The Navy has not yet decided on the type of gun for this use. In fact, confidential information from abroad points to great difference of opinion amongst the nations of Europe using guns in aeroplanes.

■ There are now at the Aeronautic Station. Pensacola, eight officers of the new class of student air pilots, and during one week 1.133 miles of flight were covered by the different machines. The longest continuous flight during the week was 3 hours and 5 minutes.

Aeroplanes were detailed to take part in the festivities at Pensacola and Mobile in connection with Mardi Gras. Aeroplane AB3. with Lieutenant Bellinger in charge, and Ensign Bronson as observer, made the flight to Mobile on February 13th and remained there, returning on the 18th. Exhibition flights were made during the stay at Mobile and people taken up. There were over 1.200 miles flown in 24 hours of flying, not counting the Mobile flight.

"Billy" Robinson, the bird-man, has put Grinnell on the map in the aviation line and spread the name of the Grinnell Aviation Company by his flight of 375 miles from Des Moines, la., to Kentland, lnd. At a recent meeting of the stockholders of the company it was decided to increase the capital from $10,000 to $50,000.

o

DATA SHEET

No. 1

GUY WIRE AND CABLE DATA.

Aeronautical cord consists of a number (usually 19) of fine wires of great strength stranded together. It is furnished in five diameters, with a minimum thickness of 1/32" and a maximum of 1/8". The strengths of the different sizes run, approximately from 200 tc 2,300 pounds.

For steering gear a more flexible cord is provided. This is composed of six strands of seven wires each, with a center of either cotton or wire, as ordered. The cord with the cotton center is considered more pliable than that with the center composed of wire.

The standard sizes for the flexible cord are 1/16", 3/32" and 1/8", other sizes being made to order.

Wire differs from cord in that it consists of a single wire instead of a number of wires twisted together. Like the wires in the cord, it is made from the highest grade of steel and given a plated finish that secures best results in soldering. This wire is made in 12 sizes. Care should be taken by users to make good connections, so that the entire strength of the steel can be developed. The following tables (Roebling) give information as to strength and weights:

O

GALVANIZED AVIATOR CORD

Diameter.

No. of Wires.

Approximate

breaking strength in pounds.

Weight in pounds per 100 teet.

w

19

8,300

13.80

S/l6"

19

3,500

7.20

%s"

19

3,000

5.50

V"

19

2,300

3.60

%i"

19

1,465

2.80

3/So"

19

800

2.00

Me"

19

500

0.96

V32"

7

200

0.35

o

EXTRA FLEXIBLE GALVANIZED AVIATOR CORD

6x7 Cotton Center.

Size.

Approximate breaking strength in pounds.

Weight in pounds per 100 feet.

3/I6"

3,000

5.35

X"

1,015

2.35

 

780

1.50

Me"

420

.84

V_

TO FLY FOR VILLA.

W. Leonard Bonney has left for Mexico to be chief of General Villa's aviation corps. Bonney has recently been flying at Hempstead. Bonney is well known in aviation circles.

Charles S. Niles, a friend of Bonney. is chief of General Carranza's aviation corps and has under him several monoplane fliers, most of whom learned at the old Moisant school at Hempstead. The success of Carranza's fliers in bomb dropping and scouting recently induced General Villa to buy six Wright biplanes.

_J

DENINE CLAIMS AUTOSTA-BLE MACHINE.

The Denine-Deuthcr Aeroplane Company, of Spokane, Wash., has been experimenting with an inherently stable monoplane which has been patented in the United States in monoplane, biplane and multiplane forms. Construction was commenced on the monoplane in the spring of 1914 by Martin A. Denine and Harold C. Deuther, and tried out during the months of August and September on the Parkwater aviation field, Spokane. Wash., with complete success. H C. Deuther, the aviator, states at no

time was he troubled with either fore-and-aft or lateral stability; in fact, during the last few flights he released the controls altogether, only taking control on leaving and making landing. There is said to be an entire absence of rolling and pitching of this plane during gusty weather.

The Denine-Deuther Aeroplane Company will manufacture both single and passenger carrying machines of both monoplane and biplane types, and do exhibition work during the season of 1915 and thereafter.

The planes cant forward from body for the first part of the spread and then cant back for the balance of the spread, terminating in the flexible portion or aileron. The wings are attached to the body by sockets, which can be shifted to change the angle of incidence.

"Only the most careful diplomatic procedures have kept the United States a neutral nation. With the palpable efforts that grow greater each day it may be but a question of time before this country is compelled to take up arms. It is conceded that the aeroplane has made surprise attacks impossible. It has made necessary a readjustment of military tactics. Where would the United States be if plunged into war? What is the total production of our factories? What is the number of efficient and capable military aviators ? A hundred aeroplanes and aviators would be but a drop in the sea should we become involved in war. Neither aeroplanes nor aviators are made in a day, or a week."

Charles B. Kirkham, who has been identified with the aviation motor industry in this country since 1910, is now connected with the Curtiss Motor Co., at Hainniondsport, as chief engineer.

CORRECTION.

In our issue of March 30 the Burgess Company's advertisement reads: "Burgess-Dunne Three Delivered to U. S. Army, San Diego, December 30."

It should be Burgess-Dunne No. 3.

AERO MART COLUMN.

GET world's largest aeronautical catalogue, 6 red stamps, or our aeronautical motor catalogue just off the press, 4 red stamps. Blue prints $1.75, all standard aeroplanes. "Heath" propellers for air. water and land represent the survival of the fittest. Six years' propeller production proves perfection. 3 red stamps for propeller catalogue. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co.. Chicago.

WILL sacrifice latest flying boat, $775. Completely equipped. Also 30-h.p. Water-Cooled Curtiss Motor, $250. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co., Chicago.

WANT TO BUY an 80-h.p. Gnome or an 80 or 90-h.p. Curtiss. Address John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics.

FOR SALE—Roberts 50 h.p. motor, almost new. Oscar Solbrig, 707 W. 7th, Davenport, Iowa.

ON THE DEATH OF BEACHEY.

Our representative witnessed the last two llights made by Beachey. and is thereorc well acquainted with the real facts of the great aviator's death. His report did not reach us in time for the previous issue.

I was very interested in Beachey's flights at the Exposition, and upon learning that Warren Eaton had constructed a small monoplane for Beachey, took a great deal of interest in the first flights. Beachey had flown this monoplane four or five mornings at the Beach, some five or six miles from the Expositon Grounds. This was done by Beachey flying from the Exposition Grounds to the Beach after his exhibition was finished. He took out the biplane's Gnome and installed it in the monoplane for each flight.

The monoplane had but 20 feet spread, was an excellent job, and one of the neatest 'planes I have ever seen. It was staunch in every detail, and the whole thing weighed but a little over 400 pounds. The 80 Gnome drove this plane more than 95 miles an hour. Beachey. being confident of his ability to drive this monoplane after his trials at the Beach, decided to fly it instead of the biplane at the Fair Grounds where he was under contract. This was done safely one day previous to the Sunday he met his death. During this first exhibition flight, no special stunts were tried, but simply a beautiful straight away flight.

Sunday. Beachey's first flight was started off poorly. The Gnome did not work very well, and when his start was made, stopped with him in the air just after he had crossed a pile of lumber that was thrown on the turf from where he started. He glided down safely and ordered the machine to be taken back for re-start. This was done some twenty minutes later, and he shot straight up into the air. climbing to about 5,000 feet before leveling off. He made a trip o\er San Francisco, then turned around and crossed the Bay to Sausalito. after which he made three or four excellent loops, and glided down to the Grounds at a slow angle and landed safely. The monoplane was a beautiful sight in the air, having graceful lines, and very fast. His last flight was started half an hour or so later, in which Beachey went up approximately 4,000 feet, made several loops, and then circled up until he had gained approximately 5.000 or 6,000 feet altitude, made another loop and then started for the ground perpendicularly. Lots of people state Beachey's engine stopped on him and prefired. but this is incorrect in every way. The actual cause of Beachey's death is due solely to the aviator's inexperience in flying such a light monoplane. As you know, this was the first time that Beachey had ever been back of the motor, concealed entirely excepting his head, so that the wind could not blow against him and give him an idea

as to how fast he was dropping. The machine dropped at the rate of fully 250 to 300 miles an hour, and it was a wonder that the wings did not collapse nearer the first of the drop. When Beachey started to level out, approximately 500 feet from the ground, one wing simply folded straight back and exploded like a prefire of the motor. It was not long before the other did the same thing. Luckily, the machine dropped along the side of United States transports in a little harbor not over 100 feet wide. It was fully two hours before the plane was found by a diver from the battleship Oregon, being located by the gasoline that came to the surface. It was hoisted in shreds, Beachey taken out and placed in a naval bearing sack and hoisted to a waiting ambulance.

Beachey appeared to have excellent control over the monoplane, and flew it wonderfully well, but being covered up as he was, and his not being allowed to feel or see how fast he was really dropping, was the direct cause of his death. In my mind no monoplane or biplane built could have withstood the strain of such a tremendous falling force through the air.

INVISIBLE RAYS TO DESTROY ZEPPELINS.

"Since the war began, there have been many important developments in aerial defense and offense. Recently the discovery of a combination of infra red and electric waves shot from a mica tube in the form of a gun have, on actual tests, proved to be such a certain means of causing all forms of balloons to explode," says William Russell, "that the British, French and German Governments have, under the threat of severest punishment, forbidden any news of the experiments to be published.

"Through an accidental observation of a press representative, news of these experiments have reached this country, and several of the papers have published accounts stating that the invention has been confirmed by high military officials.

"For several years many scientists have been conducting experiments in the radiation of infra red and electric waves of various kinds for causing destructive effects on submarines and air-craft and have found that, under the proper conditions, destructive effects of greater power than any other method known could be caused by these rays which have such terrific force that if they are perfected to a degree that will be capable of liberating their full force in a beam of energy that can be controlled with the accuracy and certainty of gun fire we will have a means of destruction far more appalling than the great German siege guns.

"To people unfamiliar with science, the statement that an invisible radiation of electric waves similar to wireless waves could possess more destructive power than gunpowder charges which hurl enormous missives of steel weigh-

ing many hundreds of pounds appears incredible.

"The study of periodic law shows that all of the invisible forces in electric wave form possess great energy and the stud}- of radio activity has proved that all forms of matter, even to the smallest particle conceivable, contains an amount of force which, if it could be liberated in an explosive discharge similar to the explosion of dynamite, etc., would greatly exceed in power many pounds of the most powerful explosive known to us.

"The most salient point in the effective use of this silent, invisible, destructive force is that it can be used without detection no matter how near a person might be to it; for being invisible and absolutely noiseless it cannot be detected by our senses even though we were to stand alongside of it as it is shot forth on its errand of destruction."

William Russell, formerly chief of the Wireless Division, Seventh Regiment, New York National Guard, has been conducting experiments in these destructive electric radiation and expects soon to give a demonstration of the practical reality of this form of energy.

A military authority states: "I know nothing more on the subject than the various newspaper yarns which have appeared from time to time for the last three years about the ultra some kind of ray which is alleged to possess marvelous destructive properties. There has been no record of any such discovery in any of the scientific journals, and I am inclined to believe the existence of these rays is a myth of the same character as the alleged wonderful gas many times lighter than hydrogen said to have been discovered and used by the Germans in filling Zeppelins, when we know that the}' are using hydrogen for this purpose." _

couldn't even fly straight.

After doing the dip, the spiral glide and al! the stunts that were Beachey's delight, and landing he heard a sneering voice at his side.

"Say, are you Beachey?" a tough looking guy asked.

"Yes," was the reply, "Why?"

"Gee!" laughed the fellow. "I t'ought youse was some crack flyer. Say, dese odder guys has got it all over yous-; when it comes to flyin'. Why. youse can't even fly straight."

landed at the insane asylum.

One day Beachey was compelled to land quickly and he decided on a nice flat field, surrounded with a fine wall and enclosing some imposing looking buildings. He miscalculated and came to earth just outside the wall and in front of a large iron gate. A lot of nondescript looking people came running down to the gate and as Beachey dusted himself off one old fellow, grinning broadly, exclaimed mockingly:

"Say, you feller! Ye lit on the wrong side o' the fence, didn' ye?"

AIRCRAFT AND PEACE TREATIES

Neutrality and Trade in Contraband

Referring to tile recent German protest to our Government regarding the exportation of hydroaeroplanes on the ground that such are construed, by Germany, to be vessels, and the reply by the Secretary of State that "both the hydroaeroplane and the aeroplane are essentially aircraft; as an aid in military operations they can only be used in the air; the fact that one starts its flight from the surface of the sea and the other from the land is a mere incident which in no way affects their aerial character," and that, consequently, this Government does not regard the obligations imposed by treaties or the accepted rules of international law as applicable to aircraft of any kind, it may be of interest to call attention to the article published in the August 15, 1914, issue of Aeronautics relative to the discontinuance of the prohibition accepted by the Powers after the first Peace Conference against the throwing of explosives from aircraft.

The first Peace Conference passed the above resolution and it was accepted. The five-year period expired July 28, 1904. At the second Hague Conference, concluded October 18. 1907, the declaration was passed in the same terms as that of the first conference. Great Britain, Austria and the United States, among others, ratified this. The period for ratification expired June 30, 1908, and seventeen other nations failed to give assent, among whom were Germany, France, Japan, Italy, Mexico and Russia. In the absence of no prohibition, aerial warfare would seem a legitimate operation of war.

Aircraft appears on the German. French and English lists of contraband material.

Germany sought to construe hydro-

aeroplanes as vessels so as to bring them under the provisions of Article S of the Thirteenth Convention Concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War. which provides as follows:

"A neutral Government is bound to employ the means at its disposal to prevent the fitting out or arming of any vessel within its jurisdiction which it has reason to believe is intended to cruise, or engage in hostile operations against a Power with which that Government is at peace. It is also bound to display the same vigilance to prevent the departure from its jurisdiction of any vessel intended to cruise, or engage in hostile operations, which has been adapted entirely or partly within the said jurisdiction for use in war."

Aeroplanes, land and water, arms, etc.. however, may be sold to belligerents without hindrance.

In the first place it should be understood that, generally speaking, a citizen of the United States can sell to a belligerent Government or its agent any article of commerce which he pleases. He is not prohibited from doing this by any rule of international law, by any treaty provisions, or by an}- statute of the United States. It makes no difference whether the articles sold are exclusively for war purposes, such as firearms, explosives, etc., or are foodstuffs, clothing, horses, etc., for the use of the army or navy of the belligerent.

Furthermore, a neutral Government is not compelled by international law, by treat}-, or by statute to prevent these sales to a belligerent. Such sales, therefore, by American citizens do not in the least affect the neutrality of the United States.

It is true that such articles as those mentioned are considered contraband and are, outside the territorial jurisdiction of a neutral nation, subject to seizure by an enemy of the purchasing Government, but it is the enemy's duty to prevent the articles reaching their destination, not the duty of the nation whose citizens have sold them. If the enemy of the purchasing nation happens for the time to be unable to do this that is for him one of the misfortunes of war; the inability, however, imposes on the neutral Government no obligation to prevent the sale.

Neither the President nor any executive department of the Government possesses the legal authority to interfere in any way with trade between the people of this country and the territory of a belligerent. There is no act of Congress conferring such authority or prohibiting traffic of this sort with European nations, although in the case of neighboring American Republics Congress has given the President power to proclaim an embargo on arms and ammunition when in his judgment it would tend to prevent civil strife.

For the Government of the United States itself to sell to a belligerent nation would be an unneutral act, but for a private individual to sell to a belligerent any product of the United States is neither unlawful nor unneutral, nor within the power of the Executive to prevent or control.

The foregoing remarks, however, do not apply to the outfitting or furnishing of vessels in American ports or of military expeditions on American soil in aid of a belligerent. These acts are prohibited by the neutrality laws of the United States.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

The Thomas

Continues to Make Records

On February 27, at Ithaca. N. Y., the Thomas Tractor Biplane. with three men and four hours' fuel aboard, climbed 4,000 ft. in 10 min. Average speed—81-1 m.p.h. Slow speed down to 38 m.p.h. Showed high degree of inherent stability.

Thomas School

Offers exceptional facilities — land and water. Best of instructors and equipment.

Write for "Opportunity" Booklet Xo. li

THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO.f Inc..

Ithaca,N.Y.

6-cylinder, 100 H. P.

Builders as well as Aviators are

MAXIMOTORS'

most ardent supporters Built in Four Sizes from 50-150 H.P.

DFTfcOIT

1528 JEFFERSON AVENUE E.

THE AERONAUTICAL BOOKSHELF

Epitome of the Aeronautical

Annual By James means

In one volume is contained the principal articles from the three annuals of 1895, 1896 and 1897, published hy Mr. Means. Contains the theories and experiments of Cayley. Wen ham, Li lien thai, Maxim. Langley and others, written by themselves. Fundamental facts are si veil. One of the absolutely necessary volumes. 224 pp., $1.12

The Problem of Flight

By HERBERT CHATLEY

A strictly technical book for the engineer.

III., 119 pp., $3.50

The Conquest of the Air

By the Late Prof. A. LAWRENCE ROTCH

A popular but authoritative book on the Ocean of Air, History of Aerostation, Dirigible Balloon, Flying Machi ne, The Future of Aerial Navigation. 111., $1.10

Aerial Navigation

By DR. ALBERT F. ZAHM

In popular terms Dr. Zahm portrays the progress of aeronautics,.ea ving ou t unproductive experiments. The pilots of today know little of the history of the machine they use daily. The percent;! ee of those who are familiar with progress is small. Dr. Zahm writes an absorbing volume which must take its place on every bookshelf.

III., 486 pp., $3.00

Art of Aviation

Bird-flight as the Basis of

Aviation fiy gustav lilienthal

Covers the gliding work of O. and G. Lilienthal.

III., 166 pp., $2.50

The Aeroplane in War

By C. GRAHAME WHITE and H. HARPER

A book with prophecies of the future. 111.. $3.00

Experiments in Aerodynamics By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY

This with the other Langley hook forms the keystone of the aeronautical library. Pnrvly technical. Details of the experimental machines of Professor Langley. The

indispensable book.

III. $1.50

Indispensable Books

MEMOIR" EXPERIMENTS"

By ROBERT W. A. BREWER

One of the best handbooks on aviation. Semi-technical. A really valuable book for the amateur, experimentor and pilot. 111., 266 pp., $3.50

Langley Memoir on Mechan-

El:„Ll By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY lCai r llgnt and CHARLES M. MANLY

In this ponderous volume is found additions to Professor Laogley's previous work and contains wonderful photographs and scale drawings of all of the models and the engine*, constructed and tested by Langley and his assistant. Mr. Manly. The mathematician will delight in the formulae and the practical man will find a vast amount of data. One of the scant dozen "best books."

Handsomely ill., 4to, 320 pp., $2.50

Curtiss Aviation Book

By GLENN H. CURTISS and AUGUSTUS POST

A popular hook. Describes Curtiss' flights, his early life, how he plaoned and worked out his machine—close view of the man. Other chapters by Lt. Paul Beck, I.t Ellyson and Hugh Robinson. III., 307 pp., $1.49

Langley's Langley's

Maxim's "ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL FLIGHT"

Loening's "MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES"

Means' "EPITOME"

Brewer's "ART OF AVIATION"

Hay ward's "PRACTICAL" AERONAUTICS

Artificial and Natural Flight

By SIR HIRAM MAXIM

Concise history of development of flying machines and Maxim's own ex perimental work. There are but few worth-while technical hooks on aviation. This is one. Ills., 172 pp., $ 1.7S

Monoplanes and Biplanes

By GROVER C. LOENING

Covers design, construction and operation. The author has taken the work of the best knriwn ex peri mentors and analyzed the results, comparing them and averaging. Another necessary book. III., 345 pp., $2.50

How to Build an Aeroplane

By ROBERT PETIT

A handbook for the young man in school, or beginning building for amusement. A semi-technical book, simply written. III., 131 pp., $1.50

Building and Flying an Aeroplane By chas. b. hayward

A practical handbook, covering construction of models, gliders and power machines. III., 160 pp., $1.00

Practical Aeronautics

By CHAS. B. HAYWARD

Treatise on Dirigibles, Aeroplanes, Motors Propellers. Practice, Future, etc. III.. 800 pp., $3.50

AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York

o

DATA SHEET

No. 2

EXTRA FLEXIBLE GALVANIZED AVIATOR CORD

6x7 Wire Center.

3/l6"

3,200

6.15

V"

1,235

2.65

 

930

1.70

W

530

1.03

o

SPECIAL HIGH STRENGH PLATED AVIATION WIRE

No.B. CB.S. Gauge.

Diameter.

Approximate breaking strength in pounds.

Weight In pounds per 100 feet.

10

.102

2,000

2.91

11

.091

1,620

2.27

12

.081

1,300

1.82

13

.072

1,040

1.45

14

.064

830

1.13

15

.057

685

.891

16

051

540

.718

17

045

425

.555

18

.040

340

.436

19

.036

280

.355

20

.032

225

.264

21

.028

175

.227

o

I_

AERO CLUB OF PENNSYLVANIA.

A stated meeting of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania was held at the Bellevue-Stratford Friday evening. April 16, 1915. Tickets for the Sperry lecture, on April 23rd, will be mailed in a few days.

Messrs. J. C. Pepin, W. T. Banning, and J. J. Kelley, of the Lorain Hydro and Aero Company, visited the Roberts plant a few days since and left their order for two of the new 100 h.p. six-

cylinder Roberts aviation motors, described in Aeronautics of March 15th.

The engines are to be shipped to the Benoist Aeroplane Company for installation in two outfits which the Lorain Company will put into service early this season. խխ-

IN AIRSHIP DAYS.

The wooden-legged cap'n of the airship Wilbur Third

Comes a-steppin' down the ladder like a limpin' lulu bird.

And reporters from the papers crowded round him thick as bees

OF AMERICA

29 West 39th Street. NtW York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

It is noted with respectful and deep regret that Mr. Lee S. Burridge, Founder and Past President of the Society, has through sickness been absent from the meetings the last few weeks. Mr. Burridgc had not previously missed a single meeting of the Society since the time of its organization in 1909, and all members join in the sincere hope that he may soon Lie restored to good health and again appear in their midst.

ROUXD TABLE TALKS Mr. A. M. Herring gave an interesting talk on the peculiar manifestation in aerodynamics known as the Two-Foot Constant "K" or Vortex effect, which dominates when peripheral speed of a propeller is approximately 1, 100 feet per second. lie also indicated a method for readily determining the efficiency of a propeller.

Mr. Charles B. Brewer exhibited an electrically treated cloth, under a process invented by Mr. A. \V. Carroll, which is impervious to water while being permeable by air. This, it is thought, may prove of value in the manufacture of dirigibles, because less than one per cent, of weight is added to the material in the process of treatment.

Mr. P, A. Peterson exhibited a large variety of insects, having weights attached which they had carried in flight, proving that, as a general rule, insects are capable of carrying loads greater than their own weights.

Mr. H. L. Coakley explained a stabilizing device of his own invention, showing a model thereof patterned after a dove. With this device a vertical keel is provided at the rear.

The new Technical Board has been appointed and held its organization meeting on Monday, April 11. It is coniposd of: Rudolph R. Grant, Chairman; Earle Atkinson, William J. Hammer, Rudolph Hanau, C. W. Wurster, Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin, Henry L. Coakley, M, B. Sellers, Chas. R. Wittemann, A. Leo Stevens, Capt. W. I. Chambers. U. S. N.

The Society deeply deplores the death by accident in flight on April 11 of its member, Cecil Peoli, who fell at College Park, Md., while making a trial of his new machine. Suitable action will be taken at the meeting on April 16 to express the sense of bereavement felt by the members and their sympathy with his relatives.

But he waves 'm off, impatient, and

he says in tones that freeze: "There is simply nothin' doin' in the

interview in' line. Though I'll own up I'm loaded with

some dope that's right down fine; I'll admit that we've been cruisin'

jest above the Polar Sea, But nary hint, reporters, will you

git of it from me. "I will merely pause to mention

that we found a brand new race. That never seen an airship nor a

bloomin' white man's face— That we found the Borealis, and

it's nowt but striped cheese. But not a word I'll give you, so

just ask no questions, please. "And furder, I could tell you, if I

only up and chose, That we anchored to the North

Pole till our wings was nearly

froze;

But you'll waste your breath with

questions all I've got to say. So trot along, reporters—jest be

movin' on your way." And when the city papers had ten

columns each next morn This most secretive captain's hair

in wrath was sadly torn; "Some one has been a-peachin' on

this airship Wilhur Third; They didn't git it out of me—1

never said a word!!!

—Dcti vcr Rep ii blica >i.

CURTISS FACILITIES

This shows one section of the new steel factory. It is 300 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. Another section of equal size is now under construction. Curtiss Aeroplanes of tractor and pusher type for land and water are built here under ideal conditions.

INFORM A TION

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Pslents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

The Wright Company

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Pica Si.

The 8-Cylinder 140 Horse Power

Slurlevanl

{REG. U. S. PAT. OFF.)

Aeronautical Motor

is the most powerful motor in the country that is thoroughly perfected and tried out. Sturtevant motors are used by the U. S. Army and Navy and all the leading aeroplane builders.

rwi. ՠf 4-cylinder, 50 H. P. Other "sea {6_cylinder( 80 H. P.

Specifications upon request B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY Hyde Park, Boslon, Mass.

U ami all principal cities of the world

nikrozrusTLe

BALDWIN

rp\ Balloons !&§ Dirigibles 83 Fabrics

Motors

Box 78, Madiaon Sq. P.O., New York

PATENTS

Manufacturers want me to send them patents on useful inventions. Send me at once drawing and description of your invention and I will give you an honest report as to securing a patent and whether 1 can assist you in selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. Personal attention in all cases.

WM. N. MOORE Loan and Trust Building Washington, D. C.

DON'T w"te us u"'ra

a-*"*" * you are interested in a reliable, efficient a nc1 economical power plant. That is the cnly kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works

Muncie, Ind.

ՠ< BENOIST

AEROPLANES FLYING BOATS

Factory and Office

341 S. St. Louis Avenue

Chicago, 111.

AEROPLANE COMPANY

INCORPORATED

SLOANE AEROPLANES

Military and Naval Types

Our New Military Tractor also was demonstrated successfully the very first time it was taken out for trial.

THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc. 1733 Broadway, New York

Sole Manufacturers of Sloane Aeroplanes

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids 1! i diameter and under any length.

J. DELTOUR, Inc. ^ff٪

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY

Books and Advice Free

Send sketch or nioilel fnr search. Highest references. Rest Results. Promptness Assii ml

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer

624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

BALLOONS

Airships, Aeroplanes, Gas Generators, Safety Packs, Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 95% of American and Canadian clubs.

AERONAUT

Madison Sq. 8ox181,NewYork

LEO STEVENS

r

BALLOONS DIRIGIBLES

Records prove we build the best Balloons in America. Nine 1st prizes, Tbree 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen World-wide Contests.

Write for prices and particulars. HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 4460 Chouteau St. Louis Mo.

THE U. S. NAVY USES

<JBecause they are the best by a large measure and Proved Best by test and official report. <|0tbers use Plain Paragons because they are not only best but also cheapest. *]] For Efficiency— For Economy, investigate Paragons. No charge for information — No pay but for resnlti. <J\Ve have the only propeller factory in America. Large stock. Quick shipments.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg Si., Baltimore, Md.

PARAGON PROPELLERS EXCLUSIVELY

AERONAUTICS

New and Enlarged Edition, Commencing January, 1914 J^

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to theTechnique and Industry of Aeronautics

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar Eighly-five Cents : Posl Free (Money Orders Only)

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Safest and Most Practical

THE PARAPLANE

A few of its patented (U. S. and foreign) features: — Inherent Stability, Dual Motors. Controls and Propellers which can be worked independent of rach other. Propellers and Control so arranged that machine will fly just as readily with a single Propeller. Greater Lifting Power. Cli.myeable Ancle of Incidence.

Especially Designed for Governmental and Private Use Literature on request PARISANO AERIAL NAVIGATION CO. OF AMERICA, INC.

220 West 42nd Street New York City

ALL AERO BOOKS FOR SALE BY

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250 W. 54 St.. New York


No. 4, 1915, April

APRIL 30, 1915

15 Cents

lilillM

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Hold the Principal American Records as Follows:

Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRq£ Milller^ U.S.^s, 17,185 feet. Altitude, witlvone passenger, Lieut. J. C.'gart^r/ft ifsljfc) 11,690 feet. Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron O.^Ones, UrS 8 hrs. 53 min. Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. To#er§rU.S.''N., 6 hrs. 10 min.

Motors Ready for Delivery

MODEL "S," 6-CYL., 60 H. P. MODEL "O-X," 8-CYL., 90 H.P. MODEL "O," 8-CYL., 80 H.P. MODEL "OXX," 8-CYL., 100 H. P. MODEL "V" 8-CYL. 160 H. P.

THE CURTISS MOTOR CO

21 LAKE STREET HAMMONDSPORT. N. Y.

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U. S. Government Uses Goodyear Balloons

Every balloon purchased by the Government in the last three years has been Goodyear-made. A Goodyear balloon won the American

National Elimination Race out of Kansas City in 1913, the International Race out of Paris in 1913, and the American National Elimination Race out of St. Louis in 1914. Such successes have given to Goodyear an International reputation for the quality and dependability of Goodyear balloons.

Balloon Bags—Any Size

Goodyear makes dirigible balloon bags in sizes from 75,000 cubic feet capacity up to 500,000 cubic feet. Also complete spherical balloons, any size, for captive or free flights. Goodyear balloon fabric is thoroughly impregnated with rubber, not merely coated. That keeps dampness away from the fibre and adds to its strength and gas tightness.

Aeroplane Tires

Aeroplanes have been built larger and heavier the past few years to carry increased loads. Goodyear has met the need for stronger tires with two new sizes, 26x4 inch and 26x5 inch.

Good^pyear

€»r AKRON. OHIO ' Rubberized Balloon Fabric and Accessories

Let Us Help You Solve Your Balloon Problems

The Goodyear organization includes men thoroughly experienced in the manufacture and handling of balloons. We build balloons to your specifications or design them ourselves. We design fabric for unusual conditions.

If you have balloon problems write us. We gladly answer all your questions, without obligation to you.

Address Balloon Desk, 136.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company

AKRON, OHIO

Mokers of Goodyear Automobile Tires New York Branch, 1972 Broadway

The Ball-bearing Motor

MODEL A8V 110-120 H. P.

SIMPLICITY

and PRICE

THE MAXIMOTOR has always been sold at a price that put it within the reach of all.

WE have been enabled to give Sterling Worth at Maxi-motor Prices because of the simplicity of design, and the ease and rapidity with which these motors can be built.

MANUFACTURING in Detroit, the home of the gas engine, has played no small part in reducing the cost of production.

Let Us Send You Our Catalogue and Prices

DETROIT

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THE ELEMENTS OF A GYROCOPTER—By Emile Berliner

The Gyrocopter is a variation of the helicopter operated by a rotary motor. Its special feature is a small anti-torque propeller, taking the place of the usual second lifting propeller, which in the past it was found necessary to provide in order to counteract the torque movement of the machine.

The following are the elements of the Gyrocopter: 1, lifting propeller, L; 2,

able joints until the torque of L is counterbalanced. Any slight difference is neutralized by an ordinary rudder, not shown in the drawing.

Another method of regulating the anti-torque pressure of T would consist in a movable shield directly in front or he-hind it, which would reduce the latter's efficiency by making the access of the air to this propeller. This device could

motor, M; 3, anti-torque propeller, T; 4, frame work with platform, P.

The propeller T is located 10 feet or more from the mainshaft S, and its efficiency is approximately calculated to be equal to a pressure obtained by dividing the torque of propeller L with the distance a. b. The wings of propeller T can be shortened or lengthened by mov-

be used as a rudder to the apparatus.

The Gyrocopter is propelled forward by tilting it. To do this the operator steps forward on the platform P and the apparatus will then move in the direction of the tilt. A tilt of 10 degrees will reduce the lifting power of L about 1/4 per cent, and impart to the whole machine a forward pressure equal to

INDEX TO ADVERT

AEROPLANE MANUFACTURERS.

The Aircraft Co.—1737 Broadway, New York City.

Benoist Aeroplane Co.—341 S. St. Louis Avenue, Chicago, 111.

The Burgess Company—Marblehead, Mass. Sole builders under the Dunne patents in America.

The Curtiss Aeroplane Company— Buffalo, New York.

Jannus Brothers—Battery Avenue and Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md.

Parisano Aerial Navigation Co. of America. Inc.—220 West 42d Street, New York City.

Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Company—Ithaca, New York.

The Wright Company—Dayton, Ohio.

MOTOR MANUFACTURERS.

The Curtiss Motor Co.—Hammonds-port, New York.

The Gyro Motor Company—774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C. New York office, 331 Madison Avenue.

Kemp Machine Works—Muncie, Ind.

Maximotor Makers—Detroit. Mich.

Roberts Motor Manufacturing Company—Sandusky, Ohio, U. S. A.

B. F. Sturtevant Company—Hyde Park, Boston, Mass.

The Wright Company—Dayton, Ohio.

The Ilerfurth Engine Co.—Alexandria. Va„ makers of "Emerson" motors. BAMBOO.

J. Deltour—S04 Jefferson Street, Ho-boken, N. T.

GLUE.

L. W. Ferdinand & Co.—201 South Street, Boston, Mass.

MAGNETOS.

Bosch Magneto Company—201 West 46th Street, New York. Makers of Bosch magnetos

AERONAUTICAL CLOTH AND VARNISH

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.— Akron, Ohio.

The C. E. Conover Co.—101 Franklin Street, New York City.

BALLOONS AND DIRIGIBLES.

T. S. Baldwin—Box 78. Madison Sauare P. O., New York

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.— Akron, Ohio.

Honeywell Balloon Co.—44o0 Chouteau, St. Louis, Mo.

about 17/100 of the total lifting power. Supposing the latter be 1.000 pounds, then with a tilt of 10 degrees the loss in lift will be 15 pounds and the forward pressure will be 172 pounds. With a tilt of 25 degrees the loss in lifting is about 10 per cent, and the forward pressure 44 per cent, of the total lift, and with a tilt of 45 degrees the loss in lifting will be about 30 per cent, and the forward pressure 70 per cent, of the lifting pressure.

From this it can be seen that by stepping forward or backward, the operator can keep such a machine moving comfortably at any level, provided that the surplus lifting power (meaning total lifting power, less weight of machine and operator) does not exceed about one-fifth of the weight of the apparatus. Within this limit the operator will have a tilting between, say, 10 to 40 degrees for navigating the machine. It also becomes clear that the propeller L is to be designed for lift and not for speed, as the latter develops from the tilting of an apparatus having small head resistance, which can be reduced still more by a streamline enclosure.

The Gyrocopter is intended in its primary stages to fly close to the water and to float on it when at rest. Two hollow aluminum cylinders F F act as floats. Collapsible planes or parachutes might be added for modifying a fall from greater heights.

Preliminary experiments with a full-sized apparatus anchored to the ground by ropes were begun over two years ago, but were interrupted by work on the Gyro motor. It is the intention of the writer to resume experiments at an early date.

I S E R S

A. Leo Stevens—Madison Square Box 181, New York.

PROPELLERS.

American Propeller Co.—243-249 East Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md.

The Aircraft Company—1737 Broadway. New York City.

PATENT LAWYERS.

Watson E. Coleman—624 F Street, N. \V„ Washington, D. C.

Frederick W. Barker—P. O. Box 139, Times Square Station, N. Y.

C. C. Parker—30 McGill Bldg., Washington, D. C.

Victor J. Evans & Company—771 Ninth Street. N. W., Washington, D. C.

Wni. N. Moore—Loan and Trust Bldg.. Washington, D. C.

WIRE AND CABLE. John A. Roebling's Sons Co.—Trenton, N. T.

MODELS. Wading River Mfg. Co.—Wading Ri\er. N. Y.

RADIATORS. El Arco Radiator Company—64th Street and West End Avenue, New York.

the story of flight

By Wilbur Wright

The "inside story" of the experiments of Wilbur and Onnllc Wright lias never before been published to the world. Just ho'W they came to fly is as interesting as the fact that they did.

Bicycle makers of Dayton, Ohio, they took up the subject of dynamic flight in 1899 as a pastime.

They wanted something to occupy their minds, and they turned to the flying machine as something worthy of their aeal.

By common consent men had adopted human flight as the standard of impossibility. When a man said: "It can't be done; a man might as well try to fly" he -was understood as expressing the flnol

limit of impossibility. The science of flight was a paper science. Flying proposals were legion; flying dogma, contradictory, impossible, plausible, was rife; but of ART, there was nothing—only a long, unbroken, barren field, with not a suri'iving usable thing to mark the way. nothing save here and there a broken wreck of failure.

My brother and I became seriously interested in the problem of flight in 1899. Some three years before this the death of Lilienthal, which was mentioned in the newspapers of that time, had brought the subject to our attention and led us to make some inquiry for books relating to flight. But the only serious books we found were by Professor Marey, and these related to the mechanism of bird flight rather than human flight. As our interest at that time was mere curiosity as to what had been done, we did not pursue the subject further when we failed to find books relating to human flight

Several years later, while reading a book on ornithology, we became interested in studying the appearances and habits of birds, and it occurred to us that the really interesting thing about birds was their power of flight. This was a power which seemed almost in contradiction to laws of nature. The hirds performed such wonderful feats, feats apparently many times more difficult than ordinary flight, and we could not help wondering why it was that men could not imitate at least the more simple maneuvers.

Our own growing belief that men might nevertheless learn to fly was based on the idea that while thousands of creatures of the most dissimilar bodily structures, such as insects, fishes, reptiles, hirds and mammals, were every day flying through the air at pleasure, it was reasonable to suppose that men also might fly. Of course, there might be, and doubtless would be, many serious difficulties to be overcome, but we thought that by learning what these difficulties were and finding methods of overcoming them, the problem of human flight might be solved, and we thought that probably the cheapest and best way to take up the subject would be to acquaint ourselves with the troubles which others had met in attempting to solve the problem. We accordingly decided to write to the Smithsonian Institution and inquire for the best books relating to the subject. We had heard that the Smithsonian was interested in matters relating to human flight. In response to our inquiry we received a reply recommending Langley's "Experiments in Aerodynamics," Chanute's "Progress in Flying Machines," and the "Aeronautical Annual" of I89S, 1896 and 1897. These last were yearly publications, edited by James Means, giving

from year to year reports of efforts being made to solve the flying problem. The Smithsonian also sent a few pamphlets extracted from their annual reports, containing a reprint of Mouillard's "Empire of the Air," Langley's "Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight," and a couple of papers by Lilienthal, relating to experiments in soaring.

When we came to examine these books we were astonished to learn what an immense amount of time and money had been expended in futile attempts to solve the problem of human flight. Contrary to our previous impression we found that men of the very highest standing in professions of science and invention had attempted the problem. Among them were such men as Leonardo Da Vinci, the greatest universal genius the world has ever known; Sir George Cayley, one of the first men to suggest the idea of the explosion motor; Professor Langley, Secretary and head of Smithsonian Institution; l)r. A. Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone; Sir Hiram Maxim, inventor of the automatic gun; O. Chanute, the past president of the American Society of Civil Engineers ; Dr. Charles Parsons, inventor of the steam turbine; Thomas A. Edison; Herr Lilienthal, M. Ader, Phillips, and a host of others.

The period from 1889 to 1897 we found had been one of exceptional activity, during which Langley, Lilienthal, Chanute, Maxim and Phillips had been feverishly at work, each hoping to win the honor of having solved the problem; but one by one they had been compelled to confess themselves beaten and had discontinued their efforts. In studying their failures we found many points of interest to us. At that time there was no flying art in the proper sense of the word, but only a flying problem. Thousands of men had thought about flying machines and a few even built machines which they called flying machines, but these machines were guilty of almost everything except flying. Thousands of pages have been written on the so-called science of flying, but for most part the ideas set forth, like designs for machines, were mere speculation and probably 90 per cent was false.

Consequently, those who tried to study the science of aerodynamics knew not what to believe, and what not to believe. Things which seemed reasonable were very often found to he untrue, and things which seemed unreasonable were some-

times true. Under this condition of affairs students were accustomed to pay little attention to things that they had not personally tested.

The condition which Professor Langley found in respect to aeronautical science was even more true as regards what had been written regarding proposals for the conversion of speculation into actual machines.

Only a slight examination of Mr. Chanute's hook, which contained hundreds of these speculative proposals, spread over several thousand years of time, was necessary to convince us that the only things in the literature of the subject which would be of any value to us were the accounts of actual experiments by men of recognized ability, like Langley, Lilienthal, Maxim, Chanute, etc. from the writings of these men we obtained the best knowledge we could of the laws of aerodynamics, but as we went on we found that many things which we at first supposed to be true were really untrue; that other things were partly true and partly untrue, and that a few things were really true.

As to the state of experimental knowledge at the time we began our experiments, we reached the conclusion that the problem of constructing wings sufficiently strong to carry the weight of the machine itself along with that ol the motor and of the aviator and also that of constructing sufficiently light motors were sufficiently worked out to present no serious difficulty; but that the problem of equilibrium had been the real stumbling block in all serious attempts to solve the problem of human flight; and that this problem of equilibrium, in reality, constituted the problem of flight itself.

We, therefore, decided to give our special attention to inventing means of retaining equilibrium, and as this was a field where mere speculation was of no value at all, we made a careful study of the state of experimental knowledge. We found that prior to Lilienthal no one had made any serious attempt to leave the ground in a flying machine. All experiments in the air had resulted in such immediate disaster that the first trial was not usually followed up. But Lilienthal constructed several motorless apparati and with them began a study of the problem by actual experiments in the air. By this means he studied the carrying capacity of wings, and investigated the various disturbances of equilibrium to which machines in the air are subjected, both as regard to disturbances due to

the direction and speed of the motion of the machine through the air and also the disturbances produced by variations in the direction and speed of the wind itself.

The studies were continued for several years, but he met with a fatal accident and was killed before having found the solution. * * * His example. in adopting this (his) method of experimentation, was followed by Mr. Chanute and his assistants, and by Mr. Pitcher. After the death of Lilienthal, in 1896, Mr. Chanute discontinued his experiments, and. after a time, Mr. Pilcher fell and was killed. The efforts of Mr. Maxim. Mr. Phillips and Mr. Adcr, the latter with the financial assistance of the French government, to construct motor-driven aeroplanes had resulted in the abandonment of the experiment swithout flight having been attained. So that the period of unexampled activity, which extended from 18S9 to 1897, was followed by one of complete collapse and despair, during which the attention of the world was turned entirely to dirigible balloons, which at this time were being brought into prominence by Santos Dumont.

During the "boom" period fully a half-million dollars had been expended urder the direction of some of the ablest men in the world and two lives had been lost. When one studied the story of loss of life, financial disaster and final failure which had accompanied all attempts to solve this problem of human flight, we understood more clearly than before the immensity and the difficulties of the problem which we had taken up.

But as we studied the story of these troubles and considered how and why they failed, we could not help thinking that many of the troubles might have been avoided and that others might have been overcome by the adoption of more adequate methods. We began to study the flight of birds to see whether they really used the methods of maintaining equilibrium which Chanute and Mouil-lard had represented the birds as using. They had represented that the birds maintained fore and aft balance by moving the wings forward and backward so as to bring the centre of pressure of the wings to the front or to the rear of the center of gravity, and thus tilt the bird upward in front or upward at the rear, as occasion required. They represented that lateral balance was maintained by drawing inward one wing so as to reduce its area as compared with the wing on the other side, so as to reduce the lift on the side which tended to rise. They also said that the bird sometimes rocked its body over toward the high side in order that the increase of weieht on that side might help bring the high wing down. But. in watching the flight of some pigeons one day, we noticed one of the birds oscillate rapidly from side to side: that is, it tilted so thar one wing was elevated above its normal position and the other depressed below its normal position, and then tilt-eel in the opposite direction. These lat-

eral tiltings, first one way and then the other, were repeated four or five times very rapidly; so rapidly, in fact, as to indicate that some other force than gravity was at work. The method of drawing in one wing or the other as described by Chanute and Mouillard, was, of course, dependent in principle on the action of gravity, but it seemed certain that these alternate tiltings of the pigeon were more rapid than gravity could cause, especially in view of the fact that we could not detect any drawing-in first of one wing and then of the other.

In considering possible explanation of the method used by the bird in this instance, the thought came that possibly it had adjusted the tips of its wings about a lateral transverse axis so as to present one tip at a positive angle and the other at a negative angle, thus, for the moment, turning itself into an animated windmill, and that when its body had revolved on a longitudinal axis as far as it wished, it reversed the process and started to turning the other way. Thus, the balance was controlled by utilizing dynamic reactions of the air instead of shifting weight. So far as fore and aft balance is concerned, this seemed to be accounted for by fore and aft movements of the wings, as claimed by Chanute.

In speculating on possible methods of constructing a flying machine to carry a man, we hit on the idea of providing a structure consisting of superposed surfaces rigidly trussed along their front and rear margins, somewhat after the general style of the Chanute "double-decker," but not trussed from front to rear. The connections of the uprights joining the two surfaces were to be hinged so that the upper surface could be moved forward or backward, with reference to the lower surface. This would have an effect on fore and aft balance similar to that produced hy the fore and aft movement of the wings of birds. I refer, of course, to the slight fore and aft movement of the wings of a soaring bird, like the buzzards and hawks, made for the purpose of balancing. It is an entirely distinct thing from up and down flapping. It was designed to move either end of the upper surface forward or backward by a separate lever, one controlling one tip and the other, the other. If both levers were Dressed forward the upper surface would be moved bodily forward and the machine would turn upward, hut if one lever were thrown forward and the other backward, one tip of the upper surface would move forward and the other backward. Thus there would he no change in the general position of the upper surface to the front or rear of its normal position, but the entire structure, consisting of both the upper and lower surface would be given a warp. We reasoned that by imparting such warp we could control lateral balance of the machine, either for the purpose of balancing or steering, as we had noticed that when the birds were tilted they circled around

the depressed wing. In this design it was not intended to use either vertical or horizontal vanes or rudders of any kind. We reasoned that all the evolutions of flight could be obtained by the various combinations of movement of the two levers controlling the two ends of the upper surface.

This speculation was very interesting from a theoretical standpoint, but when we came to consider it from the standpoint of practical invention we were convinced that without any supplementary horizontal surface the machine would be too erratic to be controlled by an aviator and, besides that, it would call for an exertion of strength much beyond that possessed by a human being, both during flight and in landing.

Before attempting to construct a glider on this general principle, we worked out the construction of the supporting planes and a mode of flexing a forward horizontal rudder. The horizontal rudder was placed at the front. There was no tail of any kind either vertical or horizontal.

With machines of this description we made experiments in the years 1900 and 1901 on the seashore near Kitty Hawk. It was our idea that the method of experimentation by gliding had heen so die-credited by the deaths of Lilienthal and Pilcher that we intended to practice with this apparatus by attaching it to a short horizontal rope and letting it float in a strong wind a few feet from the ground while we practiced the manipulation of the horizontal front rudder and the warping of the wings to maintain the apparatus in balance. But we found that a stronger wind than the scientific calculations of other experimentors indicated was necessary in order to sustain this machine. It was. therefore, necessary to resort to gliding in order to at tain a relative wind strong enough to sustain this apparatus. We experimented first with the warping wires fastened tight and used the front rudder only. We feared that if we attempted to control both, we would not properly control either, as we were without any training. We, therefore, glided down a slope, controlling our up and down movement and balance by adjustments of the horizontal front rudder. If the machine attempted to turn over sidewise, we brought it to the ground. The flights were made at first at a height only of one or two feet.

We found that a flexible front rudder was very efficient in controlling the fore and aft balance. We also found that frequently we could make glides of IS to 20 seconds without being tilted laterally sufficiently to necessitate landing. If the tilting were bad, we immediately brought the machine down. After we had acquired some skill in handling the horizontal front rudder, we loosened the warping wires and attempted to control the lateral balance also, but when we did this we found ourselves completely nonplussed.

The apparatus did not act at all as we expected. At first we were not able tg

t Continued on page 6?)

1915 j annus flying boat

The accompanying photo of the Jan-tuis flying boat will serve to tell the story of the new and efficient design. For rough water, ready assembly and disassembly, inherent stability, wide range of flying speed, waterproof construction of wings, enormous margin of safety, comfort for pilot and three passengers, and a dry, clean place for them to sit, this new model is ideal.

The rough water ability is obtained in two principal ways: first, by the

factor made it impossible to assemble all at once. All the wing attachments arc independent of the motor and propeller shaft, so that any punishment of one is not transmitted to the other. No matter what rough seas may strain the wings the motor and propeller shaft do not change their alignment. No matter how severe the missing of the motor or other trouble that might occur the flying equipment cannot be wrecked thereby. The strut construction and other con-

great freeboard and other points in the design of the hull; and. second, the low center of gravity. Of special interest are the Japernig end floats that are nicely designed and never pound or jerk the wings. These taper from three inches wide across the bottom to a foot across the top. The taper has the advantage of reducing the planing surface, which at high speed would be sufficient to ponnd the wings badly, but when called upon as floats are quickly displacing water at an increased rate, easily combating the heaviest side lurching or listing or yawing tendency.

The removability of the tail for shipment has many advantages in construction and in simplicity of shipment for compactness. The motor remains in the front half of the hull with all controls intact. The control cables going to the tail and rudder all pass through indi-\idual leads in a conduit that is made of heavy steel as a protection against the propeller breaking or throwing anything with sufficient force to sever them. Between the conduit and the controls the cables are supplied with the J annus type sister hook, which locks the cables together in a permanent fashion quickly, and without additional safety wire or other auxiliary being necessary.

The wings arc assembled in their entirety before being attached to the hull and, when on, cannot fail to align properly if reasonable care is taken. Where desirable they can be put on half at a time, hut this would only be of advantage if hangar space or other limiting

sidcrations for clean lines and reduced head resistance have resulted in a flyin boat operable on very low power. To date the best record shows a total load of 2.200 lbs. carried in flight at 22-55 m.h.p. with an indicated 6TJ h.p. With full power it will be easy to exceed the useful load specifications for this model.

Tests in the lee of large vessels, along windward shores ami in other extreme conditions of gusty wind and treacherous obstacles prove that the new struts and the staggered planes are serious contenders for the inherent stability honors. The pilots reported that in no case was there any rapid inequality developed nor did the machine make any appreciable variation from its course due to these unfavorable conditions.

The tests have been very thoroughly conducted by Mr. Fritz G. Ericson and Mr. Antony Jannus. To Mr. Ericson the Jannus Brothers' Company are very deeply indebted both for the encouraging way in which he learned to fly last fall, while a pupil of Roger Jannus, and for the way in which he has been able to apply his highly developed training as a designer and inventor to this particular science. Mr. Ericson is a friend of the late Max Lilly, having attended school with him in Stockholm. At home he is noted for his early connection with motor boats and later automobiles and ice boats. As the inventor of the Ericson four-cycle reversible motor, the first heavy duty marine gasoline engine to spring into use in the world, he rates back rather far in the evolution of the

applications of internal combustion. During the entire winter, with both the Jannus Brothers rather active in other parts of the country than Baltimore. Mr. Ericson has produced the desired result.

The designers did not stagger the planes in this model for other than structural advantage, although this practice is credited with considerable improving effect. The design is intended to produce inherent stability through the proper construction and distribution of weights and surface and the results amply testify to the effectiveness of this effort. Such is the result that in gusty winds and when flying in any evolution there is practically no use of the ailerons

The internal construction of the wing is free from ordinary glue and is amply strong without any adhesives, although liquid marine glue is used in all joints to maintain rigidity under severe stress and to prevent rotting. All bolts go on each side of the beams, through end grain blocks that are brass covered outside of the fabric. The upper and lower wings sections of the opposite sides are alike reducing the number of extras to a minimum.

The pilot is seated in front, leaving a seat behind for three large passengers as in the stern sheets of a cat hoat. The ample foot space is well above the ribs of the bottom and made in the form of a grating that is removable for cleaning the bilge scuppers or any other purpose. The motor compartment is segregated from all other parts of the boat, so that no oil or grease can be distributed. As a result the passenger compartment is a= clean as a new pin and is easy to maintain so.

The ample sheer of the sides of the hull, the great width, the bow shape, and all other considerations make a dry. clean hull. The public demands this for commercial passenger carrying, and it is good business to follow the motto, "The public be served."

THE GOUPY THREE-PASSENGER BIPLANE

The Goupy biplane, type 1914-B, resembles in general construction other machines of this firm. The cell is composed of two staggered planes of unequal length: chord 1.6 m.. top plane 1975 m. long, lower one 10.35 m. long. The cell is rigid and lateral balance is obtained by powerful conjoined ailerons. The fuselage is of quadrangular section. The monoplane tail is slightly lifting and approximately rectangular, terminated by a flap 3.1 by .7 m.. serving as an elevator. The quadrangular rudder, above the tail, is partly balanced and in front of it is a small vertical fin. The 100 H. P. Gnome supported between two bearings turns a 2.8 m. propeller, the axis being 1.8 m. above the ground. The chassis is of the usual type, skids and wheels: the wheels are far enough forward to prevent "capotage." The skids, however, do not seem sufficient to protect the propeller in a had landing on rough ground.

This is a tractor biplane having its upper and lower planes equal, directly superposed, and connected by 6 struts. The front struts are rigidly braced by cables; the rear ones free for warping. The fuselage is of quadrangular section. The chassis, which has four wheels, is

of the Gabriel Voisin design. The two rear wheels are nearly under the center of gravity and the others are placed well out in front to prevent "capolage." When the tail is down it is supported by a small skid, which also acts as a brake.

The bomb-dropping device has a rotating barrel holding 12 bombs, which can be fired in succession. A strong spring gives each bomb a forward impulse when fired, so that its speed is greater than that of the aeroplane. By an ingenious device a hard steel blade, operated by the marksman, cuts the metal fastening which holds the bomb to the revolving barrel.

The Coanda bomb is fusiform, having a cross-shaped guide vein at its rear, and a small propeller which is rotated by its motion through the air when falling. At the start the firing device is locked and the bomb can not

explode. But when the bomb is released the rotation of propeller unlocks the firing deuce after the bomb has travelled 200 m.

This machine spreads 11.3 m., its length is 9.05 m. and supporting area 40 sq. m. Motor is Gnome 80 H. P.; speed about 100 K. P. H.

THE ABC AEROPLANE COMING

A machine of true design and excellent construction, to be known as the A B C Military Biplane (pusher"), will make its debut shortly. The rationale of the name, A B C, is. firstly, that it

contains the initials of those associated in the development of the machine; and, secondly, that it expresses the constructional simplicity, which is a prominent feature of the machine.

Mr. Robert S. Anient, a well-known newspaper artist, will direct the exploitation, and Messrs. John Carisi and Vincent J. Buranclli are responsible for the design and construction of the machine. Same is designed to especially facilitate quick assembling, and many original details are embodied to effect that end. The machine, being a pusher, has a splendid range of vision, and for military work gives the gunner a sweep of 180 deg.

The machine is a two-seater, seats arranged side by side, and double controls are provided. The fuselage is very roomy and is covered entirely with duralumin. The color of entire machine is gray, and fuselage has motor car finish. Landing chasis has four wheels, two in front, to facilitate running over rough ground.

The machine is of the deck and a half type, the top wing warps from the end uprights out, similar to a monoplane. The removal of extension considerably reduces spread, permitting the apparatus to be towed along a road much more easily, a valuable military asset.

The power plant will consist of a 100-h.p. specially built A B C aviation motor, which during tests flew a large Ii3'-droaeroplane. Messrs. Carisi and Bura-nelli expect to do some coursing during the summer.

Aside from the machine under construction, designs are complete for a tractor biplane to be equipped with a special variable speed device and a monoplane flying boat, which, in so far as the boat is concerned, seems to be in a class by itself.

the bristol military biplane

OF AMERICA 2» West 39th Street, New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

At the weekly Round Table Talks in the latter part of April a variety of interesting subjects have received attention, notably among these being an address by Mr. Rudolph R. Grant on a novel, economical form of cylinder construction, of which an account will be printed in a subsequent issue. Also Mr. Millard L. Dunham explained to the members at the meeting on April 29th, the construction and operation of his new twin piston ring, showing it to possess the characteristic of exerting truly concentric outward tension, wbich he described as of a spiral nature, whereby these rings are said to form gas tight packings, thus increasing the cylinder power.

It has been decided to change the regular meeting night for the Round Table Talks to Tuesday in each week, instead of Thursday, as heretofore. The change will begin the second week in May, so that the meeting will be on Thursday, May 4, the first week in May, and following that, the next meeting will be on Tuesday, May 11th, the succeeding meetings to he nil on Tuesdays.

The change was made by resolution, unanimously adopted, for the reason that Thursday evenings are used for meetings by other kindred societies, and it is desired that the dates of meetings do not conflict, that all members may be able to attend.

THE PENDULUM STABILIZER

March 23. 1915. With the meeting of the "First Joint Conference on Aviation" a decided advance was made tov\ard the systematic solution of aeronautical problems. It is to be hoped that a full account of the discussion of the various types of stabilizer will be published, as without it the deductions and resolutions are rather vague.

I am glad to see the pendulum device's fallacy as a stabilizer brought to light in forcible, if not strictly accurate, manner. Not accurate, because, if a device were controlled by a pendulum which, as the delegate was quoted, "would invariably do what was not desired," all that would be necessary would be to reverse

the connections to the pendulum to have the device invariably right. Of course, what was meant was that one could not tell whether it would do the right or the wrong thing. This element of uncertainty bars it from stabilizing devices.

Whether or not a device which reduces the speed—i. e., increases the resistance cither permanently or while in action—is or is not permissible is a matter of question. No matter what the type of stabilizer, the balancing of a machine can only be accomplished by the exertion of a force. If no automatic device is used, the aviator must exert this force; if some device which presents a retarding element to the speed is used, the motor must do it. Does it not seem advisable, in the long run, to give the motor enough power to make up for any small loss in speed incurred and ease up a bit on the man at the wheel?

At the present time I cannot think of any device, automatic or otherwise, which does not actuate with a corresponding change in resistance and consequently speed, except a sliding weight, which is not practical for many reasons. In fact any stabilizer employing the air as a medium from which to obtain the force necessary to tip the machine one way or another must be accompanied by a change in resistance. I say "change in resistance" rather than "increase in resistance" because in some cases, such as normally negative flaps, there is a resistance when not in action which is reduced on one side or the other to produce the desired effect. As the air and gravity are the only two sources of forces that we can resort to, with the possible exception of a hnilt-in gyroscope, and as the use of gravity by means of a shifting center of gravity (which is the only possible way) is mechanically unequal to the work, it seems to me that the statement of the conference should be modified.

1 f the aeroplane must be balanced by the reaction from the air, the best device will be that one which will accomplish the desired result with the least added resistance, either as a constant value or as a momentary value while in operation.

The warning against the placing of undue confidence in the action of small models is especially important. Much waste of time and money would be prevented if many of the would-be inventors would pay more heed to it. It is not. however, to be assumed that models are useless for experimental work, for they have a field, and if judiciously used may be of great aid.

In closing let me say that the importance of a completely automatically stabilized or so-called fool-proof machine has been greatly overestimated. In the aeroplane we have three axes of rotation: the vertical, controlled by the rudder; the axis coincident with the line of flight, controlled by what is called the lateral

STURTEVANT NEWS

The present activities at the works of the B. F. Sturtevant Company of Boston, Mass., indicates the most prosperous season according to Mr. Noble Foss. manager of the Aeronautical Department. He states that the present volume of orders for the eight-cylinder 140-H. P. aronau-t'cal motors is the largest in the history of the department.

Tn order to insure early deliveries it has been necessary to greatly enlarge the Aeronautical Department; many new machines and tools are being installed, and additional men have been employed for the manufacture of the engines. The production will be at the rate of one motor per day in a short time.

NEW COMPANIES

The Texas School of Aviation, Dallas ; capital stock, $8,000. Incorporators : Lester E. Miller. Paul Van de Velde, Currie McCutcheon. Purpose, to support the education and training of men and women in the science of flying in the air.

ASTOR'S FLYING BOAT

Vincent Astor witnessed the first two flights of bis new Burgess flying boat at Marblehead on April 27.

Tt is said that Mr. Astor will pay $14,000 for the machine and he intends to remain until he can rim it himself.

Clifford L. Webster demonstrated the flying boat.

stahilizer; and the transverse, controlled by the elevator. In some cases the first two are combined and controlled by one device, as these two are more closely related to one another, a rotation about either of them being accompanied by a rotation about the other. If an automatic device will look after any two of these three axes, leaving only one for the aviator, preferably that controlled by the rudder, the operation will be brought to the level of the automobile or boat, as far as ease of control is concerned. In the case mentioned, where the lateral balancing and rudder actions were combined, only one of the two functions need to be automatically performed to reach this level, he climbed 6,200 feet.

Nothing is fool-proof—even the innocent hammer may become dangerous if not used properly—so let us not try to design an aeroplane for the fool, but for people of average intelligence, so that they may, with a reasonable degree of safety, enjoy the pleasures of air travel. Ralph S. Barnaby,

A.S.M.E., Columbia Section.

_ro Club

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

The following was adopted at the stated meeting of the Aero Club af Pennsylvania on April 16th, 1915:

It is with profound sorrow, and with the most heartfelt regret, that the Aero Club of Pennsylvania has learned of the unexpected death on April 15th of its first President, MY. Arthur L. Atherholt.

As one of the founders of the club, and its President for two successive terms, he was most active in its organization, and worked indefatigably for its interests and progress. After his voluntary retirement from the presidency he continued as a member of the Poard of Directors, and was at all times active and enthusiastic in its work. At the meeting of the club in March he outlined the plans for a balloon race to be held by the club early in May, and which was planned to be the greatest ballooning event ever held in Philadelphia.

The navigation of the upper air in the free balloon was his specialty and his greatest delight. He was the first Pennsylvania to obtain from the Aero Club of America a balloon pilot's license, and took part in many national and international contests, either as pilot or as aide. He was skillful in the handling of balloons, and always held that ballooning is one of the best and most exhilarating of sports.

His open, genial and wholesouled manner won for him a large circle of devoted friends to whom the news of his sudden death at the early age of forty-eight comes as a most sorrowful surprise. Alas that we shall see his face on earth no more.

NEW RECORD FLIGHT

PENSACOLA, Fla., April 24.—A new world's record altitude flight of 10,000 feet in a hydroaeroplane was made at the Navy Station at Pensacola on April 24th, by Lieutenant P. N. L. Pellinger.

In one hour and twenty minutes Lieutenant Pellinger made his ascent, which so far as official data shows, never has been equaled, and he took sixteen minutes gliding back to earth. On June 13, 1913, Lieutenant Pellinger made the best previous record for an altitude flight in a hydroaeroplane at Annapolis, when

zA ՠ E ՠ R ՠ O ՠ cTW-A-R-T

YOUNG MAN desires to dispose of the patent rights to the following inventions :

(1) A device whereby the camber of the supporting plane can he readily changed from deep to flat during flight, this device being at all times under the control of the pilot; enabling landing at comparatively low speed. (2) An automatically adjusting tail device for maintaining longitudinal stability by automatically decreasing the angle of incidence on a sudden increase of wind velocity; means being provided to prevent this device causing the aeroplane to stall in climbing. (3) A connection between an automatic device for maintaining stability and the usual mannal control means so that banking or other manouvrcs can be effected without interfering with the action of such automatic device. (4) A means for obtaining lateral balance without any change in the angle of incidence of the sup-

porting planes. (5) A compact form of mounting for the supporting planes of an aeroplane whereby such planes are given resiliency while at the same time securing the utmost strength. (6) A means for getting an aeroplane into the air with a very short initial run without external assistance. (7) A device for giving a differential movement to the ailerons, or wing extremities, on opposite sides of an aeroplane. By this means the ailerons can he adjusted in unison to equal degrees or either aileron can be given any desired adjustment greater than the other one. (S) A means for rendering the operation of ailerons or warping wings easier so that large machines can be more easily controlled.

WANT TO BUY an SO-h.p. Gnome or an SO or 90-h.p. Curtiss. Address John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics.

FOR SALE—Roberts 50-h.p. motor, almost new. Oscar Solbrig, 707 W. 7th, Davenport, Iowa.

6-CYLINDER SO-h.p. Maximotor in line condition. Complete with Mea magneto and propeller hub, $525.00, taken in trade on a new Roberts. Address R, c/o Aeronautics. 2t

4-CYLINDER 50-h.p. Roberts with propeller hub and Bosch magneto, $-150.00, thoroughly overhauled and guaranteed. Address R, c/o Aeronautics. 2t

Yeggs Get $1000 from Chicago Newspaper Office.—Headline.

Upon investigation, find the sufferer was not Aero and Hydro.

"All things come to him who waits!" "Yes; especially if he's waiting in a trench !"—Puck.

DON'T wn,e us

* you are interested in a reliable, efficient andeconomical power plant. That is die only Itind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works Muncie, Ind.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

The Thomas

Continues to Make Records

On February 27, at Ithaca. N.Y., the Thomas Tractor Biplane, with three men and four hours' fuel aboard, climbed 4,000 ft. in 10 min. Average speed~8I-I m.p.h. Slow speed down to 38 m.p.h. Showed high degree of inherent stability.

Thomas School

Offers exceptional facilities — land and water. Best of instructors and equipment. Write for "Opi>ot tunity" Booklet Xo. 12.

THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO.,inc., Ithaca, N.Y.

Safest and Most Practical

THE PARAPLANE

A few ol its patented (U. S. and foreign) features: — Inherent Stability, Dual Motors, Controls and Propellers which can be worked independent of each other. Propellers and Control so arranged that machine will fly just as readily with a single Propeller, Greater Lifting Power, Changeable Angle of Incidence.

Especially Designed for Governmental and Private Use Literature on request PAR1SANO AERIAL NAVIGATION CO. OF AMERICA, INC.

220 West 42nd Street New York City

IliirilllllllM

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

THE WRIGHT FLYING SCHOOL

Located at Dayton opena May 1st, for the season of 1915. Tuition $250. No other charges of any kind Enroll now. Booklet on request.

The Wright Company

DAYTON, OHIO New York OHics: 11 Pima St.

31 Mill! Hlllllllllllllllia

AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET

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mitted. A tractor aeroplane is not as well suited for naval purposes as a pusher type. It was hoped that the requirements of the specifications for these hydroaeroplanes would be exceeded by the bidders. They represent a type in advance, but are not equal to what is considered desirable in the light of developments due to the war in Europe. A machine is required having a speed of eighty miles an hour or better, with a radius of action of at least seven hours, and ability to climb with full load sixty-five hundred (6500) feet in twenty minutes. Thus it was considered inadvisable to buy more than three hydroaeroplanes in this lot. It is recognized that the development of the aeroplane in this country is retarded by the backward development of aeroplane motors. It is hoped that this advertisement and purchase of hydroaeroplanes will tend to encourage the designers and manufacturers of aeroplanes and aeroplane motors to further development to meet the immediate needs of the Navy. Proposals will be issued in the near future for more hydroaeroplanes."

The unit price bid by The Burgess Company for the hydroaeroplane, motor and instruments was $11,005.

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS

IMPORTS.

February, 1915: parts............ $52

Same period 1914................ None

8 mos. ending Feb., 1915; parts

only.........................$ 2.:91

Same period. 1914; parts only... 26,233 Same period, 1913; 12 aeroplanes (50,020) and parts (1,776) ; total................. 51,796

DOMESTIC EXPORTS.

February. 1915; 2 aeroplanes

(6,000), parts (24,093); total.. 30,093

Same period, 1914: 4 aeroplanes

(20,000), parts (1,466); total.. 21,466

S mos. ending Feb., 1915; 25 "planes (182.915), parts (167,723) ; total....................350.638

Same period, 1914; 18 'planes (73,525), parts (17,060) ; total.. 90.585

Same period, 1913; 23 'p'anes

(66,950), parts (22.147); total. 89,097

EXPORTS OF FOREIGN.

February. 1915 ................. None

8 mos. ending Feb.. 1915......... None

Same period, 1914; 1 aeroplane

(4.049), parts (900); total.... 4,949

IN WAREHOUSE FEBRUARY 28.

1915, 1 aeroplane ............... 1,856

1914 ........................... None

NAVY AWARDS

"The first contract for hydroaeroplanes since the appropriation by Congress, upon the recommendation of Secretary Daniels of a million dollars for aviation, and provision for the organization of a Navy Aeronautic Advisory Committee, will be awarded to the Burgess Company. Bids for these hydroaeroplanes were received February 27 of this year. (See Aeronautics, March 15. for full specifications and bids.) It has been decided to place a contract for three

THREE ORDERS

machines. The proposals were invited upon supplying three or six machines. The specifications stated that the award of contract would be based upon the completeness of the proposals received as regards the data furnished and the extent to which the designs conform to or exceeded the requirements.

"The data furnished by the Burgess Company is complete, and the design conforms nearer to the requirements than in any other of the proposals sub-

DEFENCELESS AMERICA, by Hudson Maxim. Here is a new and absorbing book which appeals to every red blooded citizen. It is written to arouse American people to the imminent danger in unpreparedness. If only the people will read it the work will be accomplished, except where the book may fall into the hands of some "dub of peace" wdiose pacifism has gotten to the last and hopeless stage. Sold for $2 by Hearst's International Librarv Company, 119 West 40th Street, New York.

This shows one section of the new steel factory. It is 300 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. Another section of equal size is now under construction. Curtiss Aeroplanes of tractor and pusher type for land and water are built here under ideal conditions. f;>

INFORMATION ON REQUEST

he Curtiss Aeroplane Cq?

\ Buffalo, New York^^^

■J£> THE COAST LINE TO ««a

mMACKlNACiP

DETROIT, L TOLEDO, CLEVELAND, BUFFALO, [PT. HURON, ALPENA, -NIAGARA FALLS. I ST. IGNACE.

A LAKE TRIP FOR REST AND RECREATION ^ Have a real vacation on the Great Lakes, the most enjoyable and economical outing in America. The cool like breezes, the ever-changing acenes along the shore, and the luxurious steamers of the D. & C. Line are positive guarantees that you will enjoy every minute of your trip, and return home refreshed and glad you went. Daily service between Detroit and Cleveland and Detroit and Buffalo. Four trips weekly from Toledo and Detroit to Mackinac Island and way ports. Two trips weekly, special steamer, Cleveland to Mackinac Island, no stops enroute except Detroit and Alpena. Special day trips between Detroit and Cleveland during July and August. Daily service between Toledo and Put-in-Bay. RAILROAD TICKETS AVAILABLE FOR TRANS PORT ATI ON on D. 6t C. Steamers between Detroit and Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland either direction. Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet and Great Lakes map. Addresa L. G, Lewis, G.P.A..Detroit.Mich.

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company Philip H. McMillan. Prea.. A. A. Schantz. V. P. & G. M. All Steamers arrive and depart, Third Ave. wharf. Det.

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! The C. E. Conover Co.

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AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET

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THE NAVY'S NEW AIRCRAFT

Bids for the dirigibles for the Navy were opened at the Navy Department on April 20th. This marks another step in the development of our Air Navy. The Office of Naval Aeronautics considers that the dirigible is to be the kingfisher of the submarine. The aeroplane rapidly scouting the seas off our harbors and around our fleet discovers the enemy's submarines lying in wait for innocent merchant ships or attempting to creep up on our fighting ships. The

dirigibles from the shore stations or from the dirigible ships of the fleet thus warned by the aeroplane scouts proceed to the attack of the submarines, dropping on them heavy bombs fitted with fuses to explode on hitting or after sinking to a certain depth. A fifty pound bomb successfully hitting a submarine or exploding under water near one will destroy these underwater craft. The dirigibles will also in a similar manner countermine the mine fields of an

enemy. Our destroyers and scouts must protect the dirigible from the anti-aircraft guns of the enemy's ships; also our aeroplanes must fight off the enemy's aircraft that wants to attack our dirigible. These two first dirigibles are of the smallest size that will be serviceable for training and experiment to develop officers and men for this service and obtain the necessary experience to produce a large fleet dirigible. These small dirigibles will also develop the manufacture of modern dirigibles in this country, which is a new departure for our aircraft designers and manufacturers.

The bids for dirigibles opened were requested on the basis of furnishing one or two dirigibles, the right being reserved by the Government to accept bids on either basis. The general specifications required that the dirigibles should be of the non-rigid type and should be about 175 feet long by 50 feet high and 35 feet wide, with a useful load of about 2,000 pounds. It is specified that the dirigibles must have a speed of 25 miles per hour or more, and to be capable of rising 3,000 feet without disposing of ballast.

The following bids were received:

Stanlev Yale Beach, 125 East 23rd St., New York, N. Y.—One machine, $29,876; two machines, $58,552. (This bid was submitted without a guarantee.)

American Dirigible Balloon Syndicate, Inc., 299 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.—One machine, $41,000; one machine (larger), $45,000.

The Connecticut Aircraft Company, 42 Church St., New Haven, Conn.—One machine, $45,636.25; two machines, $82,215.12.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio.—One machine, $200,000. (This bid is subject to a reduction which will make the total cost to the Government equal to the cost of the machine to the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company plus 50 per cent. The amount entered as the bid is the maximum to be charged under any condition.)

See issue of March 30th for full specifications.

After a great many experiments, it has been found that cedar is the one wood which conforms most nearly to the requirements of flying boat work, owing to its extreme lightness, its pliability and toughness, as well as its ability to hold its shape both in and out of the water, and the fact that it absorbs practically no moisture, makes it an ideal wood for this work.

The large demand for flying machines, that are adapted for both land and water service, which has been created by the present war, demonstrates very plainly that cedar is more desirable than any other wood for this work.

This can be supplied by Jordan Bros. Lumber Company, Norfolk, Va.

Robert N. Wilson, Port Jefferson, _N. Y., has renewed activity in the building line and has on hand one flying boat ready for the power plant.

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY

Books and Advice Free

Send sketch or model for search. Highest relerences. Beet Results. Promptaess Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer

624 F Street. N. W._Washington, D. C._

Manufacturers want me to send them patents on useful inventions. Send me at once drawing and description of your invention and I will give you an honest report as to securing a patent and whether I can assist you in selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. Personal attention in all cases.

WM. N. MOORE Loan and Trust Building Washington, D. C.

PATENTS

BALDWIN

ryx Balloons

K« Dirigibles

§3 Fabrics

"* Motors

Box 78. Madiaon Sq. P.O.. New York

Antony Jannus Roger Jannus

JANNUS BROTHERS

NEW 120 H. P. FIVE PASSENGER FLYING BOAT now being tested. Design based on nearly 200,000 miles of pioneer flying. Roger Jannus and Knox Martin at New Southern Hotel, San Diego, Calif. Continuous Passenger Carrying and School Work with two Flying Boats. Florida course announced later. NEW FACTORY

Battery Avenue and Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md. Booklet on Request

New tad EaUrted Edition, Cammeacinr Jaoairr. 1914

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar Eighty-fire Cent* : Post Free (Mono/ Orders Only)

Nrtf _A specimen copr v ulc ՠ freo oa receipt of

-Head O/TYc..- -

170 Fleet Street - - London, E. C. Americao Olficc: 2S0 Welt 54th Slr.et, New York

II be moilod

IS ceots

1

AERONAUTICS

PATFNTS Frederick W.Barker

* * Ull 1 fcj Attorney and Expert in

PATENTS, TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS

Cases prepared and prosecuted i 28 Years in Practice

with the greatest eare and I

thoroughness, to ensure broad Direct Coanectiant ia all

scope and validity \ Foreign Co on tries

P. O. Box 139, Times Square Station, New York City

PATENTS

C. L. PARKER

Ex-member Examining Corpi, U. S. Patent Offlee

Attorney-ot-L*w and Solicitor of PtleoU

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legat protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGitl Bide. WASHINGTON. D. C.

sloane aeroplanes

Military and Naval Types

Our New Military Tractor also was demonstrated successfully

the very first time it was taken out for trial. THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc. 1733 Broadway, New York

Sole Manufacturers of Sloane Aeroplanes

BALLOONS

Airships, Aeroplanes, Gas Generators, Safety Packs. Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Steven*' balloons used by Q5fo of American and Canadian clubs.

AERONAUT

Madison Sq, Box 1Bl,NewYork

LEO STEVENS

BALLOONS DIRIGIBLES

Records prove we build the best Balloons iQ America. Nine 1st prizes. Three 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen "World-wide Contests.

Write for prices and particulars.

HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 4460 Chouteau St. Louis, Mo.

- < BEN0IST

AEROPLANES FLYING BOATS

Factory and Office

341 S. St. Louis Avenue

Chicago, III.

AEROPLANE COMPANY

INCORPORATED ■

THE U. S. NAVY USES

4 Because they are the best by a large measure and ProvedI Bal.by test and official report. ^O.h.r. use Pl.i. P.r.,o» because they are not only best but also f'"ڞ,

For Eroomy, investigate P.r.«.». No charge for informa ,on - No pa> bu_ for r«ult.. «J\Ve have the only propeller factory in America. Large stock. Quick shipments. AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

PARAGON PROPELLERS EXCLUSIVELY

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AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 5

trade directory

AEROPLANES

Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co., Avondale, N. J. Aircraft Co., 1737 Broailwav, New York. (Sloane.) Baldwin. Thomas S., P. O. Box 7S. Mailison Sq. P. <">.. Npw York.

P.enoist Aeroplane Co., 34 1 S. St. Louis Ave., Chicago, 111. Burgess Co., The, Marhlelieatl, Mass.

Christofferson Aviation Co., 1417 Van Ness Ave., San Francisco, Cal.

Connecticut Aircraft Co., New Haven, Conn.

Cooper Aircraft Co., Bridgeport, Conn.

Curtiss Aeroplane Co., 1200 Niagara St., Buffalo. N. V.

Gallaudet Co., The, Norwich, Conn.

Grinnell Aeroplane Co., Grinnell. Iowa.

Heath, E. B.. Aerial Vehicle Co., 1227 School St., Chicago, 111. Heinricli Aeroplane Co., 331 Madison Ave., New York. Huntington Aircraft Co., IS E. 41st St., New York. Jannus Brothers, Battery Ave. and Hamburg St., Baltimore, aid.

Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.

Parisano Aerial Navigation Co., Inc., 220 \V. 42d St., New Y'ork.

Peoli Aeroplane Corporation, 31 Nassau St., New York. Schmitt, M., Aeroplane Co., 96 Dale Ave., Paterson, N. J. Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Co., Ithaca, N. Y\ Washington Aeroplane Co., SOU Water St. S.W., Washington, D. C.

Wilson. Robert N., Port Jefferson, N. Y. (Flying Boats.) Wright Co., The, Dayton, O. ATTORNEYS (PATENT)

Barker. K. W.. Box 139, Times Sq. P. O., New York. Coleman, Watson E., 024 F St. .WW., Washington, I>. C. Dieterich. F. G., & Co., S03 Ourav Bldg., Washington, D. C. Evans, Victor J., 771 Ninth St. N.W., Washington, D. C. Hill, Thomas A.. Woolworth Bldg., New Y'ork. Moore, William N., Loan & Trust Bldg., Washington, D. C. Parker, C. L., 30 McGill Bldg., Washington. D. C. Robh * Kobb, Southern Bldg.. Washington, I). C. Seifert, Jno. O., 50 Church St., New York. Shoemaker, George C, 91S F St., Washington, D. C. Woodward, Horace L., .WW. cor. Ninth and G Sts., Washington, D. C. AXLES

Aircraft Co., The, 1737 Broadway, New Y'ork. Curtiss Aeroplane Co., 1200 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y'. Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.

BALLOONS AND DIRIGIBLES

Baldwin, Capt. Thomas S., P. O. Box 7S, Madison Sq. P. u.. New Y'ork.

Connecticut Aircraft Co., New Haven, Conn. Goodyear Tire &. Rubber Co., Akron, O.

Honeywell Balloon Co., 44GO Chouteau Ave., St. Louis, Mo. Stevens, A. Leo, 2S2 Ninth Ave., New Y'ork. BALL BEARINGS (BALL AND ROLLER)

Bretz, J. S., Co., 250 W. 54th St., New York. IF. & S.) Marburg Bros., 1 790 Broadway, New Y'ork. (S. It. O.) New Departure Mfg. Co., Bristol, Conn. (New Departure.) R. I. V. Co., 254 W. 57th St.. .New York

Hess-Bright Mfg. Co., Front St. and Erie Ave., Philadelphia.

Pa.

S. K. F. Ball Bearing Co., 50 Church St, New Y'ork. Standard Roller Bearing Co., 50th and Lancester, Philadelphia. Pa.

Timken Roller Bearing Co., Canton, O.

THE STORY OF FLIGHT

(Continued from page 53)

determine exactly what it did do. but it was clear enough that it was not what we wanted in all respects. We repeated the trials for the purpose of determining, if possible, exactly what happened, but found this no easy task. To the person who has never attempted to control an uncontrollable flying machine in the air, this may seem somewhat strange, but the operator on the machine is so busy manipulating rudder and looking for a soft place to alight that his ideas of what ac-

tually happens are very hazy. It is much nicer to sit before a pleasant fire and speculate than to work out, at the risk of life and limb the constructions necessary to reduce speculation to practical invention.

We repeated this experiment time and again and several times barely escaped disaster. We found that if we jerked the warping cradle back and forth rapidly, the machine would make its way down the hill, but if we persisted in the

movement long enough to determine its real effect, the machine quickly acquired such a peculiar feeling of instability that we were compelled to instantly seek the ground. After repeated experiments we began to perceive that in landing the machine was skidding somewhat toward the wing having the smaller angle and was facing somewhat toward the wing having the greater angle, and the wing having the greater angle seems to touch lirst.

As our season was at a close, we were compelled to leave the problem in this condition.

These experiments constituted the first instance in the history of the world that wings adjustable to different angles of incidence on the right and left sides had been used in attempting to control the balance of an aeroplane. We had functionally used them both when flying at the end of a rope and also in free flight.

When we left Kitty Hawk at the end of 1901 we doubted that we would ever resume our experiments. Although we had broken the record for distance in gliding, so far as any actual figures had been published, and although Air. Chanute, who was present part of the time, assured us that our results were better than had ever before been attained, yet when we looked at the time and money which we had expended and considered the progress made and the distance yet to go, we considered our experiments a failure. At this time I made the prediction that men would sometimes fly, but that it would not be within our lifetime.

In view of our own experience, and in view of the experience of men like Langley, Lilienthal, Maxim, Chanute and Ader, men almost ideally fitted in mental equipment and training for such work, and having at their command hundreds of thousands of dollars, all of whom, like ourselves had found the results attained too small for the effort and money expended, and who had, one by one, abandoned the task before we had taken it up, we felt that similar conditions would probably prevail for a long time, as the problem of stability, which had cansed all these men to drop the problem, was vet seemingly untouched so far as the practical solution was concerned.

After our return home we could not keep our minds off the puzzling things we had observed, nor keep from studying possible solutions of our difficulties, and before long" we were as deeply interested as before. In studying our troubles relating to lateral balance, we reasoned that possibly the trouble might be due to the fact that the wing to which an increased angle of incidence had been imparted would receive not only an increased lift, but also an increased backward pressure,or resistance and that this might sodecrease the speed of that wing that its lift would he reduced sufficiently from this cause lo wipe out the increase in lift, due to its greater angle of incidence. It is a well known law of aerodynamics that the lifting pressure varies as the square of the speed at which the aeroplane and wind strike each other so that if the wing of the greater angle lagged behind while the other wing gradually forged

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AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 6

TRADE DIRECTORY

BAMBOO

Deltuur, J., S04 Jefferson St., Hoboken, N. .[. BATTERIES

Apple Electric Co., Dayton. O. (Storage.) H. \V. Johns-Man ville Co., 41st St. and .Madison Ave., Xew York.

Vesta Accumulator Co., 2100 Indiana Ave., Chicago, 111. (Storage.)

Willard Storage Battery Co., 5718 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, O. (Storage.)

BEARINGS (PLAIN) AND BUSHINGS

American Bronze Co., Berwvn, Pa. ("Xon-Gran" bronze.)

Atkinson Co., The, 575 Lyeil Ave., Rochester, X. V. ("Superior" babbitt.)

Cramp, William, & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co., The, Beech and Ball Sts., Philadelphia, Pa.

Fahrig Metat Co., 34 Commerce St.. New York.

Levett, Walker A]., Co., lflth Ave. and 3Cth St., New York. I "Polar" metal.)

Magnolia Metal Co., 113 Bank St., New York.

Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.

Merchant & Evans Co., 517 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. BRAKES

Aircraft Co., The. 1737 Broadway, New York. Curtiss Aeroplane Co., 1200 Niagara St., Buffalo. X. Y. BRASS, BRONZE AND COFFER

American Brass Co., Waterbury, Conn. (Brass, copper, German silver: sheet, wire, rods and tubes.)

Bridgeport Brass Co., 100 Crescent Ave., Bridgeport, Conn. (Sheet, tube and wire.)

National Tube Co., Prick Bldg., Pittsburgh. Pa. (Brass fittings.)

Kandolph-CIowes Co.. Waterbury, Conn. (Sheet, rod, tubing.) BRAZING AND WELDING

A-Z Co., 527 W. 50th St.. New York.

American Tube & Stamping Co., Bridgeport, Conn.

Boston Brazing & Welding Co., 7S2 Eighth Ave., New York. (Oxy-acetvlene.)

Crosby Co., The, 171 Pratt St.. Buffalo. N. Y.

Pore River Ship Building Co., Quincv, Mass.

National Welding & Mfg. Co., 527 W. Jackson Blvd.. Chicago, 111.

Smith, William It., & Co.. 306 W. 52d St., Xew York.

Springfield Brazing & Welding Co., 10 Willow St., Springfield, Mass. BUMPERS

Goodrich, B. F., Akron, O.

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, O. CARBURETERS

Breeze Carbureter Co., 250 South St.. Newark, N. J. (Breeze; also air hose, flexible shafting, tire inflating tubing, check-valves and connections, carbureter tubing and push and pull coils.)

Byrne-Kingston & Co., Kokomo, lnd. (Kingston.) Pindeisen & Kropf Mfg. Co., 2100 S. Rockwell St., Chicago,

111. (Rayfield.) G. & A. Carbureter Co.. 142 E. 14th St., New York. (G. & A.) Holley Bros. Co.. 131 Rowena St.. Detroit, Mich. (Holley.) ltoltzer-Cabot Electric Co., 14 Station St., Brookline, Mass.

(Xewcomb.)

Master Carbureter Co., 944 Woodward Ave., Detroit, Mich. (Master.)

Wheeler* Schebler, Indianapolis, lnd. (Schebler.) Zenith Carbureter Co., foot of Vanda Ave., Detroit, Mich. (Zenith.)

(To be Continued)

ahead one wing would be moving at a different speed from the other and by reason of this speed would have a different lift; the slower wing of course having the lesser lift. We reasoned that if the speeds of the right and left wing could be controlled the advantage of the increased angle of incidence of one wing and the decreased angle of the other could he utilized as we had originally intended. Two ways of controlling the relative speeds of the wing tips were open to us; one consisting in providing means for creating variable resistance a; the wing tips at the will of the operato, so that the wing which tends to forge ahead could be retarded; the other consisted in providing a surface at the rear with which a torque about a vertical axis could he created to counterbalance that produced by the difference in resistance of the wing tips. We decided to use a surface at the rear on account of its greater dynamic efficiency since every pound of push in the propeller while with the surface at the rear exposed almost edgewise eight or ten pounds of turning power could be obtained at an expenditure of one pound backward resistance or one pound of propeller thrust.

And for the sake of simplicity we decided to use a fixed vertical vane as we reasoned that if the machine attempted to turn on a vertical axis the vane at the rear would be exposed more and more to the wind and would stop further turning of the machine as soon as the vane was exposed enough to receive a turning pressure equal to that produced in the opposite direction by the difference in the resistance of the wing tips when adjusted to different angles of incidence. Thus the vane would he exposed to the wind on the side towards the wing having the smaller angle of incidence. In the fall of 1902 we returned to Kitty Hawk with an apparatus fitted with a fixed vertical vane at the rear. When we tried the apparatus we found that under favorable conditions the apparatus performed as we had expected, so that we could control lateral balance or steer to the right or left by the manipulation of the wing tips. This was the first time in the history of the world that lateral balance had been achieved by adjusting wing tips to respectively different angles of incidence on the right and left sides. It was also the first time that a vertical vane had heen used in combination with wing tips adjustable to respectively different angles of incidence, in balancing and steering an aeroplane. Rut, as we proceeded with our experiments, we found that the expected results were not always attained. Sometimes the machine would turn up sidewise and come sliding to the ground in spite of all the warp that could be imparted to the wing tips. This seemed very strange. The apparatus would sometimes perform perfectly and at other times, without any apparent reason, would not perform at all. Every now and then it would come tumbling to the ground and make such a rough landing that we often considered ourselves

lucky to escape unhurt. By taking the chance over and over we finally began to notice the conditions under which the difficulty was liable to occur. It seemed that when the machine was tilted laterally it began to slide sidewise while advancing, in accordance with the well-known law of gravitation, just as a sled slides down hill or a ball rolls down an inclined plane, the speed increasing in an accelerated ratio. If the tilt happened to be a little worse than usual, or if the operator was a little, slow in

getting the balance corrected, the machine slid sidewise so fast that the side-wise movement of the machine caused the vertical vane to strike the wind on the side toward the low wing, instead of on the side toward the high wing, as it should have done. In this state of affairs, the vertical vane instead of counteracting the turning of the machine ahout a vertical axis, as a result of the difference of resistance of the warpea wings on the right and left sides, on the (To be Continued}

HEINRICH ARMORED MILITARY BIPLANE

EQUIPMENT 110 H. P. GYRO"DUPLEX"

Gyro-"Duplex" Motor

ADOPTED BY LEADING CONSTRUCTORS

110 H. P. Gyro, 9 cylinders, weight 270 pounds 90 H.P. Gyro, 7 cylinders, weight 215 pounds

GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

N. Y. Office: 331 Madison Avenue 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiy|iiii''iiiiiiiiiii;:T''liiiiiiiiiiiii!:!,llli!iiiiii;.....■■in.........iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii'm^iigiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiniiiii.......::iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiir;;iiiiiiiiiiiii":";ui

BURGESS- Military Aeroplane

DUNNE

Furnithed to

United States Great Britain Russia

Self-balancing

Self-steering

and

Non-capsizable

Form of wing gives an unprecedented arc of fire and range of observation.

Par excellence the weight and gun-carrying aeroplane of the World.

Tail-less and folding.

Enclosed nacelle with armored cockpit.

Speed range 40-80 miles per hour.

Climb 400 feet per minute.

Burgeii-Doone No. 3 Delivered to U. S. Arm, at Saa Dieio, December 30

THE BURGESS COMPANY, Marblehead, Mass.


No. 5, 1915, May

MAY 15, 1915

15 Cents

160 H.P. Model

Curtiss Motor Co.

HAMMONDSPORT

NEW YORK

The output of this model is sold for some weeks to come. Those desiring motors of this type should communicate with the factory at Hammondsport for the necessary arrangements for future deliveries.

All the important American records are held by the Curtiss Motor.

Modern factory methods and large facilities have developed Curtiss Motors to the highest degree of efficiency.

Simplicity of design and construction permit overhauling or repairing by any good mechanic, no special knowledge being required.

Light in weight, yet not so light that durability and strength are sacrificed. The factor of safety is large in Curtiss Motors.

�7885554

AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 7

TRADE DIRECTORY (Cont'd)

CASTINGS

American Car & Ship Hardware Mfg. Co., New Castle, Pa.

(Aluminum, brass and bronze.) Atkinson Co., The, Rochester, N, Y. (Brass, bronze and

aluminum. > Bethlehem Steel Co., South Bethlehem. Pa.

Cramp, William, & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co., The, Beach and Ball Sts., Philadelphia. Pa. (Brٮss and bronze.) Crayen, G. A., * Co., 81 New St., New York. (Magnalium,) Empire Foundry Co., New Brunswick, N. J. (Cylinder and pistons.)

Fore River Ship Building Corp., Quincy, Mass (Aluminum.) General Castings Co., 326 Fort Bldg., Detroit. .Mich. Levett, Walker M., Co., 10th Ave. and 30th St., New York.

("Magnalight" and "Magnalium.") Martin, Glenn I-.., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles,

Cal. (Brass and bronze.) Sturtevant P. P., Co., Hyde Park, Mass. (Aluminum, brass,

bronze and semi-steel.) U. S. Brass & Aluminum Foundry Co., Waukesha, Wis. P. S. McAdamite Metal Co., Isabella Ave., M. C. Ry., Detroit,

Mich. (McAdamite.)

DOPE

American Emaillite Co., Er>.ri W. Washington St., Chicago, 111. Ambroid Co., 350 Broadway, New York. Conover, C. E., Co., 101 Franklin St., New York. Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co.. Ithaca, N. Y.

ENGINEERS AND DESIGNERS

C. M. <>. Physical Laboratory, Buffalo, N. Y. Compton, Lewis R., 50 Church St.. New York. (Consulting Engineer.)

Manly. Charles M„ 250 W. 54th St., New Y'ork. (Experimental and development work.)

Motor Engineering Co., 16S0 \V. Third St., Cleveland, O. (Designing and building aeroplane motors.)

Tracy, Joseph, 17S6 Broadway, New York. (Motor Engineer.) (Steel cylinders.)

CHAINS AND SPROCKETS

Baldwin Chain & Mfg. Co., Worcester, Mass. Diamond Chain & Mfg. Co., 260 W. Georgia St., Indianapolis, Ind.

Frasse, Peter, it Co., 417 Canal St., New York. Miller. Chas. E., !i" Reade St.. New York. Whitney Mfg. Co., Hartford, Conn.

FABRICS

Baldwin, Capt. Tlios. S., P. O. Box 7S, Madison Sq. P. O., New York.

Boyle, Jno., K- Co,, 112 Duane St., New York. (Untreated cotton fabrics.)

Brown. John S., & Sons, Ltd., 21 White St., New Y'ork.

(Linen.)

Catoir Silk Co., 257 Fourth Ave., New York. Conover, C. E., Co., 101 Franklin St., New Y'ork. Curtin. John, Inc., 2 South St., New York. (Canvas.) Gary. Theo. II., Co., gy living Place, New York. ("Metzeler" fabrics.)

Goodrich, B. F., Co., Akron, O. ("Lumina" cloth.)

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, O.

Hutchinson-Scott Co.. 17 Battery Place. New York.

Rose & Prank Co.. 136 W. 21st St., New York.

White, James P., & Co., 56 Worth St., New Y'ork. (Linen.)

Wilson, Robert N., Port Jefferson, N. Y.

Wilson & Silsbe, Rowe's Wharf, Boston, Mass.

PEATHEREONE

Warren Featherbone Co.. Room 206, 44 E. 23d St., New Y'ork.

PIRE EXTINGUISHERS

H. W. Johns-Manville Co., 41st St. and Madison Ave., New York.

Pyrene Mfg. Co., 135S Broadway, New York.

AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 8

TRADE DIRECTORY (Cont'd)

GEARS

Brown & Sharpe, Providence, R. I.

Nilson-.Miller Co., 13th and Hudson Sts., Hohoken, N. J.

Smith, W. R., & Co., 306 W. 52d St., New York. GASOLINE FEED SYSTEMS

Stewart-Warner Speedometer Corp., 1826 Diversey Blvd., Chicago, 111. (Stewart vacuum gasoline system.) GLOVES

Auto Supply Co., 59th St. and Broadway, New York, GLUE

Ambroid Co., 350 Broadway, New York.

Ferdinand, L. W.. & Co.. 201 South St., Boston, Mass.

Westall, A. H., "Los Angeles, Cal.

Wisdom Glue Co.. The, 217 W. Lake St.. Chicago, 111. GOGGLES

Auto Supply Co., Broadway and 59th St., New Y'ork. Featherstone, E. A., Los Angeles, Cal. Meyrowitz, E. B., 237 Fifth Ave., New York.

HYDROGEN

International Oxygen Co., 68 Nassau St., New York. (Hydrogen, and hydrogen plants, oxygen.") Honeywell Balloon Co., 4460 Chouteau Ave., St. Louis, Mo. Stevens. A. Leo, 282 Ninth Ave., New York, (Generators.)

INSTRUMENTS

lmVlvler. Ernest II.. 30 Church St., New York. (Richard barometers, statoscopes. anemometers, manometers, etc.)

Elliott Bros., 1 Central Bldgs., Westminster, London, S. W., England. (Air speed indicators.)

General Acoustic Co., 220 W. 42d St., New Y'ork. (Avia-phone.)

llasler Telegraph Works, 2(i Victoria St., London, S. W., England.

Queen Gray Co., 616 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (Aneroids, compasses, ascent indicators.)

Sperry Gyroscope Co., 126 Nassau St.. Brooklyn, N. Y. (Sperry stabilizer.)

Stewart-Warner Speedometer Corp., 1826 Diversey Blvd., Chicago, 111.

LUBRICATORS

Lobee Pump & Machinery Co., Ill Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. Lunkenheimer Co., The, Cincinnati, O,

Pedersen Lubricator Co., 636 First Ave., New Y'ork. (Pumps, sight feeds, indicators.)

LUMBER

American Veneer Co., 55th, Clinton and Grand Sts., Hobo-ken, N. J. (Maple and white wood.) Anderson-Tully Co., Memphis, Tenn. (Veneers.) California Hard Wood Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Eggers Veneer Seating Co., Two Rivers, Wis. Grand Rapids Veneer Works, Grand Rapids, Mich. Hammond Lumber Co., Los Angeles, Cal.

Hoffman Bros. Co., 800 W. Main St.. Ft. Wayne. Ind. (Hardwood. )

Jordan Bros. Lumber Co., Norfolk, Va. (Cellar.) Louisville Veneer Mills. 1122 Fulton St., Louisville, Ky. Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles,

Cal. (Veneers.) Michigan Veneer Co., Alpena, Mich.

Shepard, H. G., & Sons, New Haven, Conn. (Bent wood and

ash dimension strips.) Y'oungs, William P., & Bros., First Ave. and 35th St., New

York.

MAGNETOS

Bosch Magneto Co., 243 W. 46th St.. New Y'ork. Briggs Magneto Co., Elkhart, Ind.

Carlisle & Finch Co., 229 E. Clifton Ave., Cincinnati, O. Connecticut Telephone & Electric Co.. Meriden. Conn. (Automatic igniter system; terminals and switches.)

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St., New York

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FRANK CASH Ass't Editor

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received b days before date of publication. 11 proof is to be shown, allowance must be made for receipt and return.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office il discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

TECHNICAL TALKS—By M. B. Sellers

OFFSET PLANES; CONSTANTIN PROFILE

M. Eiffel found.* for two planes directly superposed, that the unit lift was less than for a single plane, the difference being small for small angles of attack, and increasing with the angle up to about 6 degrees. Between 6 and 10 degrees the reduction in lift is maximum and almost independent of the angle. For a cambered biplane with the gap equal to the chord, the loss is 23 per cent. The loss is greater for flat than for cambered surfaces.

The unit drift is approximately the same for two superposed planes as for a single plane.

In a later experiment M. Eiffel found that the loss in lift was almost entirely in the lower plane, and this has led some to the conclusion that if the lower plane were advanced (offset forward), the lift of the combination would be increased.

But experiment seems to show that this is not the case. M. Eiffel experimented with two planes, set at various distances apart vertically, and offset both forward and backward.t and found that when the top plane was offset forward the highest lift was ob-

*Resistanee de I'Air et VAviation, p. 69. ■^Resistance de 1'Air et 1'Aviation, p. 179.

served and when set back the lowest lift was shown. Very little difference in lift and efficiency was observed for the three positions, and he concludes that offsetting is of small advantage.

In the report of the British Advisory Committee for 1912, p. 73, it is stated that there was slight gain, S per cent, ill setting the top plane forward, and a loss in setting it back.

In 1903 I made experiments with offset planes in my 3-foot wind tunnel, and repeated them in 1906 in my 30-inch tunnel; the results were however not published till 1910 (Aeronautics, Feb. 1910, p. 42). Here also the greatest lift was with the higher plane set forward. I also tried three planes superposed and offset with similar results, except that the loss in lift was greater than with two.

My attention has been called to a communication in British Aeronautics, Sept., 1913, by A. Tcherschersky, who states that with models he obtained the greatest lift with the top plane set back; but that with the top plane set forward he got the best gliding angle, that is, more efficiency. It seems that these experiments were made with flying or gliding models, and if that is so, they

could hardly be classed with the other experiments as to accuracy. The communication does not state how the tests were made.

Referring now to another matter which may be of interest, the Constants Wing Profile, it will be remembered that M. Constantin advocated a concavity on the upper side of the leading edge, intended to deflect the air upward, so as to increase the rarifaction above the wing and thus augment the lift. M. Consantin reported a very considerable gain in lift and efficiency due to this form of leading edge, but some other experimenters and manufacturers, according to reports, have had discouraging results, and have it seems, abandoned its use.

[it his recent work of 1914, M. Eiffel gives results of experiments with this device (p. 119) which show an improvement in lift and efficiency, especially with thick wing sections. With some wings tested there was very little gain, and, in case of the wing No. 35 at least, it seems to me that just as much improvement could be had by merely sharpening the leading edge in the usual way. Considering all information at hand it would seem that the Constantin profile has not fulfilled expectations.

A WING PROFILE OF GREAT UNIT LIFT

M. Kauffman in Acrophile (Jan. 1, 1915) publishes the data of a curve giving a high lift together with a moderate drift. The upper camber is 1/10 of the chord and the maximum thickness is 1/15 of the chord.

Its section is shown in Fig 1. The center of pressure curve has the nsual trend; at 1 degree the c. of p. is at the center of the wing; at 6 degrees it is 37 per cent from the leading edge; and it reaches its forward limit at 12 degrees, where it is 33 per cent from the leading edge.

It is seen that the maximum lift-drift ratio is nearly 14/ (for a lift of .05) ; the maximum lift is nearly .OS in metric units which is greater than the pressure

TfMIPVMflNN PRDFTT.F. -

Lift-drift- and drift-ratio

   

Ky

 

0" 3' 6° 9° 12°

0.0028 0.0036 0.0055 0.0075 0.0098

Fig

0.0305 0.0483 0.0604 0.0673 0.0726

2

0.092 0.075 0.091 0.111 0.135

on a normal plane, which is about .068. Figure 2 gives the lift-drift and drift-ratios.

This vvingis, therefore, suitable for machines designed to carry great weight per square foot.

65

CLEMENT-BAYARD ARMORED MONOPLANE

This monoplane, intended chiefly for the needs of the cavalry and artillery, is so constructed as to he quickly assembled and taken down, the wings being arranged to fold back along the fuselage.

The fuselage is of steel tubing, pentagonal forward and triangular aft. All the forward portion comprising engine, etc., is protected by an armor 1 milli-mer thick (about 1/25 of an inch).

The wings are very strongly constructed ; the spars are pressed from a single piece of sheet nickel steel. The ribs alone are of wood. The chassis comprises a pair of struts on each side of the fuselage placed V shape, and held apart at their bottom by two horizontal tubes. 1 let ween these tubes is the axle, jointed at its middle, and held at its ends by rubber shock absorbing bands, thus permitting the wheels to yield independently.

There is no fixed empennage, but only a balanced elevator. All controls arc instinctive; contiol wires are flexible steel cables.

To permit the wings to fold hack the forward upper and lower wing guys are respectively attached to a piece rigidly fastened to the fuselage by the tightening of a screw. The loosening of these

two screws permits the folding back of the wings without affecting the adjustment of the guys. The motor, in front

of fuselage, is fed by a small gravity tank, supplied by air pressure from the main tank.

- CLEMENT--0AYARD *

NIEUPORT ARMORED MONOPLANE

This Nieuport is provided on the left side with an armor 2>y2 nun. thick. (This one sitled protection complies with the requirements specified for armored aeroplanes.) On the same side on the upper longitudinal of the fuselage is mounted a rapid lire gun. The motor is also protected by a strong hood.

The ensemble of the machine is similar in every way to the current type; same chassis, similar fuselage, empennage and wings. The propeller is provided with a beak in the form of a spherical cap: this carries blades so con-stituated as to project air into the hood to cool the motor.

MILUPORT'

PEOLI COMPANY

TO MARKET MOTOR

Owing to the death of Cecil Peoli. the Peoli Aeroplane Corporation, of 31 Nassau street. New York, will cease the manufacturing of aeroplanes and expects to handle the selling of the Raus-enberger motor through the Import and Exporting Trading Company, of the above address. It is expected that a thorough test of the latest motor designed by Rattsenberger, a 12-cylinder, 140-h.p. affair, will be made at the Automobile Club of America's testing plant. This is the motor which Peoli has last been using.

Note of this change should be made in the Trade Directorv Data Sheets.

The Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. of Ithaca, N. Y., has recently received an order for 12 machines for foreign shipment and other orders are expected.

Sperry fined for speeding.—Headline.

Better stick to the air. The aerial cops do not have to make arrests to hold their jobs.

"Too Proud to Fight.*'—President iriison.

That might sound all right if we had a small army, something better in the way of a navy and a few aeroplanes. There may be a time when it won't be a matter of pride, but one of necessity. Less grape juice and more grape !

THE STORY OF FLIGHT*

contrary assisted in its turning movement and the result was worse than when the vertical vane was absent. We felt that if this were a true explanation, it would be necessary to make the vertical vane movable, in order that the pressure on the side toward the low-wing might he relieved and the pressure brought to bear on the side toward the high wing. We spent several days in experimenting to make sure this was the real cause of the difficulty. Meanwhile, my brother, in thinking about the matter, noted that a particular relation existed in the desired pressures on the rudder no matter whether the troubles were due to difference of resistance of the wing tips or whether they were due to sliding. Tn either case it was desirable to get rid of the pressure on the side toward the low wing to which a greater angle of incidence must be imparted, in restoring lateral balance, and brought to bear on the side of the vertical tail which is toward the high wing to which the reduced angle of incidence must be imparted in such case. For the sake of simplicity we. therefore, decided to attach the wires controlling the vertical tail to the wires warping the wing, so that the operator instead of having to control three things at once, would have to attend to only the forward horizontal rudder and the wing-warping mechanism; and only the latter, alone, would be needed for controlling lateral balance. We now had the structure in the form pictured and described in the drawings and specifications of the pateni (lately) in suit. With this apparatus we made nearly 70 glides in the two or three weeks following. We flew it in calms and we flew it in winds as high as thirty-five miles an hour. We steered it to right, or left, and performed all the evolutions necessary for flight. This was the first time in the history of the world that a movable vertical tail had been used in controlling the direction or the halance of a flying machine. It was also the first time that a movable vertical tail had been used, in combination with wings adjustable to different angles of incidence, in controlling the balance and direction of an aeroplane. We were the first to functionally employ a movable vertical tail in a flying aeroplane. We were the first to employ wings adjustable to respectively different angles of incidence in a flying earo-plane. We were the first to use the two in combination in a flying aeroplane. ! (The Wright brothers now felt that the problem of human flight was solved and work was started on the application for a patent and design of a motor driven aeroplane with a 12 H. P., 200-pound gasoline motor, wdiich, like the aeroplane, was made by the Wrights themselves. This was assembled at Kitty Hawk the latter end of 1903 and on the l"th of December four successful flights were made, the last having a

*Begun in the April 30th Issue

By WILBUR WRIGHT

duration of 59 seconds, flying a distance of c'50 feet against a 20-mile wind.)

The operator controlled the front horizontal rudder (elevator) with his hands and simultaneously controlled the adjustment of the wings and the adjustment of the vertical tail, or rudder, by a single movement of the cradle in which his hips rested (the operator lying prone). The vertical tail wires and the wing warping wires were interconnected, as in the patent specification, and neither could he moved without the other.

While our patent application was pursuing its slow course through the Patent Office, we bnilt a second machine and flew it in a field near the city of Dayton, Ohio, in the summer and autumn of ll|04. When we had familiarized ourselves with the operation of the machine in more or less straight flights, we decided to try a complete circle. At first we did not know just how much movement to give in order to make a circle of a given size. On the first three trials we found that we had started a circle on too large a radius to keep within the boundaries of the small field in which we were operating. Accordingly, a landing was made each time, without accident, merely to avoid passing beyond the boundaries of the field. On the fourth trial, made the 20th of September, a complete circle was made, and the machine was brought safely to rest after having passed the starting point. Thereafter we repeatedly made circles and on the 9th of November made four circles of the field in a flight lasting a few seconds over 5 minutes. In all these flights the warping wires and the wires controlling the rudder were interconnected.

In order to circle to the left, we moved the cradle slightly to the left thus turning the tail slightly t > the left and imparting an increased angle to the right wing and a smaller angle to the left wing. This caused the machine to tilt so that the left wing was lower than the right wing, which, of course, in turn caused the machine to slide somewhat to the left. This side movement of the machine tended to cause the vertical rudder to strike the air at a greater angle than was necessary to compensate for the difference in resistance of the right and left wings. This tendency caused the tail to lag hehind in this lateral movement just as the feather ot an atrow causes the feathered end to lag behind when the arrow is dropped side-wise. Thus, the lateral movement of the main aeroplane sideways, as the result of tipping, became combined with the rotary movement about its vertical axis, due to the vane-like action of the tail, and the machine proceeded on a circular course. But as the speed of the outside wing increased, and that of the inside wing decreased by reason of the fact that the inner wing was traveling in a smaller circle than the outside wing, there was tendency to tilt too much and

this was corrected by gradually moving the cradle toward the high wing, thus increasing the angle on the low wing and decreasing the angle of the high wing and also setting the rudder over toward !',,<. high wing. This was done gradually and only sufficiently to prevent the low wing from sinking lower and not enough to bring it back t<> the level.

The machine then continued to circle to the lelt, with the vertical tail set over somewhat to the right, so that the machine turned in the opposite direction to that in which a ship would have turned with the ship's rudder set over to the right. When it was desired to stop circling, a sudden movement of the cradle toward the high side gave the wings an increased warp and brought the machine up to the level. Then, on setting the cradle back to its central position, thus restoring the wings and tad to their central positions, the machine proceeded in a straight line, with the wings level.

With this machine we made approximately a hundred flights in the year 1°04. 1_ stially the machine responded promptly when we applied the control for restoring lateral balance, but on a few occasions the machine did not respond promptly and the machine came to the ground in a somewhat tilted position. The cause of the difficulty proved to Le very obscure and the season of 1904 closed without any solution of the puzzle.

In 1905 we built another machine and resumi d experiments in the same field near Dayton. Ohio. Our particular object was to clear tip the mystery which we had encountered on a few occasions during the preceding year. During all the flights we had made up to this time we kept close to the ground, usually within ten feet of the ground, in order that in case we met any new and mysterious phenomena we could make a sate landing. With only one life to spend we did not consider it advisable to attempt to explore mysteries at such great height from the ground that a fall would put an end to our investigations and leave the mystery unsolved.

The machine had reached the ground, in the peculiar cases I have mentioned, too soon for us to determine whether the trouble was due to slowness of the correction or whether it was due to a change of conditions, which would have increased in intensity, if it had continued, until the machine would have been entirely overturned and quite beyond the control of the operator. Consequently, it was necessary, or at least advisable, to discover the exact cause of the phenomena before attempting any high flights.

For a long time we were unable to determine the peculiar conditions under which this trouble was to be expected. But as time passed we began to note that it usually occurred when we were turning a rather short circle. We therefore,

(Continued on pasr? 79)

A ROMANCE OF AVIATION—By Hamlet Pantalone

A Springtime Idyll in Five Acts

DRAMATIS PERSONAE

An aeronautical magazine Another one

Chorus of advertisers, subscribers, creditors and other hoi polloi

Time: Act I, II, III and IV, present; Act V, indefinite future

ACT I

The First Revelation of Love

"... Evidently there is a large, double-acting sledge hammer working overtime up on Madison Avenue. . . ."

—****** Aeroplane Company.

ACT II The First Kiss

"... But you will be interested in knowing that FLYING ij the on-ly aeronautical magazine published. . . ."

—Excerpt from letter to one of the largest advertising agencies in this country written by one of the Dramatis Pcrsonae.

ACT III

The Lovers Are United

U>Hiit tit fcrnry IDu(i61)OUi(

anil

Aero (filub of Amrrira tSuUrtiu 29r jSodiBMi Aornur Nnn tlark (Cily

Merah 3, 1916.

Aeroplane Co.

You hevB probably reed thet 1 have eaqoirad the mailing list of the defunct eeronautiael weekly "AERO & HYDRO".

As tha general opinion is that ns need a weekly, and there ie certainly some importent nark for it to do, 1 have arranged to reeome ths publication of the weekly under the name of "AERIAL AGE" - the neme of the month" published in 1912, which, in 1913.

I regret exceedingly thet I have been unehle to make e oomhinetion inoluding "AIRCRAFT" end "AERONAUTICS," as I nae aBked to do by moat of the annetraot-ore. while "AIRCRAFT" has e oiroulatioo of unly 1000, including the nens-etend eelea, end ie run es e elds proposition in the office of a email eoles concern, I could not effaot en arrangement. The dahte of that magazine emouut to $10,000; and the etoakholdere number over one dozen. I oould not eaaome thet liehility. "AERONAUTICS" i3 four monthe behind end haTing a oirouletiun of only 600 ie oat worth the amount of obligations to he met In taking it up. Considering all this I dooided that it would bB baet to Invest the rasouroae et my disposal to turn oat a good weekly.

With best regards and wlshee I remain,

Yoore very oordielly.

ACT IV The First Quarrel

PERCY G. B. MORRISS

722-724 CONSUMERS BUILDING

CHICAGO

March 11, 1915.

Mr. Henry Vtoodhouae, i:«w York City.

Dear 31r:

(Copy)

"y attention haB been called to your circular letter of March third In which you atate that you have acquired ths mailing Hat of AERO Aim HYDRO.

As a creditor of llosl & Company, owners of AERO a::D HYDRO, I have an Interest In any of the aeaete of this company and anyone at all acquainted knows that the mailing list of a magazine represents a cor.aideratle asaet.

Sines the receipt of your letter of March third, I and other creditors have inatltuted a careful inveetlcration to find out how thie mailing list got out of the AERO AKD HYDRO offios and we are aatiafled that if this list is out It has been stolen, as no one had authority to sell or give you this SBBSt.

The Court will be asked to take charge of this business and at the same time the creditors will aek ths Court to take cognizance of the fact that part of the aassts have been hypothecated.

It is not my intention to say whether or not you should go ahead and uae thia list in view of the above facte, but the creditors will certainly InelBt that you make restitution for the use of the mailing Hat.

A word from you ae to whether or not you expect to reimburse the creditors for thia aaast will be appreciated.

Youre very truly,

PCBM.HO

ACT V

And They Lived Happy Forever Thereafter

While meandering about seeking inspiration, the author unfortunately fell into Salt Creek. Owing to this melancholy accident, a year's subscription to the Armchair Aviator's Revue will be awarded for the best MS. completing this moving heart story.

Criminal Libel Defined—Punishment

A malicious publication, by writing, printing * * * * or otherwise than by mere speech * * * * which has a tendency to injure any person, corporation ****in*4:»* business or occupation, is a libel. —Sec/ion 1340, Penal Code.

A person who publishes a libel, is guilty of a misdemeanor.

—Section 1341, Penal Code.

-Letter sent to advertising patrons of Aeronautics.

The punishment for a misdemeanor is SSOO fine or a year in prison, or both.

Page 71

OF AMERICA 29 West 39th Street, New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

E3

LEE S. BURRIDGE An Appreciation

In the formative period of practical aero-dynamics, when a significant tapping of the forehead invariably accompanied the slightest disclosure of an interest in "flying machines." it required the application of more than ordinary moral courage to become not only identified with, but a leader in, a movement hitherto treated solely with ridicule and derision.

Realizing that mechanical flight had been proven and its fundamental principles established, Lee S. Burridge entered into the aeronautical art in his characteristically whole-hearted way with the firm conviction that the time had come to reduce the movement to a practical basis and until his passing away was unswerving in his fealty to this purpose. Possessing the rare combination of inventor and successful business man, he also had a keen insight into the future and contributed both his time and money to the introduction of the aeroplane as a commercial proposition at a time when the future of aeronautics was exceedingly dark.

It has been my privilege to have been associated with Mr. Burridge for many years, both in business and in the aeronautical movement, and retrospect brings into review a multitude of kindly acts, innumerable instances of financial assistance to inventors, many personal sacrifices and the knowledge that all were blended into a real and sincere desire to foster the art of aviation and not for personal aggrandizement or profit. There was a predominant note of sincerity in all his gifts to aeronautics, which were not advertised, but given in the true spirit of philanthropy, more often secretly than merely hidden from view.

In 1908, when the world at large still received the stories of the Wright brothers' flights with doubt and scepticism, and even aero clubs then in vogue refused to lend their support to aviation. Mr. Burridge became one of a coterie of enthusiasts wdio had faith in the future which brought about the organization of the Aeronautical Society of which he was the first president.

The organization of this society and its distinctive purpose very quickly changed the attitude of the public toward aerial things and ridicule and derision became a thing of the past when a flying field was obtained and the first Curtiss aeroplane ever built was purchased by a small syndicate formed by Air. Burridge among the members of the society. With characteristic generosity, Mr. Burridge contributed the major portion of the money necessary to purchase this machine, which was sent on tour throughout the United States and Canada under the auspices of the Aeronautical Society to show the public that the flying machine was a fact and not the dream of mentally unbalanced inventors.

This tour unquestionably brought about the start of a very important and rapidly growing industry which bids fair to make radical changes in transportation methods.

History in the making is very often overlooked by those who are identified with it and it therefore may be well to note here that the commission to build this machine was given to Glenn H. Curtiss before a practical aeroplane had been built for public sale and that it was due to the success of this machine that a duplicate was built which enabled Curtiss to win the first Gordon-Bennett International Race from Bleriot. who later became famous in aeroplane work.

When this first aeroplane had fulfilled its mission of education it was sold, and it is known by very few that Mr. Burridge donated his share of the proceeds ill such a way that those associated with him never knew that he assumed a large loss.

When the practical early stage of the art of flying in America is chronicled, the personality of Lee S. Burridge will stand out commandingly as that of an earnest and consistent patron, whose faith was never shaken, and whose efforts were untiring in promoting further development.

Mr. Burridge has been a moving spirit in the Aeronautical Society since its inception and his was the first pocket-book opened when funds were needed for new plans, or to meet the expenses of old. and his loss will be increasingly felt as time goes on.

He was also a member of the Aeronautical Engineers' Society, the Automobile Club of America, the National Geographic Society and the Aero Club. He was president of the Aeronautical Society for two terms.

In taste very democratic, unaffected in manner and loyal in friendship, he endeared himself to those with whom he came in contact and who will miss

his wise counsel and unstinted help and grieve because of the passing away in his prime of a true gentleman and lovable companion.—C. Wesley Howell, Jr.

[Mr. Burridge died at his home, 160 West 54th Street, New York, on Mav 4th. ]

AERO SCIENCE CLUB

The new officers elected at the recent meeting of the Aero Science Club of America are as follows: C. V. Obst. President; George P.auer. Vice-President; W. H. Phipps, 2nd Vice-President; Frank Broomfield, Treasurer; George^ A. Cavanagh, Secretary; G. F. McLaughlin, Assistant Secretary; Edward Durant, Director.

At a recent meeting of the membership committee of this cluh the rules relating to membership were amended as follows:

"Applicants for membership must be proposed in writing by a member in good standing in the A. S. C, such proposal to be seconded in writing by another member before the application can be considered."

At a recent date a speed contest was held by this club which was not as "speedy" as members had hoped it to be. In fact, none of tlie models entered seemed to have acquired a disposition to fly in a straight line and, despite the energetic persuasion of the owners, refused so to do. While flying was plentiful, straight and speedy flying was not to be seen. Among those present were J. McMahon. with a novel four-propellered machine, which was speedy enough on the ground, but refused to take the air for reasons best known to itself. Mr. George A. Cavanagh was also present with a model which was here, there and everywhere but in the right place and finally ended in splinters. Ness, of Long Island, was present with the large tractor whicli was a perfectly good tractor, but not for a speed contest. Another distinguishing feature was Free-lar. o£ Long Island, who placed the lives of the spectators in grave danger with his erratic glider. Let us trust that the next speed contest will be a "speed" contest in every sense of the word.

A new contest is being arranged, known as the "Efficiency Contest," and it promises to be one of the greatest ever held in the history of model flying. Rules are being made for the same and as soon as completed will he made known.

Looks like the Annual Aerial Derby didn't get past the first annual.

The Harvard Aeronautical Society-has recently been reorganized. Earl H. Bean is secretary, at 7 Harvard Union, Cambridge, Mass.

The Aero Club of Pittsfield, Mass., affiliated with the Aero Club of America, is "practically disbanded." The Aero Club of Ohio, at Canton, is another affiliated club, which "exists technically, but practically is out of existence," according to an informant. This is most regrettable.

THE OBST MONOPLANE FLYING BOAT

By HARRY SCHULTZ

The subject of our drawings this issue is the Ubst Monoplane Flying Boat, the official world's record holder for models of this type (record, 25 seconds, rising from the water).

This model was constructed by Chas. V. Obst, re-elected president of the Aero Science Club of America for his second term.

As is the case with all Air. Obst's models, this one is of excellent construction and workmanship throughout and. up to the present date, has easily proven a winner in all contests entered.

The fuselage consists of a single stick of balsa. 30 in. in length and 1l> in. by % in. in thickness at the centre, tapering slightly at each end. The hooks for the reception of the rubber motors are situated at the front end of the stick and are bound and glued thereon. The propeller bar is of split bamboo. 8 in. in length, ]i in. in width and 1/16 in. in thickness, carefully streamlined. The rear end of the fuselage stick is slotted and the propeller bar placed in the slot and bound and glued securely therein. Extending at an angle from 1 *4 in. from each end of the propeller bar to the main stick, are diagonal bamboo

braces Vs

in width and thickness.

carefully streamlined. The joints are made as before mentioned with thread and glue, the glue being of the waterproof kind. Situated on each end of the propeller bar are suitable bearings consisting of % in. lengths of brass tubing 1/16 in. diameter. These bearings are very securely bound and glued to the ends of the propeller bar as a great strain is placed upon them. The propeller shaft, of steel piano wire, passes through these bearing with a rather close fit so that the shaft freely rotates therein without undue looseness or binding. Placed between the propeller and bearings are a few small copper washers to minimize friction, and the outer end of the shaft is threaded for the reception of a nut which holds the propeller securely on the shaft. On the inner end of the shafts suitable hooks are formed for the reception of the rubber strands, of which there are ten, of %-in. flat rubber on each side.

The propellers measure 7Vi in. in diameter with an approximate pitch of 15 in. A face view of one of these propellers is shown in the figure. They are cut from solid blocks of soft white pine and a rather deep camber is placed in the blades. The tips of the blades are covered with fibre paper for protection and the entire propeller are given several coats of "dope."

The boat or hull is constructed of

15 in. long, 3 in. wide and 1 in. in depth at the step, which is situated 6 in. from the bow of the boat. The stap is 1u' in. in depth. The drawing shows the method of interior construction of the boat. Saw cuts are made in the side strips and cross braces, 1/32 in. in thickness and Va in. in width, of yellow

pine, are glued therein as shown, making a strong and sturdy structure. The hull is secured to the main stick by bamboo braces Vs in. sq., streamlined, extending upwardly at an angle and then straight, as shown. These braces are 6 in. in length, the front pair being situated 3-VJ in. from the bow of the boat; the rear pair 2fy$ in. from the stern. Both pairs of braces are connected by a semi-circular strip of bamboo 3 in. up from the top of the boat, and a diagonal bamboo brace, 1/32 in., streamlined, extends from this bamboo strip on the front pair of upright braces to the bow of the boat.

The "balancers," or auxiliary pontoons, are constructed as above set forth with respect to the main pontoon, their construction being shown in the figure. They are connected by a streamlined bamboo strip, 13 in. long and 3/16 in. by Vs in. in thickness, this strip be-

ing situated Vi in. from the front of these balancing pontoons, and extends across the upper side of the main pontoon Sv2 in. from its bow, where it is held by rubber bands. The balancers measure in. in width, 5^ in. in depth and 2'i in. in length, the slope of the same being shown in the drawings. All of the pontoons are covered with fibre paper and coated with varnish until they are thoroughly waterproof.

The main plane has a span of 24 in., a chord of 4 in. at the center and 3 in. at the tips and a slight dihedral angle. It is built up entirely of split bamboo. The main beam is ]JA in. back from the entering edge and placed on top of the ribs. The ribs are approximately 3 in. apart, with the exception of the two ribs adjacent the center of the plane, which are 1 in. apart, so that the framework of the plane is strong at that point where it is secured by rubber bands to the main stick or fuselage. The front plane, or elevator, has a span of 10T/> in., a chord of 3 in. at the center and 2]z in. at the tips. It is constructed in the same manner as the main plane, with the exception of the fact that it has no dihedral angle and the two ribs adjacent the center of the plane are in. apart and the space between these two ribs is not covered, but left open for the reception of the fuselage or the main stick therein. A small keel is placed under the stick at its front end, as shown, and consists of a single strip of bamboo bent to form. The planes and keel are covered with fibre paper and coated with varnish until waterproof. Both planes and the main pontoon are secured to the main stick or fuselage by rubber bands which afford adjustable and flexible joints.

yellow pine 1/32

thickness an!

You

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You

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100 H.P. 200 H.P.

340 lbs. - $1,250 690 lbs. - $1,850

A "Q-D" Motor—Simple—No Vibration—10-Hour Test for Every Motor—Guaranteed to Stand More Abuse and Heavy Work with Less Attention than Any Other Motor.

All it Wants is Gasoline and Spark. Send for New Circular

Roberts Motor Manufacturing Company

300 ROBERTS MOTOR BLOCK SandusK.y, Ohio, U. S. A.

ROBERTS Motors

WE ARE HEADQUARTERS

for model aeroplanes, accessories and supplies Very complete catalog free on request

WadingRiverMfg. Co.

Wading River, N. Y.

Safest and Most Practical

THE PARAPLANE

A few of its patented iU. S. and forripn) features:—Inherent Stability. Dual Motors, Controls and Propellers which can he worked independent of each other. Propellers and Control so arranged that machine will fiy just as readily with a single Propeller. Greater Lifting Power, Changeable Anele of Incidence.

Especially Designed for Governmental and Private Use Literature on ntjitest PARISANO AERIAL NAVIGATION CO. OF AMERICA. INC. 220 West 42nd Street New York City

WANTED—An old and, possibly, a wrecked aeroplane with motor at a fair price? Same is desired for the use only in the laboratory for class demonstration, and not for flying purposes. Address Box 146, X. D. Agricultural College. X. Dak.

6-CYLIXDER SO-h.p. Maximotor in fine condition. Complete with Mea magneto and propeller hub, $525.00, taken in trade on a new Roberts. Address R, c/o Aeronautics. 2t

4-CYLIXDER 50-h.p. Roberts with propeller hub and Bosch magneto, $450.00. thoroughly overhauled and guaranteed. Address R, c/o Aeronautics. 2t

' III!!' "

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

THE WRIGHT FLYING SCHOOL

Located at Dayton opens May 1st, for the season of 1915. Tuition $250. No other charges of any kind. Enroll now. Booklet on request.

The Wright Company

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Pie

St.

animal iiiiiiiiiiuniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiift

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AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 9

TRADE DIRECTORY

Detroit Elec. Appliance Co., 232 W. Fort St., Detroit, Mich. Dow Mfg. Co., 131 Adams St., Braintree, llass. Eisemann Magneto Co.. 215 AV. 55th St.. New York. Elkhart Mfg. Co., First St. and Conant Ave., Monroe, Mich. Ericsson Mfg. Co., 1121 Military Rd.. Buffalo, N. Y. (Berling.l Herz & Co., Lafayette St., New Y'ork. Heinzc Electric Co., Lowell. Mass.

K. AV. Ignition Co., 2S33 Chester Ave., Cleveland, O. Marburg Bros., 1790 Broadway, New Y'ork. (Mea.l McCarthy Bros. & Ford, 41 E. Eagle St., Buffalo, N. Y. Motsinger Devices Mfg. Co., S15 Market St., Lafayette, Ind. National Coil Co., Lansing, Mich. Remy Electric Co.. Anderson, Ind. Simms Magneto Co., 17S0 Broadway, New York. Splitdorf, C. S., Co.. US Warren St., Newark, N. .T. Sumter Electrical Co., Sumter, S. C. Swiss Magneto Co., 3021 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. Tritt Electric Co., Union City, Ind. Western Electric Co.. 4C3 West St., New Y'ork. AA'itherhee Igniter Co., Springfield, Mass. MODELS

Ideal Aeroplane Supply Co., S4 West Broadwav, New York. Model Supply House, 503 Fifth Ave., New York. AA'ading River Mfg. Co., AA'ading River, N. Y. MODEL AND PATTERN WORKS

Dressier, Charles E., 3SG Second Ave., New York. General Pattern & Model Co., 17S Centre St., New York. Nilson-Miller Co., 13th and Hudson Sts., Hoboken, N. J. Trenton Pattern Works, Monmouth and Canal Sts., Trenton, N. J.

MOTORS

Adams Co., The, Dubuque, la. (Adams-Farwell 5-cyl. revolving.)

Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co., Avondale, N. J.

Aircraft Co.. 1737 Broadway, New York. (Sloane-Daniel.)

Ashmusen Mfg. Co.. Woonsocket, R. 1.

Bates Aero Motor Co., 104 AV. Oak St., Chicago, 111.

Burgess Co., The, Marblehead, Mass. (Burgess-AArhite.)

Curtiss Motor Co., Hammondsport, N. Y.

Duesenberg Motor Co., St. Paul, Minn.

Grinnell Aeroplane Co., Grinnell, la. (Robinson radial.) Gyro Motor Co., 331 Madison Ave., New York; 774 Girard St.,

Washington, D. C. Hall-Scott Motor Car Co., Crocker Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. Harriman Motors Co., South Glastonbury. Conn. Herfurth Engine Co., Alexandria, A'a. (Emerson.) Import & Export Trading Co., 31 Nassau St., New York.

(liausenberger.) Johnson Bros. Motor Co., Terre Haute, Ind. Kemp Machine Works, Muncie, Ind. Maximotor Makers, Detroit, Mich.

Motor Engineering Co.. 1GS6 W. Third St., Cleveland O.

(Specialists in design and building of aeroplane motors.) Nilson-Miller Co., 13th and Hudson Sts., Hoboken, N. J.

(Special gasoline motors.) Roberts Motor Mfg. Co., Sandusky, O. Selvage Motor Co., Eureka, Cal.

Sterling Engine Co., 1252 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. Sturtevant Co.. B. F., Hyde Park. Mass. Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., Ithaca, N. Y. Tracy, Joseph, 17S6 Broadway. (One-piece steel cylinders.) Trebert, II. L. F., Engine AVorks, 495 St. Paul St., Rochester, N. Y.

World's Motor Co., Hippodrome Theatre Bldg., Peoria, 111.

( Freilrickson.) Wright Co., The, Dayton, O.

OILS AND GREASES

Baker Castor Oil Co., 100 AA'illiam St., New York. N. Y. Lubricating Oil Co., 116 Broad St., New York. ("Monogram" oils and greases.)

NAVY BUYS AIRSHIP

The purchase of the navy's first dirigible was approved on May 14 by Secretary Daniels, who awarded a contract for the manufacture of one to the Connecticut Air Craft Company, of New Haven, Conn. This company submitted a bid of $45,636.25. Four bids were received, but complete data and specifications were submitted only with the bids of the Connecticut Air Craft Company and the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, and of these two bids the

Connecticut Air Craft Company's was the lower. The specifications require delivery within four months, so that by early fall this airship will be in use at the aeronautic station, Pensacola, Fla.

It will be recalled that the last naval appropriation bill was the first to carry a specific appropriation for aeronautics, the amount of the appropriation being $1,000,000. Since the passage of this act the department has been active in the development of this arm of the service,

and only last week received from the Curtiss Company two new hydroaeroplanes, which were delivered about two months after the order was given.

Contracts for the construction of three other hydroaeroplanes were recently awarded to the Burgess Company, and these three craft will be ready for delivery early this summer. ( See Aeronautics, April 30.) Specifications for three additional hydroaeroplanes are about ready for publication and bids for their construction will be invited shortly. The three machines are designed for the training of officers and men. and are expected to be ready for use by the new class of aviators which will be assembled in July.

Within a few days it is expected that contracts will also be awarded for a floating dirigible shed designed to accommodate the dirigible, for which contract has just been awarded. Specifications for a hydrogen plan being prepared and bids for its construction will also be invited within a very short time.

The armored cruiser North Carolina, now in Eastern Mediterranean waters, will be relieved in about ten days by the cruiser Des Moines. Upon her return to the United States she will be overhauled and immediately thereafter will be ordered to Pensacola to act as aviation ship. Upon the arrival of the North Carolina and the completion of all the contracts mentioned, the aeronautic station at Pensacola will be ready in a few months to proceed on a larger scale than ever before in the training of officers and men for aeronautical service.

The dirigible ordered is designed to carry eight men, four of which will be the crew, making it possible to carry four student observers. The dirigible will be 175 feet in length and 55 feet in height and will have a gas capacity of HQ 000 cubic feet. She is designed for a speed of 25 miles an hour, and at any time her radius of action, which is about two hours, can be about doubled by replacing the weight of the extra men with the same weight of gasoline.

Specifications for this airship were printed in the March 30th issue of Aeronautics. The bids made and prices quoted were printed in the April 30th issue.

De Lloyd Thompson, the well-known exhibition flyer, who has so successfully accomplished the feat of looping the loop and flying up-side-down, and who has raced with Barney Oldfield, was in New York for a day last week and placed an order with the Aircraft Company, Inc., for a complete equipment of Sloane aeroplanes for this work. The machines will be of the tractor biplane type, equipped with rotary motors of 90 h.p. The equipment will be delivered in about three weeks' time.

Mr. Thompson has a very busy season ahead of him, as he is supreme in his field.

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY

Books and Advice Free

Send sketch or model for search. Highest references. Best Results. Promptness Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer

624 F Street. N. W. Washington, D. C.

PATENTS

Manufacturers want me to send them patents on useful inventions. Send me at once drawing and description of your invention and 1 will give you an honest report as to securing a patent and whether 1 can assist you in selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. Personal attention in all cases.

WM. N. MOORE Loan and Trust Building Washington, D. C.

BALDWIN

irjjj Balloons ISi Dirigibles

Fabrics

Motors

Box 78. Madison Sq. P.O.. New York

Antony Jannus Roger Jannus

JANNUS BROTHERS

NEW 120 H. P. FIVE PASSENGER FLYING BOAT now being tested. Design based on nearly 200,000 miles of pioneer flying. Roger Jannus and Knox Martin at New Southern Hotel, San Diego. Calif. Continuous Passenger Carrying and School Work with two Flying Boats. Florida course announced later. NEW FACTORY

Battery Avenue and Hamburg Street, Baltimore/Md.

Booklet on Request

AERONAUTICS

New end Enlarged Edition, Commencing January, 1914 V

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted totheTechnique and Industry of Aeronautics

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar Eighty-five Cents : Post Free (Money Orders Only')

M.lp*_A apacimen copy will be mail.d

free on receipi ef ]S cents

ՠHead Officm:

170 Fleet Street - - London, E. C. American Olfice: 250 Weat 54th Str.et, New York

BALLOONS DIRIGIBLES

Records prove we build the best Balloons in America. Nine 1st prizes. Three 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen World-wide Contests.

Write for prices and particulars.

HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 4460 Chouteau St. Louis, Mo.

PATENTS

C. L. PARKER

Fx-member Examining Corps, U. S. Patent Oilitm Altorney-at-L«w and Solicitor of P*tenta

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bide. WASHINGTON. D. C.

For Efficiency

CHARMY

THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc. 1733 Broadway, New York

Sole Manufacturers of Sloane Aeroplanes

BALLOONS

Airships, Aeroplanes. Gas Generators, Safety Packs. Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 85% of American and Canadian clubs.

AERONAUT

Madison Sq. 8oi T81, NewYork

LEO STEVENS

i^gflftS DON'T ٪

ested id a reliable, efficient a rdeconomical power plant. ,FZ fjc-fy , f~l—\ liar is the only kind we r!vlft***' '4i\i fj> build. Four sizes.

Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works

Muncie, Ind.

-< BEN0IST

AEROPLANES FLYING BOATS

Factory and Office

341 S. St. Louts Avenue

Chicago, 111.

AEROPLANE COMPANY

——— INCORPORATED

THE U. S. NAVY USES..............................................................................................}

<I Because they are the best by a large measure and Proved Best by test and official report. CJOtbzrs use Plain Paragons because they are not only best but also cheapest. *J For Efficiency— For Economy, investigate Paragons. No charge lor information — No pay but for remits.

*fl We have the only propeller factory in America. Large stock. Quick shipments.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

I......................................................................................PARAGON PROPELLERS EXCLUSIVELY

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AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 10

TRADE DIRECTORY

Shepard Ideal Oil Co., 21 Lawrence St., Newark, N. J. Texas Co., The. 17 Battery Place, New York. ("Texaco."

gasoline, lubricants and greases.) Vacuum Oil >'o., CI Broadway, Xew York,

PACKINGS

Johns-Jlanville Co., H. \V„ Madison Aye. and 41st St., Xew York.

PAINTS, VARNISHES AND ENAMELS

Adams & Kltinge Co., 15St Washington Blvd., Chicago, III. Berry Bros., 202 Pearl St., New York.

Bridgeport Wood Finishing- Co., 55 Fulton St., New York.

Caiman. Kmil. & Co.. 100 William St., New York.

Devoe & Reynolds, 101 Fulton St., New Y'ork.

Fuller, W. I'., & Co., Los Angeles, Cal.

Glidden Varnish Co.. Cleveland. O.

Heath * Jlilligan. 1S33 Seward St., Chicago, 111.

Lucas. Jnu„ & Co., 322 llace St., Philadelphia, Pa.

Masury, Juo. W., & Son, 4 1 Jay St., Brooklyn, N. 1".

Murphy Varnish Co., Newark, N. J.

Sherwin-Williams Paint Co., The, Brown St. and Lister Ave.,

Newark. N. .1. Valentine & Co.. 456 Fourth Ave., New Y'ork. Woolsey Paint Co., Jersey City, N. J.

PARACHUTES AND "SAFETY PACKS"

Stevens, A. Leo, 2S2 Ninth Ave., New Y'ork.

PARTS AND SUPPLIES

A-Z Co.. 527 W. 56th St., New York. Auto Supply Co., 59th St. and Broadway, New Y'ork. Auto Parts Mfg. Co., Tromhlev Ave., cor. Orleans, Detroit, Mich.

Bliss Mfg. Co., SI Sabin St., Providence, P.. I. (Die work, punching. >

EM'iggs-Seabury Ordnance Corp., Sharon, Pa. (Motor parts.) Durgan. W. C., 115 Broad St., Syracuse, N. Y. (Woodworker.)

Hartford Machine Screw Co., Hartford, Conn. (Special metal parts.)

Heath, E. B., Aerial Vehicle Co., 1227 School St., Chicago,

111. (K. I>. aeroplanes and parts.) Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles,

Cal.

Miller. Chas. E., 97 Reade St., New Y'ork. (Supplies.) Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co.. Ithaca, n. Y. Willis. E. J.. N5 Chambers St., New Y'ork (Parts and supplies. )

Worcester Pressed Steel Co.. Worcester, Mass. (Cold seamless, hollow, etc., parts from sheet steel, brass, copper, aluminum and other sheet metals.)

PHOTOGRAPHS

American Press Association, 225 W. 39th St., New Y'ork. Levick, Edwin. 10S Julton St., New Y'ork. Underwood & Fnderwood, 417 Fifth Ave., New Y'ork.

PRESSED STEEL

Crosby Co., l-luffalo, N. Y. (Stampings.)

Detroit Pressed Steel Co., 1S00 Jit. Elliott St., Detroit, Mich.

Driggs-Seahury Ordnance Corp., Sharon, Pa.

Federal Pressed Steel Co., Milwaukee, Wis. (Steel tanks

and seamless steel products.) Hydraulic Pressed Steel Co., 3152 E. 61st St., Cleveland. O. Parish & Bingham Co., 5303 Hamilton Ave., Cleveland, O. Smith, A. (>., Co., Milwaukee, Wis. Wigmore, Jno. A., & Sons Co., Los Angeles. Cal. Worcester Pressed Steel Co., Worcester, JIass. (Stamped

sheet metal parts.)

NEW COMPANIES

The Butte Hydro-Aero Co.. Butte. Mont. The concern is incorporated for $20,000. The directors are \Y. E. Curry, T. J. Davis, L. F. Gehrig and \Y. H. Curry, of Butte.

Kluyskens & Pelagio have opened an office at 112 West 42d street, Xew York, to deal in motors, supplies and other aeronautical necessities and accessories. Kluyskens was exclusive agent for Anzani motors in this country. De

Pelagio was for years connected with the Moisant International Aviators.

The Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Company has had its previous order of twelve machines duplicated by a foreign purchaser. Over a hundred men are working day and night at the plant at Ithaca. An American purchaser has taken a tractor designed for cross-country flying here.

STURTEVANT 8 FOR NAVY.

The 140 h.p. S-cylinder Sturtevant aeronautical motor has been specified by the United States Navy for the three hydro-aeroplanes recently ordered from The Burgess Company of Marblehead,

Mass. Full description of this motor was published in Aeronautics for March 15. 1015. The 140 h.p. was obtained at 1,200 r.p.m.; 147 at 1.300.

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

IMPORTS.

March, 1915 ................... none

Same period, 1914, parts only.. .$ 7 N'ine months ending March,

1915, parts only.............. 2,291

Same period, 1914. parts only. . . 20.240 Same period. 1913. 12 aeroplanes ($50,020); parts <$1.77u>; total .......................... 51,796

DOMESTIC EXPORTS

March, 1915. 9 aeroplanes ($89.450) : parts ($77.107).........$166,557

Same period, 1914, 9 aeroplanes ($77,399) ; parts ($12871) ; total .......................... 90,270

Nine months ending March, 1915, 34 aeroplanes ($272,305) : parts ($244,830); total........ 517,195

Same period 1914, 27 aeroplanes ($150,924); parts ($29,931); total ....................... 180,855

Same period. 1913. 25 aeroplanes ($73,450) : parts ($23,4(4) ; total .......................... 96,914

EXPORTS OF FOREIGN.

March, 1915 .................. none

Nine months ending March,

1915 ........................ none

Same period, 1914, 1 aeroplane

($4,049); parts ($900).......$ 4 949

IN WAREHOUSE MARCH 31.

1915, 1 aeroplane .............$ 1,856

1914 .......................... none

BALLOON ASCENSIONS.

St. Louis. Mo.. May 8.—Capt. RE. Honeywell took up Miss Edna Kiel, daughter of the ilayor, and Lee Ma-honey. The landing was made near Belleville, 111. Miss Kiel dropped "bombs" containing orders good at the Highlands Park office for cash prizes.

John E. Sloane, president of the Aircraft Company, Inc. reports that they are working a force of about seventy-five men at their Bound Brook, N. J., plant. It is expected that this force will have to be increased very shortly.

FACILITIES

This shows one section of the new steel factory. It is 300 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. Another section of equal size is now under construction. Curtiss Aeroplanes of tractor and pusher type for land and water are built here under ideal conditions.

INFORMATION ON REQUEST

he Curtiss Aeroplane Ca.

Buffalo, New York

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

The Thomas

Continues to Make Records

On February 27, at Ithaca. N. Y., the Thomas Tractor Biplane, with three men and four hours' fuel aboard, climbed 4,000 ft. in 10 min. Average speed 81-1 m.p.h. Slow speed down to 38 m.p.h. Showed high degree of inherent stability.

Thomas School

Offers exceptional facilities — land and water. Best of instructors and equipment. Write for "Opportunity" Booklet Xv. 12.

THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO.,Inc., Ithaca.N.Y.

Si

The 8-Cylinder 140 Horse Power

(REG. U. S. PAT. OFF.)

Aeronautical Motor

is the most powerful motor in the country that is thoroughly perfected and tried out. Sturtevant motors are used by the U. s. Army and Navy and all the leading aeroplane builders.

Oth

er sizes

I 4-cyhnder. 50 H. P. ( 6-cyIinder, 80 H. P.

֓pecifications upon request

B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY Hyde Park, Boston, Mass.

ami all principal aftes of ihc ַorld

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AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 11

TRADE DIRECTORY

PROPELLERS

Aircraft Co., The. 1737 Broadway, New York. (Charavay.) American Propeller Co., 24:1 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

I "Paragon.") Burgess Co.. The. Marblehead, Mass.

C. M. O. Physical Laboratory. Buffalo, N. Y\ (Olmsted.) Curtiss Aeroplane Co., Buffalo, N. Y'.

Excelsior Propeller Co.. 14SS Belt Ave.. St. Louis, Mo. Stnrtevant, B. F„ Co.. Hyde Park, Mass. Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co.. Ithaca. X. Y. Washington Aeroplane Co., SOS Water St. S.W., Washington, I>. C. (Simmons.I

PUMPS

Pederseu Lubricator Co., 636 First Ave., New Y'ork. (Circulating oil pumps.) Featherstone, E. A.. Los Angeles, Cal. Chanslor & Lyon Co., Los Angeles. Cal.

RADIATORS

A-7. Co.. 527 W. 56th St.. New Y'ork.

Bush Mfg. Co., 81 Commerce St., Hartford, Conn.

Fedders Mfg. Works, 57 Tonawanda St., Buffalo, N. Y*.

International Motor Co., West End Ave. and 64th St., New

York. (El Arco.) Livingston Radiator Co., 75th St. and Amsterdam Ave., New York.

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Martin, Glenn L„ Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles. Cal.

Mavo Radiator Co., New Haven, Conn. MeCord Mfg. Co., 25S7 E. Grand Blvd., Detroit, Mich. Reliance Auto Parts Mfg. Co., 244 W. 49th St., New Y'ork. Roine-Tuiney Radiator Co.. Rome, N. Y.

SEATS

A-Z. Co.. 527 W. 56th St., New Y'ork.

Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.

Reliance Auto Parts Co., 244 W. 49th St., New Y'ork. Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co.. Ithaca, N. Y.

SHEDS

Anchor Corrugating Construction Co., 140 Washington St.,

New Y'ork. (Special 'plane sheds.) Greis, Andrew, Co., 337 W. 19th St., New York. (Corrugated

iron buildings. Pruden, C. D.. Co., 30 Church St., New Y'ork.

SPECIAL WORK

A-Z Co.. 527 W. 56th St., New York. (Parts and repairs, seats, special work.)

C. M. O. Physical Laboratory, Buffalo, N. Y\

Dressier, Chas. E., 3S6 Second Ave., New York. (Experimental devices.)

Manly, Chas. M„ 250 W. 54th St., New Y'ork. (Development work.)

Martin. Glenn I,., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.

Mercedes Repair Co., 159 E. 54th St., New Y'ork. (Repairs.) Motor Engineering Co., 16S6 W. Third St., Cleveland, O.

(Experimental work.) Nilson Miller Co., 13th and Hudson Sts., Ilohoken, N. J.

(Experimental work, models, special machinery.) Reliance Auto Parts Co., 244 W. 49th St., New Y'ork. (Sheet

metal, engine mountings, repairs, etc.) Smith, AY. R., & Co., 306 W. 52d St., New Y'ork. (Gears,

overhauling, special parts, general machine work.)

STARTERS

Hartford Suspension Co., 150 Bay St.. Jersey Citv, N. J. Walker Starter Co., S03 Monroe St., La Porte, Ind.

EXPERIMENTAL WORK IN THE NAVY.

The hydroplane glider built some time ago for testing motors and propellers

(see Aeronautics for October 30, 1914) has now been tried out at the U. S. Ex-

perimental Model Basin, Navy Yard, Washington, D. C. with a view to the feasibility of mounting a dynamometer on same for the testing of aeroplane engines and propellers under conditions similar to those in flight. The results so far indicate that by certain modifications this will be feasible.

Work in the wind tunnel is in hand comparing results of certain standard sections with those obtained abroad, with a view to detecting discrepancies and their causes.

As the wind tunnel is 8 ft. by 8 ft. in section and has a capacity of above 60 miles per hour wind velocity, we are able to handle larger models than have been tested abroad and the influence of size of models is being investigated.

The wind tunnel work is now under the direct charge of the construction officer of this yard. Naval Constructor Win. McEntee.

FALL KILLS NAVY OFFICER.

Ensign Melvin Lewis Stolz, U. S. N-, a member of the Navy Aeronautical Corps, was killed at Pensacola, Fla., on May 8th, by the sudden fall of his aircraft. Ensign Stolz was one of the senior members of the Navy's . flying corps. He was detailed for aeronautical service in 1910. He was appointed to the Naval Academy from his native state. New York, in 1906, and was graduated in 1910.

MOISANT PLANT SOLD. '

By order of the Federal Court in bankruptcy proceedings, the manufacturing plant of the International Aviators, at Winfield, L. I., founded by the Moisant brothers, has been sold for the benefit of the creditors of the famous flying organization. The aeroplane factory there no longer exists. Charles de Pelagio, formerly its manager, bought many of the Gnome motor parts and accessories, and Albert S. Heinrich bought some of the machinery. Alfred J. Moisant attended the sale, and for reasons of sentiment bought in the all-metal monoplane, first of its kind, designed by his brother, the late John B. Moisant, who was the first to fly from Paris to London carrying a passenger, in 1910. The body and wings, without motor, brought $4. The total proceeds of the sale were about $4,500, to meet liabilities of about $15.0)0.

In the sale the good will and name of the International Aviators were reserved. Charles A. Tipling, referee in bankruptcy, said that it was hoped that some one would yet be found to continue the business of the concern to whom the name would be of value.

6-cylinder, 100 H. P.

Builders as well as Aviators are

MAXIMOTORS'

most ardent supporters Built in Four Sizes from 50-150 H. P.

DF.TROIT

1528 JEFFERSON AVENUE E.

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AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 12

TRADE DIRECTORY

TANKS

A-Z Co., 527 W. 56th St., New York. Badger. K. B„ it Sons Co., 65 Pitts St., Boston, Mass. Janney, Sleinmetz & Co., Fourth and Market Streets, Philadelphia, Pa.

Johns-Manville Co., H. W., Madison Ave. and 41st St.. New York.

Koven, L. (">.. & Bro.. 50 Cliff St., New Y'ork. Mayo Radiator Co., New Haven, Conn.

Reliance Auto Parts Co., 244 AV. 49th St., New York. (Tanks,

metal work, repairs.) Trageser, John, Steam Copper Works. 447 W. 26th St., New

York.

TENTS

Boyle, John & Co., 112 Duane St., New Y'ork.

Kenyon, R. L., Co., Waukesha, AAris.

Magee, M.. & Son, 147 Fulton St., New Y'ork.

Missouri Tent & Awning Co., 206 Chestnut St., St. Louis, Mo.

Smith, Arthur F., 147 Fulton St., New York.

TIRES

Goodrich, B. F., Co.. Akron. O. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, O. Griffith Tire Co., 1625 Broadway. New Y'ork. U. S. Tire Co.. 1790 Broadway, New York.

TUBING

American Brass Co., Waterbury, Conn. (Brass and copper tubing.)

American Tube & Bending Co., 5 Lawrence St., New Haven, Conn.

American Tube & Stamping Co., Bridgeport. Conn. Breeze Carbureter Co., 250 South St., Newark, N. J. (Flexible tubing.)

Bridgeport Brass Co., 106 Crescent Ave., Bridgeport. Conn.

(Brass tubing, sheet, wire, etc.) Cox Brass Mfg. Co., Albany, N. Y. Crerar-Adams Co., Chicago, 111.

Detroit Seamless Steel Tubes Co., 804 Union Trust Bldg., Detroit, Mich. (Cold drawn seamless steel tubing.)

Frasse. Peter A.. & Co., 417 Canal St , New York. (Steel.)

Hungerford, U. T., Brass & Copper Co., 503 Pearl St., New York.

National Tube Co.. Frick Bldg.. Pittsburgh. Pa. (Shelby seamless.)

Ohio Seamless Tube Co., Shelby, O. (Steel.) Phenix Tube Co., 182 N. 11th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. Pittsburgh Steel Products Co., Frick Bldg.. Pittsburgh. Pa. Randolph-Clowes Co., Waterbury, Conn. (Brass and copper.) Standard Welding Co., Cleveland, O.

TURNBUCKLES

Aircraft Co., The, 1737 Broadway, New Y'ork. Hartford Machine Screw Co., Hartford, Conn. Martin. Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.

National Aeroplane Co., Machinery Hall, Chicago, III.

Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., Ithaca. X. A'.

WHEELS

Aero Wheel Co., 7S2 Eighth Ave., New York. N. Y. Motorcycle Co., 31S AV. 4Sth St., New Y'ork. Martin. Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.

Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., Ithaca, N. Y. WIND SHIELDS AND TRANSPARENT MATERIAL

Arlington Co., 725 Broadway, New Y'ork.

Celluloid Co., 30 Washington Place, New Y'ork.

Landers Bros. Co., 145 Pearl St., Boston, Mass.

Rose & Frank Co., 136 W. 21st St., New York. ("Flexo-

Niftlonal^Vuto Top Co.. 244 W. 49th St., New York. Western Mechanical Co., Los Angeles, Cal.

(To be Continued)

THE STORY OF FLIGHT

i Continued from page 69)

made short circles sometimes for the purpose of investigating and noting the exact conduct of the machine from the time the trouble began until the landing was made. At one time we thought that it might he due to some special reaction of the air, due to the fact that the machine, in circling, did not face exactly to the direction of the line of motion. To test this point we disconnected the rudder wire from the warping wire and and operated the rudder by an entirely separate handle. The trouble, however, continued as before. * * * Sometimes, in making a circle, the machine would turn over sideways despite anything the operator could do, although under the same conditions in ordinary straight flight it could have been righted in an instant. In one flight, in 1905, while circling around a honey locust tree at a height of ahout fifty feet, the machine suddenly began to turn up on one wing and took a course toward the tree. The operator, not relishing the idea of landing in a thorn tree, attempted to reach the ground. The left wing, however, struck the tree at a height of ten or twelve feet from the ground and carried away several branches; but the flight which had already covered a distance of six miles continued to the starting point."

The flight here mentioned was made on the 28th of September, 1905, with the rudder wires entirely disconnected from the warping wires. When it was noticed that the machine was tilting up and sliding toward the tree, the operator turned the machine down in the front and found that the apparatus then responded promptly to the lateral control. The remedy was found to consist in the more skilful operation of the machine and not in a different construction. The trouble was really due to the fact that in circling, the machine has to carry the load resulting from centrifugal force, in addition to its own weight, since the actual pressure that the air must sustain is that dne to the resultant of the two forces. The machine in question had but slight surplus of pbwer above what was required for straight flight, and as the additional load caused by circling increased rapidly as the circle became smaller, a limit was finally reached beyond which the machine was no longer able to maintain sufficient speed to sustain itself in the air.

And as the lifting effect of the inner wing, owing to its reduced speed, counterbalanced a large part of the increased lift resulting from the greater angle of incidence on that wing, the respons-to the lateral control was so slow that the machine sank to the ground usually before it had been brought back to the level again. In other words, the machine was in what has come to be known as a "stalled" condition.

The phenomenon is common to all the aeroplanes in the world and is the cause of frequent disasters to unskilled aviators. * * * (Many machines have been wrecked by novices stalling

the machine in attempting to climb too fast while circling, and have come tumbling to the ground, just as we did in 1905.1 * * * The remedy for the difficulty lies in the more skilful operation of the aeroplanes.

When we had discovered the real nature of the trouble and knew that it could always be remedied by tilting the machine forward a little, so that its flying speed would be restored, they felt that we were ready to place flying machines on the market.

We spent the next two years in build-

ing machines and making business arrangements for the exploitation of the patent.

In 190S we sold a machine to the United States government, and in the years 190S and 1909 flights were made before the officials of the United States at Washington; and before the rulers of England, France. Spain. Italy and Germany. Corporations were organized in several of these countries, including the United States, for the commercial exploitation of aeroplanes, built under authority of the patent.

Gyro-"Duplex" Motor

ADOPTED BY LEADING CONSTRUCTORS

110 H.P. Gyro, 9 cylinders, weight 270 pounds 90 H.P. Gyro, 7 cylinders, weight 215 pounds

GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

N. Y. Office: 331 Madison Avenue

774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

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BURGESS- Military < ^roplane DUNNE

Furnished to

United States Great Britain Russia

Self-balancing

Self-steering

and

Non-capsizable

Form of wing gives an unprecedented arc of fire and range of observation.

Par excellence the weight and gun-carrying aeroplane of the World.

Tail-less and folding.

Enclosed nacelle with armored cockpit.

Speed range 40-80 miles per hour.

Climb 400 feet per minute.

Bargeii-Dunne Na. 3 Delivered to U. S. Army at San Diego, December 30

THE BURGESS COMPANY, Marblehead, Mass.

Sole licensees of the American-Dunne Patents


No. 6, 1915, May

VOL. XVI. No. 6

MAY 30, 1915

15 Cents

iiiiiiiiiiii '''illilllillllllilililiiiiillliill

ERONflUTICS

li'il

m

The output of this model is sold for some weeks to come. Those desiring motors of this type should communicate with the factory at ^ Hammondsport for the necessary ^arrangements for future deliveries.

, All the important American Vecords are held by the Cur-tiss Motor.

Modern factory methods and large facilities have developed Curtiss Motors to the highest degree of efficiency.

Simplicity of design and construction permit overhauling or repairing by any good mechanic, no special knowledge being required.

Light in weight, yet not so light that durability and strength are sacrificed. The factor of safety is large in Curtiss Motors.

Curtiss Motor Co.

HAMMONDSPORT

NEW YORK

DETROIT, i TOLEDO, '* CLEVELAND,BUFFALOjPT. HURON, ALPENA, ■NIAGARA FALLS. | ST. IGNACEx .. ..y

" A LAKE TRIP FOR REST AND RECREATION 1 Have a real vacation on the Great Lakes, the most e->* ioyable and economical outing in America. The cocl like breezes, the ever-changing scenes along the shore, and the luxurious steamers of the D, & C. Line are positive guarantees that you will enjoy every minute of your trip, and return home refreshed and glad you went. Daily service between Detroit and Cleveland and Detroit and Buffalo. Four trips weekly from Toledo and Detroit to Mackinac Island and way ports. Two trips weekly, special steamer. Cleveland to Mackinac Island, no stops enroute except Detroit and Alpena. Special day trips between Detroit and Cleveland during July and August. Daily service between Toledo and Put-in-Bay. RAILROAD TICKETS AVAILABLE FOR TRAN i POR TATIOM on D. & C. Steamers between Detroit and Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland either direction. Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet and Great Lakes map. Address L. G. Lewis. G.P. A.. Detroit. Mich.

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company Philip H. McMillan. Pres., A. A. Schantz. V. P. & G. M. All Steamers arrive and depart, Third Ave. wharf, Dc:.

STEWART VACUUM GASOLINE SYSTEM

Overcomes all gasoline ieed problems. Provides automatic, positive, even flow of gasoline to carburetor under all conditions.

What it is, and does:

It is a small tank 41* inches by 9 inches high; installed under hood at any convenient point above carburetor; and connected to the intake manifold rarburetor, and gasoline supply reservoir.

Suction ofthe motor draws gasoline from main reservoir to Stewart Vacuum Tank, from which it falls in a positive, even flow to carburetor.

Allows carburetor to be installed close up to intake manifold where it gets benefit of mo tor's heat, and where it can be most easily gotten at.

Works absolutely automatically, and once installed it can be forgotten.

Eliminates all of the uncertainties of pressure feed system, gravity tanks and tanks in cowl.

Curtiss Aeroplane now being equipped with Stewart Vacuum Gasoline System. Already regular equipment on 91 makes of automobiles.

Complete System, fl» f g\ (\(\ Ready to Inst all * 1U,UU

Stewart-Warner Speedometer Corporation

Executive Offices: 1998 Diversey Boulevard, Chicago, U. S. A.

IS Branches, IS Service Stations, in all cities, and large towns

The

U.S. Gov't

Uses Goodyear Balloons

Complete Balloons Made By Us

After 15 years devoted exclusively to the making of rubber goods, we have perfected the ideal fabric for balloons and aeroplanes.

We have the necessary experience and factory equipment to design and construct Spherical balloons, complete, of any size or type ; also to design and construct the gas bag of dirigibles.

The Goodyear experts act in a consulting capacity with manufacturers of aeronautic equipment. We work to specifications or design complete ourselves.

Win In Foreign Field

Kvery balloon bought by the U. S. Government the last three years has been made by Goodyear.

Goodyear Balloons won the American National Elimination Race out of Kansas City in 1'> 13, the International Race out of Paris in 1913, and the American Xational Elimination Race out of St. Louis in l'<14.

We also make aeroplane lires in any si7e—two new sizes, 20x4 inch and 2(>x5 inch.

G

ood/pyear

AKRON. OHIO

Rubberized Balloon Fabric and Accessories

Ask Questions—No Obligation

If you have balloon problems, consult with tin' Goodyear experts. This is no obligation to you. Write us. yivins.* specifications, and we will send complete information and prices.

Address Balloon Desk, 13b.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company

AKRON, OHIO

Makers of Goodyear Automobile Tires DISTRICT OFFICE AND WARI-HOUSK Jackson Avenue and Honeywell Street, Long Island City

(2320)

Published semimonthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St.. New York

Telephone. Circle 2289 Cable. Aeronautics. NewY.rk

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22, 190S. under the Act of March 3. 187^>. S3.UH a year. 15 cents a copy.

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Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to \EKU-NAUTICS PRESS.

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Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

/

THE FIRST FLYING MODEL

[Euitor's Note.—The following two articles were written for Aeronautics in 1909. but were never before published.

Herr Kress died in Vienna, aged 77 years, on Feb. 24, 1913.]

not a model of a kite-flyer yet, only a physical experiment, which, however, pointed out clearly to me that a kite-flyer was possible as soon as a sufficiently light motor could be obtained. Now I was eager to build a real model of a kite-flyer. The picture of this model of 1877 shows the striking similarity to the modern monoplanes of Latham. Bleriot, etc. "A" shows the collapsible plane, "b" the elevation rudder, "c" the elastic sail air-screws, which rotate in opposite

HISTORY OF THE EVOLUTION OF MY FIRST FLYING MODEL OF A KITE FLYER IN 1887.

By Wilhelm Kress

In the beginning nf the 60s, induced by an article in a technical paper, I built small air screws of 30 ctm. diameter, which, like air-tops, would rise in the air by quick rotation. In the summer of 1864 I amused myself with my young nephew with flying kites made by myself. One day the wind was very low and I had to run a considerable distance in order to get the kite up. At this proceeding the idea struck me for the first time, that if I connected the kite with my air-screws and if the same were driven by a motor, the kite could rise in calm weather and independently move about.

But this would be a flying machine which would fly without a balloon. Until then I was only interested in the dirigible balloon. This new idea took so completely hold of me that I went straight to a watchmaker and ordered a very light watch-spring motor. In the meantime I made a plane of about Y\ sci. metre, connected the motor with the air-screw under the plane and mounted the whole on small wheels; in 14 days the apparatus was ready. But it proved at the different trials that the apparatus was too heavy in proportion to the motor: it would propel on the floor, but so slow that it could not be expected to rise into the air. All my efforts to obtain a smaller motor were in vain.

In 1873 1 again tried to make a model of a kite-flyer with two air-screws, as 1 was promised a suitable motor, but the promise was never kept. Finally, in the winter of 1876-77, 1 was induced through a discussion to make a new experiment with a rubber motor. I built for a preliminary trial a plane as large as a stork, fastened in back and front of it an airscrew, which revolved by means of a rubber band in opposite direction to each other.

To my delight this apparatus wo"bl when released from the hand, flv free through the room. Of course, it was

Aviatik: "How the Bird Flies, and How Man Will Fly.'' l'i|.=, Spielha'.'en and Schurich in Vienna.

directions to each other ,"d" is the bumper, '"e" the guiding rudder, "f" the runners. The apparatus will rise into the air from the floor or a long table and will take a gentle upward course, either straight or in a circle, just as the rudder is set. At that time we had no aeronautic literature whatever and 1 had no pattern for the construction of my model, which resulted and gradually ripened from the first thought in the summer of 1805.

In 1879 I took out German, French and Austro-Hungarian patents and called my invention an " Aeroveloce." As we had no suitable motors, the possibility of the kite-fl\er was not believed until recent years. Later on I built models with two and three planes, which were placed one behind another, independently, and also arranged one above the other, as well as models of screw and swing-flyers.*

Since March 15. 1880. almost thirty years. I had to fight antagonists and skeptics in my writings and public lectures for Ihe kite-flyer and my models 1 let fly over the heads of audiences in the halls

of Vienna, Berlin, Prague, London. St. Petersburg. Strasburg. etc. And now. when last summer ( 1909 I we could see Latham and Bleriot flying, my friends recollected my old model of 1877 and induced me to have my model photographed.

I am now old and tired, but I have at least the satisfaction of having the dream of my youth realized.

By Octave Chanute

William Kress, of Vienna, Austria, is a distinguished aviator and experimenter, whose career well illustrates the difficulties and disappointments which are encountered by inventors who are in advance of their contemporaries.

As early as 1873 and 1877 he was experimenting in aeronautics, writing papers and delivering lectures advocating the possibility of human flight, which lectures were later illustrated by rubber-driven models flying over the heads of the audience.

He contributed two valuable papers to the International Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, in 1893, one on aeroplanes and one on the elastic screw propeller.

His efforts met with but scant encouragement, it being generally realized that motors existing up to 1890 were not sufficiently light in proportion to their power to promise actual human flight with a dynamic flying machine.

But when the gasoline motor had been developed to hitherto unprecedented lightness. Air. Kress built a full-sized machine with three tandem aeroplanes, measuring 1,011 square feet of sustaining surfaces, the whole mounted upon a float or scow and provided with a motor represented to he of 30 horse power. The entire apparatus weighed 1.870 pounds, including the aviator. It was completed in 1901 and absorbed all of Mr. Kress' personal resources.

It was experimented on an artificial lake near A"ienua, but the motor proved much weaker than had been represented. (Continued on page SS)

DIAGRAM SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF THE MACMECHEN ZEPPELIN DESTROYER

THE MACMECHEN-KAMP ZEPPELIN DESTROYER

A new type of rigid dirigible is soon to lie shown to the world by T. R. Mac-Meclien, president of the Aeronautical Society of America. Mr. Maci\fechen has been in England for some months building the first of five ships that will serve the purpose of "Zeppelin Destroyers." They will be to the mammoth airship what the destroyer of the sea is to the dreadna ught.

A corporation of $5,01)0.000 has been formed, in which some of the most prominent men in England are interested. Mr. MacMechen is general manager, and Walter K. Kamp, of New York, the designer of the ship, is the superintendent of construction. With Wilbur R. Kimball are two other engineers employed on the proposition. (Jut-side of the blowers, which are made by the B. F. Sturtevant Co., the craft will be all-British.

Five rigid airships are about completed. These have a length of 236 feet and a maximum diameter of 28 feet. The capacity is 108,000 cubic feet. The bow is a "drop" center, departing from the true axis of the ship when taken finally to the rear. With all equipment and fuel and supplies the ship will have a range of 300 miles, with a crew of four men, to include a navigator, a gunner and two engineers.

There is one forward E. N. Y. motor of 75 h.p. and a 125-h.p. Green motor at the rear. These drive by direct cables universally mounted propellers. In addition there are four elevators on each side of the hull, and horizontal and vertical rudders at the stern to guide the craft.

The framing of the shell is of wood and is guyed transversely at each of 14 sections by steel cables radiating from a central steel ring like the spokes of a wheel to the 32 longitudinal girders and helical girders that run around the hull from bow to stern. There are as many sections as there are gas compartments, i. e.. 14. Over the wooden framing is an outer shell of 29 transverse girders that completely encircle the inner hull. This entire wooden shell is of the finest Canadian fir, which is wrapped around the frame in the same manner as a cigar is wrapped. The ends of all these wrappings lock into mahogany noses. Fine aluminum rivets and glue hold the spiral laminations together. Every piece of wood in the frame, including wings and rudders, is laminated. The 14 gas con-t-biers are of the best 3-ply rubberized

fabric of marvelously light weight. The outside skin is a specially aluminized cloth of still lighter weight.

The car is suspended by cables in an inverted "Y" formation from the top of 14 of the transverse girders which encircle the hull at each division between the gas containers. The car is part of the belly of the ship, to which it is so'idly bolted. The car contains the power plant 5, ventilating and heating

parative safety from harm and surety of purpose as to offense.

The whole ship will be capable of navigation from the captain's station, even to the starting, stopping and control of the motors, if so desired. Also the various gas compartments will all be controlled by tubes operated by the pilot.

The invention is patented in the United StiUs and i:. protected by patent appli-

systems for controlling the expansion and contraction of the gas. the navigating instruments, fuel tanks, etc.

The ship is made to ascend or descend without the loss of gas, by compressing or allowing the gas to expand. The compression is obtained through two Sturtevant aluminum blowers weighing only 9 pounds each, operated by each engine. Cold air may be blown into the compartments to compress the gas and lower its temperature for the reduction of lifting capacity: or warm exhaust from the engine is blown into these compartments, all danger of fire from this source being eliminated by expanding the exhaust gases in a special "spark" chamber fitted with asbestos plates and copper wire mesh screens to catch sparks. This has been thoroughly tested and proven to be absolutely certain in operation.

The speed is expected to be around 60 miles an hour and these destroyers will have a range of 10 hours. At full speed they will be able to travel 300 miles without replenishing fuel. They are more easily navigable than the monster Zeppelins and it is expected they will maneouvre about them with coin-

cations in Great Britain and its colonial possessions, France, Italy, Russia, Japan, Brazil, Argentine, Chili and Mexico.

A fine type of shed has been built for the housing of these ships. Numbers of these are being also built by the admiralty for their own use. The shed is 266 feet long, 50 feet wide and 60 feet high. The frame is covered with corrugated metal. Rails run the length of the shed for taking the ship out with electrically operated trolleys. On the roof is a meteorological station. These sheds are now completed.

()n the ground in one picture are seen some of the 14 big "wheels" to be set up in line around which the hull is built.

Stuart McDonald has just completed an experimental airboat. in which he has placed a 100-h.p. Curtiss motor. The boat has been taken to the lake for its preliminary try-out. but on account of the high winds and rough water have not been able to make its first test as yet. They are using the Benoist runway at Lincoln Park. Walter E. Lees, a recent graduate from the Curtiss school at San Diego, expects to fly the machine this season in passenger-carrying work.

THE PARISANO "PARAPLANE

Michael A. Parisano, of 1416 Stebbins avenue, Xew York, after years of experimenting with models, is now building an aeroplane incorporating the results of his experiments, with the expectation of meeting military requirements, which type is named the "Para-plane."

The use of the cylinder, as shown in

the drawing, is designed to increase the lifting capacity of his machine and at the same time insure longitudinal stability. It is claimed the machine will not "dive" and will glide at a small angle. The entire bottom of the cylinder is left out, as will be seen. There are two apertures in the top of the cylinder through which flows a stream

of air. When the machine is unbalanced there is a lessened resistance due to the aperture on that side, and a return to normal position is obtained. For deliberate banking, two ailerons are placed at the outside front edge of the wings.

By turning a small wheel beside the aviator's seat, both ends of the cydinder will be drawn down and make the machine act as a parachute. There are two controls for the usual purposes. The angle of incidence is also variable.

The machine has two motors, each coupled to a separate propeller, and it is figured that the machine can be flown with either one of the propellers alone in operation.

The wings are quick detachable. The engines and propellers are a unit and independent of the wings. With the four-wheel running gear, it is expected to be able to drive the machine along a street, steering with the wheel at the rear, the tail being collapsible and fold-able. The wings hang at the side when dismounted.

The apparatus has been patented in the L'nited States and foreign countries.

NIEUPORT 50 H. P. ONE-SEATER

This monoplane follows the general line of its predecessors, but exhibits some important modifications. Instead of the long central skid device by Edo-uard Nienport, the Morane type of chassis is used. The wheels are elastic-ally mounted and guided in their orientation by two hinged rods, in place of the slots usually employed.

The tail is supported, when at rest, hy a curved skid, which also acts as a brake. This arrangement puts more stress on the framework than the long skid arrangement mentioned above.

THE FIRST FLYING MODEL

{Continued from page A3) The apparatus gathered a good speed over the water, hut not enough to rise into the air; in making a turn it was caught by a side wind, capsized and sank to the bottom, Mr. Kress being nearly drowned. His funds were now-exhausted, the public was indifferent and he had to stop experimenting.

The motor then used weighed 28 pounds per nominal horse power. Since the recent improvements, reducing the weights to S and 10 pounds per horse power, Mr. Kress has published a pamphlet (1905) entitled "Aviatic, How the Bird Flies and How Man Will Fly," in which he gives a very interesting account of his experiments.

His friends have now inaugurated a fund which at last accounts amounted to 20,000 kronen, in order to enable him to try again.

 

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41

NEWBERRY KILLED

Troy, X. Y., May 31.—George L. Newberry, aviator, of Kirkwood. X. Y., was fatally injured here this afternoon when an aeroplane with which he was giving an exhibition at a picnic, held in Rensselaer Park h.v the Troy police, fell from a height of 400 feet into Oakwood Cemetery. Newberry was extricated from the ruins of his machine and hur-

ried to a hospital, where he died in a few minutes.

Newberry made one successful flight and return to the park. Without alighting, he arose in the air again and new over the cemetery, in which the veterans were holding their Memorial Day exercises. He was at a height estimated at 400 feet, when there was a "lond explosion and the machine turned over and fell like a plummet to the earth."

CURTISS TRACTORS FOR SIGNAL CORPS

The photograph shows one of the Curtiss assembly rooms at Buffalo, showing a string of eight of the new army tractors being built for the U. S. Government. This is the first photograph of the new squadron recently purchased by the Government.

NAVAL MILITIA IN AERONAUTICS

Activity is being displayed in various quarters since the publication of the call to arms by Captain Mark L. Bristol, director of naval aeronautics.

At Cleveland, the organization (A. F. Nicklett, commander) has become active and appointed Harvey R. Kidney, a former Curtiss man, in charge of instruction. The class has 38 members, and all are studying hard to get the principles of flight and construction. In the membership are chauffeurs, auto mechanics, college engineering students and automobile testers. Meetings are held weekly. The aeronautical corps, when definitely formed, will be provided with two hydroaeroplanes, four aviator-officers, twelve mechanics and a commanding officer.

Naturally, they all take Aeronautics.

NEW BENOIST AIR BOAT

The new Benoist "safety-first" air-boat for 1915 is only a modification of the models gotten out in 1913 and 1914, with improvements in details, greater factor of safety and increased efficiency of material and parts. This machine is made in two models—a popular-priced two-place machine, equipped with a six-cyhnder Roberts motor, and a large four-place machine, equipped with a 90-h.p. Gyro.

The illustrations show the new model equipped with the 100-h.p. Roberts. This machine, with a passenger, got out of

the water easily within 200 feet from start and would stay up on half throttle. An idea of its wellnigh perfect balance can be gotten by examining the illustration, showing it in flight with passenger, operated by Jay Smith.

The method of mounting the engine section differs somewhat from the 1913 boat. This was designed by Tom Benoist in the spring of 1914. and it was found that these diamond struts were much more efficient than the old box strut type used on the old machine. A better system of chain adjustment is

used, which can be easily understood by examining the illustration, showing the transmission in detail. This machine was delivered the early part of May to J. E. Pepin of Lorain. Ohio, who has the contract for passenger carrying at Cedar Point this coming season. This is the second season that a Benoist machine will be seen there, as Tony Jan-nus used an old 1913 Benoist during the season of 1914 at Sandusky and Cedar Point. This old machine had gone through the complete season at St. Petersburg in the winter in 1913-14. And after being used at Cedar Point during the summer, with another old boat built in Ma}-, 1913, constituted the fleet of Jamais Bros, at Baltimore during the fall and winter of 1914. and at the present time is being used by Januus Bros, at San Diego. Cal.. and have been ever since the first of the year. The machine driven by Roger Jannus is over two years old. and has been used steadily in commercial passenger carrying service all that time, both winter and summer, which will give one an idea of the staying qualities of a well-built air boat.

Bud Morriss. a former Bleriot flyer, has ordered a new Benoist airboat, to be equipped with a 100-h.p. motor, for delivery in June. He expects to go into the passenger-carrying business on the Great Lakes this summer.

J. Val Strogh, of Albia. Iowa, has spent a week at the Benoist plant and accepted delivery on a little crosscountry exhibition tractor machine, in which he is installing a 1915 four-cylinder Roberts motor.

THE SMALL GOUPY BIPLANE

This little machine, with a spread of 6 in., already four years old, built for Yedrines when he piloted the Goupy. is excellent in design, but shows some poor work in details of construction.

For example, the aluminum sccket-for the struts, assembling of the cell on the fuselage by means of small bolts through the spars and struts, etc.

The dimensions are given on the drawing herewith.

George Stope, of St. Louis, and Chas. Lockwood. an aviator of Ft. Madison. Iowa, are preparing to open an airboat line between Madison and Rock Island, 111., with stops at Muskatine and at other points. They expect to do a regular passenger carrying business, similar to the Renoist air line operated in Florida last winter.

OjovPy

■I

THE A.B.C.

Mr .William A. Degoode. a prominent real estate man of Brooklyn, has associated himself in the production of the new A.B.C. type aeroplane designed by Messrs, John Carisi and Vincent J. Ruranelli for military use. Mr. Degoode. being convinced that the moment is ripe for large aeronautical activities, intends to push the building of this type of machine on a considerable scale, providing the trials of the first machine, a military biplane pusher, which will take place in a few weeks, demonstrate

the expected superiority of design and construction of the machine.

This machine is powered by a 100-h.p. A.B.C. motor, specially built, which it is claimed developed unexpected efficiency in trials. This motor is of the famous Austro Daimler type, being constructed of the highest-grade materials. The cylinders are bored from solid billets of chrome nickel steel, thereby effecting a considerable reduction in the weight of the motor. If the motor and machine work together as well as is

anticipated, duplicates will be built as are required.

The Canadian Aviation Co., Limited, of which Mr. W. A. Dean is president, has received permission from Major-General Hughes to make flights, and hopes to begin the instruction of pupils soon on a site east of the Royal Canadian Yacht Club building, at the Island. Three Toronto pupils, Thomas Webber, Mark Boyd and Fullerton Cleghorn, have been enrolled.

THE R. E. P. MONOPLANE

The R. E. P. monoplane is too well known to require a description in addition to the drawings here given.

The fuselage, pentagonal in front, triangular in rear, is built entirely of steel tubes. The wings are ash. The wing spars are hinged to the fuselage, permitting a freer motion in warping. The horizontal empennage is flat, with a slight negative angle of attack as in the Ponnier.

The machine is designed to be assembled and demounted quickly, which can be done in a few minutes.

C. A. Coey. of Chicago, is about to receive from Captain Bumbaugh, of Indianapolis, "what 1 believe to be the smallest passenger-carrying balloon in the world: you probably are aware of the fact that I own the largest one in the world—-'The Chicago."

"The new balloon will hold 9,000 cubic feet and 1 am having a private aerodrome built on my farm near Chicago, and I expect to have a great deal of fun this summer taking short trips. I believe it is the only private aerodrome in this country.''

TECHNICAL TALKS-By M. B. Sellers

EIFFEL'S "NOUVELLES RECHERCHES"

I shall here give a hrief account of some of the results which seem to me of most practical importance in M. Eiffel's reecnt work, Xoitvcllcs Rcchcrches sur la Resistance de I'Air et I'Aiiation.

In the study of the resistance offered by symmetrical bodies, it was found that for most bodies examined the coefficient of unit resistance, K (where R—KSV"), varied wdien the speed

varied. For some bodies there was no variation of K within the limits of the experiment. Spheres and some other bodies showed "two regimes" of resistance (see Aeronautics for March 30, 1915), the unit resistance being about twice as high at low speeds as at high speeds, and, as the speed was increased, passing from the first to the second regime at some critical speed, beyond

which K would be more or less constant.

This critical speed was lower the larger the sphere.

In the case of some other bodies K did not appear to change in this manner, in some cases remaining constant for all speeds employed—in some even increasing with the speed.

In using the co-efficient of resistance of any body, it is necessary to know for what speed or speeds the value taken holds good.

-fusiform Vodies-

I shall now give the unit resistance of some bodies examined:

Sphere.—Diameter 16 cm., K=.01 for all speeds above 14 metres per second: diam. 25 cm., K=.01 for speeds above 12 m/s: diameter 33 cm.. K=.01 for speeds above Id tn/s; that is. K is constant above critical speed for all sizes examined.

Disc.—K about constant for all speeds: =.07

Cup.—Hemispherical, concave toward wind, K=.0'> at 16 m/s and rises to .10 at 26 m/s (K variable throughout) ; same, convex toward wind, K nearly constant, about .02, from 6 m/s to 30 m/s. the highest speed employed.

Cylinder.—Short. H=D, side to wind: cylinders, like spheres, have a "critical speed"; K about constant at .023 from 12 m/s up. For long cylinders K is less than .02 beyond 20 m/s.

Wires.—K is independent of diameter; at 4 m.'s it is .062, and diminishes gradually till at 14 m/s it is .OSS; increasing again gradually, and at 30 m/s it is .065.

{Continued on page 90)

t---

AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 16

COMPRESSION STRENGTHS SHELBY SEAMLESS STEEL TUBING FOR AERONAUTICAL PURPOSES

(National Tube Company)

Tensile Strength Load to in lbs. Elongation

Kind of Steel

 

Size

Length

Buckle

per sq. in.

2"

8"

.17 Carbon

r

x20 ga.

12"

7.430

75.000

18.

7.8

     

24"

6,410

 

"

"

"

r

x22 ga.

12"

4,590

58,100

23.5

12.1

"

   

24"

4.480

"

"

■*

 

X'

x20 ga.

12"

4.410

62,100

28.5

15.5

"

 

24"

4,590

"

"

"

   

x22 ga.

U"

3,010

60,700

22.5

12.3

"

24"

3.730

"

"

"

.30 to .40Crbn.

V

'x20 ga.

12"

6,900

78.000

15.

7.6

     

24"

6.3o0

     
 

1

'x22 ga.

12"

5,740

79,000

11.5

6.5

"

 

24"

5,200

 

"

"

   

'x20 ga.

12"

6,270

89.000

10.

4.

"

 

24"

4,040

   

"

3;/,% Nickel

1

'x22 ga.

12"

9,160

120,000

12.5

7.1

   

24"

8,310

     

TELESCOPING SIZES. For telescoping, an allowance of not less than .005 inch should be made on all diameters 5.5 inch and smaller in lengths of from 5 to 6 inches of the O. D. telescoping tube; and for greater lengths the allowance should be increased to provide for lack of straightness in tube.

POUNDS (AVDP.) IN KILOGRAMS

lbs. |

Kllogr.

lbs.

Kilogr.

lbs. |

Kilogr.

lbs.

Kilogr.

to J=>

Kllogr.

S3

Kilogr.

i

0,453»

21

9,5250

41

18,5974

61

27,669,

81

36,7410

IOI

45,812,

2

o,907a

22

9,9794

42

19,050,

62

28,122,

82

37,194.

102

46,266,

3

i.36°s

23

10,432,

43

19.504s

63

28,576,

83

37,648,

103

46,720,

4

1,814,

24

10,886.

44

19,958,

64

29,029,

84

38,101,

IO4

47,173,

5

=.=68,

25

n,339s

45

20,411,

65

29,483,

85

38,555.

105

47,627,

6

2,72is

26

11,7934

46

20,865,

66

=9,937,

86

39,009,

106

48,080,

7

3.i75i

27

12,247,

47

21,318,

67

30,390,

87

39.462,

107

48.534s

8

3,628,

28

12,700,

48

2i,772s

68

30,844,

88

39,916,

108

48,988,

9

4.082,

29

!3,i54!

49

22,226,

69

31,297,

89

40,369,

IO9

49.4417

:o

4,535i

30

13,607,

50

22,679,

70

.1,751.

90

40,823,

no

49.895.

ii

4.989s

31

14,0614

51

23,133.

71

32,2«5i

91

41,276,

III

50,348,

12

5,443i

32

M.5i5o

52

23,586,

72

32,658,

92

41,730,

112

50,802,

13

5,896,

33

14,968,

53

24,040,

73

33,"2,

93

42,184,

"3

51,256,

H

6,350,

34

15,422,

54

24,4941

74

33,565,

94

42,637,

114

51,709.

■5

6.803,

35

15,875.

55

24,947,

75

34,oi9s

95

43091,

115

52,163,

16

7,257s

36

16,3294

56

25 401,

76

34,473,

96

43,544,

Ilfl

52.616,

17

7,7i 11

37

■6,783,

57

25,854,

77

34,926,

97

43,998,

117

53.070,

18

8,164,

38

17,236,

58

26,808,

78

35,380,

9S

44,452,

118

53.5=3.

■9

8,618,

39

17,690,

59

26,762,

79

35,833.

99

44,905,

119

53,977,

20

9,071,

40

l8,!43s

60

27,215.

80

36,287,

100

45,359,

120

54,431.

V____)

saw

FA

CURTISS

/fx

FACILITIES

This shows one section of the new steel factory. It is 300 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. Another section of equal size is now under construction. Curtiss Aeroplanes of tractor and pusher type for land and water are built here under ideal conditions. P i

INFORMATION ON REQUEST

'he Curtiss Aeroplane Co-Buffalo, New York

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

The Thomas

Continues to Make Records

On February 2", at Ithaca. N.Y., the Thomas Tractor Biplane, with three men and four hours' fuel aboard, climbed 4,000 ft. in 10 min Average speed —81-1 m.p.h. Slow speed down to 38 m.p.h. Showed high degree of inherent stability.

Thomas School

Offers exceptional facilities — land and water. Best of instructors and equipment. Write.for "Opportunity" Booklet Xo. Ii'.

THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO., Inc., Ithaca, N.Y.

ROBERTS

You Couldn't Expect More Value

100 H.P. 200 H.P.

340 lbs. 690 lbs.

You Couldn't Get More Satisfaction

- $1,250

- $1,850

A "Q-D" Motor —Simple- No Vibration —10 Hour Test for Every Motor Guaranteed to Stand More Abuse and Heavy Work with Less Attention than Any Other Motor. ALL IT WANTS IS GASOLINE AND SPARK

ROBERTS MOTOR MANUFACTURING COMPANY

300 Roberts Motor Block SANDUSKY, OHIO, U. S. A.

MOTORS

OF AMERICA 29 West 39th Street. New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

LEE S. BURRIDGE FUND.

Through a liberal bequest made by the late Sir. Lee S. Burridge, The Aeronautical Society is in possession of a fund which has been greatly desired since its inception. While the bequest was made in fee simple, those closely associated with Air. Ilurridge knew of his desire to permanently record the work of the society, and therefore the directors have established as a memorial the Lee S. Burridge fund for publishing the transactions and papers of the society.

PEORIA AERO CLUB ACTIVE

The Aircraft Club of Peoria has been reorganized unde the name Peoria Aero Club"; $5,000 capital stock.

At a meeting recently held Alfred W. Harris was elected president; W. H. Webster, secretary, and W. H. Ballance, treasurer.

The club will hold an aero meet July 3d. at which time it is figuring on having seven land machines, seven water machines, six balloons and possibly a dirigible.

Air. Harris has just purchased a four-passenger Gyro motored mahogany hull Benoist flying boat, and will attempt to make a non-stop flight from Chicago to Peoria, following the Illinois-Michigan Canal and Illinois River.

_ The Mississippi Power Boat Association will hold their regatta on the Mississippi River at Hannibal. Mo., this year, on July 5. 6. 7. They are expecting to have at least three airboats, and will put up several hundred dollars in prizes for passenger carrying, speed and endurance.

The Aero Club of Davton, Ohio, an affiliated club of the Aero Club of America as well as the International Aeroplane Club, also of Dayton, is "out of business." according to the postmaster of the birthplace of aviation.

And with a real industry!

"Club died and flew to heaven two years ago; honorable death; no lives lost and no debts left behind."—The former president. R. M. Bird.

And still they come!

AERO CLUB OF PENNSYLVANIA

The monthly meeting of the club was held in the Green Room of the Bellevue-Startford Hotel, Philadelphia, evening, on Alay 21, and the increasing interest of the members was shown by the much larger attendance than usual. Capt. Hugh L. Willoughby. retired naval officer and hydroaeroplane builder, gave an informal talk on the aeroplane as a protective measure against submarine attack. Capt. Willoughby's most interesting statement was as follows ; "Few-people see the possibilities that there are in the aeroplane for locating submarines and protecting ships. A battleship is almost helpless against a torpedo. The only protective measure that it seems possible to develop now is the aeroplane. If the Lusitania had been guarded from the air above, the terrific disaster of its sinking might have been avoided."

A call was issued by President Stein-metz, of the club, requesting every licensed aviator in the Philadelphia "air zone" to report at once to the officers of the club in order that proper preparations can be made for the National Aeroplane Contest which opens on July 4th.

To aid the cause, action was taken by the club to raise a fund of $1,000 for the erection of a large hangar. The club augmented the fund to the extent of $100, and up to date several more substantial subscriptions have been received. It is hoped that definite action can be taken and work started so that the hangar be ready for use by visiting aviators during the competition.

Through the efforts of President Steinmetz and ex-President Wynne, of the club. Secretary Daniels, of the Navy, has granted the Aero Club of Penn-vania full permission to use a plot of ground, just east of the marine barracks, at the League Island Navy Yard, for the erection of the club hangar, repair shop and as an official landing station for all aircraft arriving in or departing from the city.

Admiral Benson, former commandant at the League Island Navy Yard, and now detailed on most important work in Washington, strongly approved the recommendation to the Secretary of the Navy that the League Island Yard become one of the official stations for visiting aviators.

The site is ideal, contains about 20 acres, concrete wharf, railroad tracks and shop facilities for repairs. It is

the belief that many tests of aircraft for naval use will later on be made at this station. Being situated directly on the Delaware River and with a fine beach, the station is equally adapted for flying boats as well as land type machines, and while the contemplated hangar will house at least two or three 'planes, the club members trust that the unusual opportunities afforded by this field will prove such an attraction that ether hangars will be necessary.

Visiting members of the Philadelphia Aero Club who were present at the meeting reported that the tractor bi-"lane upon which they have been working for some tune is about ready for test flights.

Designed hy Percy Pierce and fellow members of the junior organization, there is every reason to think that the plane should prove a success. It will be used principally as a training 'plane for the members of the club.

TECHNICAL TALKS

{Co/ifmrtct/ from page SS)

Inclined Wires.—A wire inclined at 30° (with horizontal) has a resistance of 2(1% of its resistance when normal. At 45" its resistance is 48%, and at 60' it is 72% of normal. (Dr. Stanton has found that vibration does not increase the resistance of a wire. These wires, however, did not vibrate.)

The resistance of cables is slightly higher than that of wires: K~=07 for 16 m/s. What has been said about wires applies to cables.

Struts.—Fig. 1 shows the struts; No. 2, 74 by 25 mm., gave least K; K=.(X)7 beyond 14 m/s. No I was slightly higher. K=.01. No. 3 showed IC=035 at 30 m/s, and more at lower speeds. Inclining No. 3 decreased its resistance considerably, but inclining No. 2 decreased resistance very little.

Fusiform Bodies.—See Fig. 2. No.

4, 674 bv 120 mm., gave least value of K, =008 at 24 m/s. The value of K increased in the following order: 4. 1. 2.

5, 3. However, form 2 would be best for a dirigible because the ratio of cubic contents to the resistance would be greater than for the others.

( To be continued.)

MARY PICKFORD FLIES

"It wasn't scary enough!" said winsome little Mary Pickford after Glenn Martin had whirled her aloft 2.500 feet above Los Angeles on May 25. "'It was glorious ! But it wasn't scary enough !"

Two of Air. August Freese's daughters also went aloft, along with Senor Caxialoa and several others. And as they circled about. Aliss Pickford described the experience. "Afraid? Not a bit of it!" she laughed. "I wish we had gone right on up 6,000 feet, maybe. And 1 just begged Glenn to do some fancy stunts. But he wouldn't. Still, it was wondei ful!"

THE = HUDSON-WRIGHT AERO CO.

Announce the opening of their Flying School June Tenth, at 132nd Street and Hudson River.

Office: 242 W. 59th St. NEW YORK

THE WRIGHT FLYING BOAT

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

THE WRIGHT FLYING SCHOOL

Located at Dayton opens May 1st, for the season of 1915. Tuition $250. No other charges of any kind. Enroll now. Booklet on request.

The Wright Company

DAYTON, OHIO New York OHice: 11 Pio

m

Safest and Most Practical

THE P A F! A PLANE

A few of its patented lU. S. and foreign 1 features; — Inherent Stability, Dual Motors. Controls and Propellers which can be worked independent of each other. Propellers and Control so arranged that machine will fly just as readily with a single Propeller, Greater Lifting Power, Changeable Angle of Incidence.

Especially Designed for Governmental and Private Use Literature on request PAR1SANO AERIAL NAVIGATION CO. OF AMERICA. INC. 220 West 42nd Street New York City

EIFFEL'

T'antUtitt ty I.hut cum C H 5 A.i; at Can,I'utter

Resistance of the Air and Aviation IN ENGLISH

Magnificent Quarlo Volume, Cloth. 242 pp. 27 LARCE PLATES AND TABLE OF POLAR DIAGRAMS 1913 ENLARGED EDITION

C*rf— W IRVDIC CHAMBERS, ol i luhW tnd u ,.rr 4—...bl. lor h> .

Ttt "SCIENTIFIC A

PRICE. $ 10. EXPRESS PAID

AERONAUTICS. 250 W. 54th STREET NEW YORK

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Aeronautical Cloth

NAIAD

J

+ +

+ + +

+

AND

Aero Varnish

+ +

+

% + + + +

We were the first in the field, +

+

and the test of time is proving + that our product is the best. +

֦r Samole Book A-6, Dala aod Prices oq Request +

| The C. E. Conover Co.

J MANUFACTURERS

% 101 Franklin Street, New York | *++++++++++++++++*++++++++++++

AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET

No. 17

O

COMPOUND UNITS

Symbols Continental Units

gr/i-m gram per centimeter

kg/ni kilogram per meter

kg/km kilogram per kilometer

kg/qcm kilogram per square centimeter

kg/h:i kilopram per hectar

kg/Morgcn kilogram per Morgen

I /m* metric loo per square meter

American Equivalents

0 0055 lb. per in. 0 055 lb. per in. 3.54 lb. per mile

kg/m> kE/bJ t/m*

kg/h.p. kg/t

kgm/kg kgm 'qt-ni

t/km t-km

kilogram per cubic meter kilogram per hectoliter metric loo per cuhic meter

kilogram per Continental

horsepower kilogram per metric too

kilogram-meter per kilogram kilogram-meter per square centimeter

metric ton per kilometer metric ton-kilometer

Logarithms or Factors of Equivalence

3.74816 2 74816 0 54900

14 22 lb. per sq. in. 1.15300

O.S9 1b. per acre 1.94939

3 49 lb. prr acre 0 54282 0 102 short tons per

sq. Tt. T.01033

0 002 lb. per cu. ft. 2 79518

0 0S3 lb per gallon 2 91907

62.4 lb. per cu. ft. 1 79518

2.23 lb. per American

hp. 0 34830

2 lb. per short too 0 30103

3 28 ft -lb per lb. 0 51587 46 58 ft-lb. per sq.

1 77 short tons per mile 0 24797 0.6849 short ton-milea I 83562

O

Fr/m M/m Fr/t

Franc per meter Mark per meter Fraoc per metric ton

0 058 cents per ft. 0 072 cents per ft. $0.175 per short Iod

2 76342 2.85733 1.24303

O

M/t

Mark per metric ton

$0 216 per short too

1.33445

Fr/qm

Franc per square meter

SO OlSpersq. ft.

2.25527

M/qin

Mark per square meter

SO 022 per eq ft.

2 34242

Fr/cbm

Franc per cubic meter

SO 0054 per cu. ft

3 73239

M/ebm

Mark per cubic meter

SO 0067 per cu ft

3 82607

Fr/lia

Franc per hectar

SO 078 per acre

2 89209

M/Morgen

Mark per Morgen

SO 36 per acre

1 55630

Fr/h.p.

Franc per Continental horse-

$0 195 per American

 
 

power

hp.

T 29003

M/h p.

Mark per Continental horse-

$0,241 per AmericaD

 
 

power

hp.

I 3S201

Ft, Cal

Franc per calorie

SO 04S per B.t.u.

2.6S124

M/WE

Mark per Warmeeinheit

SO 060 per B.t.u

2 77S15

Fr/t-km

Frane per ton-kilometer

SO 2S1 per short too-

 
   

mile

T 44S70

M /t-km

Mark per ton-kilometer

SO 347 per ehort Iod-

 
 

mile

T.54032

Fr/kg

Franc per kilogram

S0.0S7 per lb.

2 93951

M/kg

Mark per kilogram

S0.10S per lb.

T 03342

Heat Units

   

Calorie

= WE (Warmeeinheit)

3.96S B.t.u.

0 59857

C/kg

Calorie per kilogram

1 .SO B t.u per lb.

0.25527

WE/kg

WurmeeiDheit per kilogram

1 80 B t.u. per lb.

0 25527

C/qm

Calorie per square meter

0.368 B t.u. per sq ft.

T 56584

WE/qm

Warmeeinheit, per square meter 0 36S B t.u per sq. ft.

1.56584

C/cbm

Calorie per cubic meter

0 112 B t.u. per cu ft.

I.04921

WE/chm

Warmeeinheit per cubic meter

0 112 B.t.u. per cu ft.

I 04921

[Journal, Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., May, 1913]

WRIGHT-CURTISS CASE REOPENS

The next move in the suit of the Wright Co. vs. the Curtiss Aeroplane Co. is now the trial of the cause on its merits, in final hearing, hefore Judge Hlazel in the U. S. District Court at Buffalo, X. Y.. commencing June 21.

Motion made by the plaintiff's counsel, H. A. Totilmin, of Dayton, who has been in this litigation since (he beginning, for argument on affidavits for

the issuance of a preliminary injunction was denied on May 11. Judge Hazel rendered the first opinion in the previous action in this famous case.

AVIATORS WANTED!

Aviators with machines at liberty are asked to communicate permanent address to Aeronautics.

Inquiries for aviators to rly exhibition dates are now on hand and coming.

Give fair references when writing, if not personally acquainted.

NEW COMPANIES

The Chicago Aero Works, established in 1909, has been incorporated (April, 1915) as an Illinois corporation. The officer are : President. Herbert S. Ren-ton ; vice-president, Maximillian Stupar; secretary, Antonia Renton; treasurer, Stanley H. Renton.

The offices of the company are at 143 Xorth Wabash avenue. Chicago. They have made practically all kinds of aeroplanes, from monoplanes to flying boats. However, they specialize in the Stupar Military Tractor Biplane. One of these tractors flew constantly for two seasons without breakage of an}' kind, and Earl Daugherty is now successfully flying another in California. They also deal in supplies, models, etc.

Wittemann Aircraft Co., airships, aeroplanes, motors, machinery; $300,000; James F. Middledith. Paul W. and Chas. R. Wittemann, 17 Ocean Terrace, Sta-pleton, S. I., X. V.

Edwards Comnion-Scjiise Aero,plane Co.. Tell City, hid.; capital. $2,000; to manufacture aeroplanes; directors. Chas. Herr. C. R. Clark, Louis Stamp and others.

rj E R O MART

WANT TO BUY an 80-li.p. Gnome or an SO or 90-li.p. Curtiss. Address John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics.

FOR SALE—Detroit motor, 30 h.p.. Bosch magneto, special Kingston carburetor, special mountings adaptable to monoplane. LTsed one hour, guaranteed better than new. $100.00 cash. H, c/o Aeronautics.

WAXTED—An old and, possibly, a wrecked aeroplane with motor at a fair price? Same is desired for the use only in the laboratory for class demonstration, and not for flying purposes. Address Box 146, X. D. Agricultural College. N. Dak.

4-CYLIXDER 50-h.p. Roberts with propeller hub and Bosch magneto, $450.00, thoroughly overhauled and guaranteed. Address R, c/o Aeronautics. 2t

6-CYLIXDER 80-h.p. Maximotor in fine condition. Complete with Mea magneto and propeller hub, $525.00, taken in trade on a new Roberts. Address R, c/o Aeronautics. 2t

FOR SALE—XEW $2,750 FRONTIER S-CYLIXDER S0-H.F. AEROPLANE MOTOR. GUARANTEED PERFECT. SACRIFICE, $050. COOKE. 127 WEST 64TH STREET, NEW YORK. 2t

FOR SALE—At the right price, one Baldwin machine with 50-h.p. Gnome. Good as new. J. W.. care Aeronautics.

WANTED — .Mechanic for Curtiss machine. J. \V„ care Aeronautics.

Page 93

BALLOONS

Airships, Aeroplanes, Gas Generators, Safety Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' Ba MADISON SQUARE,

Packs, Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with loons used by 95 of American and Canadian Clubs. BOX 181, NEW YORK

Aeronaut LEO STEVENS

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY

Books and Advice Free

Send sketch or mntUM fur search. Highest references. Rest Results. Prumptncss Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer

624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

Manufacturers want me to send them patents on useful inventions. Send me at once drawing and description of your invention and I will give you an honest report as to securing a patent and whether 1 can assist you selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 ye; Personal attention in all cases.

WM. N. MOORE

PATENTS

in ears.

Loan and Trust Building

Washington, D. C.

BALDWIN

■Balloons Dirigibles Fabrics Motors

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O., New York

BALLOOiNS DIRIGIBLES

Records prove we build tbe best Balloons in America. Nine 1st prizes. Three 2ml, anrl Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen Woiid-wide Contests.

Write for prices anil particulars.

HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 4460 Chouleau St. Louis, Mo.

AERONAUTICS

= The Leading British Weekly = E Journal Devoted to theTechnique E E and Industry of Aeronautics =

= (FOUNDED 1907) =

E 5 'early Subscription: E

E Two Dollars Ten Cents. Post Free ~

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■Head Office:

= 170 Fleet Street - - London, E. C. = = American Office: 250 Wesl 54th Slreel, New York E

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PATENTS

Frederick W. Barker

Attorney and Expert in PATENTS, TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS 28 Years in Practice

Coses prc]>uved and prosecuted ivith the greatest care and thoroughness, to ensure broad .'cope and validity

Direct Connections in all Foreign Countries

P. O. Box 139, Times Square Station, New York City

PATENTS

C. L. PARKER

Fx-member Examining Corp., II. S. Patent Odlea

Altorney-al-Law *od Solicitor of Paleols

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection ot the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bide. WASHINGTON. D. C.

Charavay Propellers

For Efficiency

THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc. 1733 Broadway, New York

Sole Manufacturers of Sloane Aeroplanes

DON'T wtite us un'ess

v_ * you are interested in a reliable, efficient and economic at power plant. That is the only kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works

Muncie, Ind.

r

BEN0IST «c—

Aeroplanes and Flying Boats

BENOIST AEROPLANE CO., Inc. Factory and Office 341 S. St. Louis Avenue

CHICAGO. ILL.

THE U. S. NAVY USES

^Because they are the best by a large measure and Proved Best by test and official report, ֪ Others use Plain Paragons because they are not only best but also cheapest. <jFor Efficiency-For Economy, investigate Paragons. No charge for information—No pay but for results. <I\Ye have the only propeller factory in America. Lar:-;>- stock. Quick shipments.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

...........................................................,.........................PARAGON PROPELLERS EXCLUSIVELY

AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 13

O

O

o

TRADE DIRECTORY (Cont'd)

WIRE AND CABLE

American .steel & Wire Co., Commercial National Hank Bids.,

Chicago, 111. Roebling's, .1. A., Sons Co.. Trenton, N. J.

MISCELLANEOUS

American Brass Co., Waterb iry. Conn. (Brass, bronze, German silver in sheet, wire, rods, brazed tubes, etc.)

Brnze Carbureter Co., 250 ft lutli St., Newark, N. J. (Carbureter hot air outfits, carbureter tubing, connections, check valves, flexible metal tubing, conduits, push and pull coils, flexible shafting and wire covering.!

Bretz, J. S., Co., 250 W. 54th S:., New York. (P.owden wire.)

Bind High Compression King Co., Roekford, ill.

Connecticut Tel. & Elec. Co., Meriden, Conn. (Automatic igniter systems, terminals for aero motors.)

Draeger Oxygen Apparatus Co., 422 First Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. (Make inhalators.)

Hartford Machine Screw Co., Hartford. Conn. ("Master" spark plugs, screw maehinerv.)

Hecht's .Magneto Exchange, 2P.0 YV". 40th St., New York. (Magneto repairing.)

Herz & Co., 245 W 55th St., New York. I Spark plug "Mercedes.")

Jolins-Manville Co., H. Y\'., Madison Ave. and list St., New

York. (Spark plugs.) Linde Air Products Co., 42d St. Bklg., New York. (Oxygen.) National Sales Co., 45 Milk St., Boston, Mass. (Ellis Gas

Purifier.)

Pawtncket Mfg. Co., Pawtucket, II. I. (Bolts, cold punched mils, special machinery from customer's patterns.)

Robinson-Roders Co.. 27 N. J. R. R. Ave., Newark, N. J. C'llanasilk" life preservers.!

Smith, W. R., & Co., 30(1 YV. 52d St., New Y'ork. (Repairs and all machine work.)

Spalding, A. G. & Bros., 520 Fifth Ave., New York. (Helmets and sport goods and clothing.)

Sperry Gyroscope Co., 12(i Nassau St., Brooklyn. N. Y.

Steinmetz Devices Co., Fourth and Market Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. \ 1

Washington Aeroplane Co., SOD Water St. S.W., Washington, D. C. (Columbia universal control.)

Whitney Mfg. Co., Hartford, Conn. (Chains, milling machines, machine keys and cutters.)

Whitaker, Morris W., 1 Madison Ave., New Y'ork. (Naval architect.)

ADDITIONS TO LIST

CARBURETORS

Johns-Manville Co., H. YV., Madison Ave. and 41st St., New York.

BOOKS

L

Send for new and complete catalogue

AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th Stieel, NEW YORK

, 250 West 54th Street, NEW YORK j

JUST OUT^1

FLEXOGLASS FOR WINDSHIELDS

A new material, suitable for windshields and windows on aeroplanes and flying boats has been put on the market by a firm in Xew York, tinder the name "Hexoglass." This is similar in appearance only to celluloid. It is non-combustible, proof against oil, alcohol, benzine or gasoline. It will not fade, is non-breakable, and can be glued, sewn or nailed. It can be procured in most any thickness that would be required. The same firm also imports balloon and

airship cloth, as well as aeroplane, fabric in linen or cotton, natural or bleached, heavy or light weight, and with remarkable strength, due to the quadrille feature, which eliminates ripping. Samples can be had from the Rose & Frank Co., 136 West 21st street. New York.

THE USED AEROPLANE QUESTION

Plans are already being made to dispose of the thousands of cars used in the war by the German armies. The

cars discharged from military service! are to be taken over by a special com-l pany, repaired and slowly put on theJ market during a three-year period. What of the aeroplanes?

STEVENS BUILDS POCKET AIRSHIP

A. Leo. Stevens & Company, the "company" being about 30 lbs. heavier and of the feminine gender, present compliments and advise the building of a new type, the Yest-Pocket Airship. One of these will be used at Palisade Park during this season. The pilot, Frank Goodale, has this apparatus sol constructed that he can fold it up veryl nicely, put it in his wallet, and one! would never know he had an airship with him. He inflates from a pocketl tube of a new compressed gas and starts! on his aerial journey

Goodale has been re-engaged at Palisade and is having a new airship oi more generous dimensions, built bjl Stevens, with which to give visible ex-l hibitions over and above Grant's TombJ

Remember, ladies and gentlemen, the big show in the main tent!—controlling "the largest flock of livers in America'! - -hurl themselves into space, 3,000 feed in the air. from a speeding aeroplane"—I "descend to earth by the aid of a Stev-J ens 'Safety Pack'"—"the greatest on the great"—this way, ladiesandgemmenJ to the T.ig Show! Yes, madam, buy! your ticket here—the free show has jusB concluded. This way, all a-b-o-a-r-d ! 1

ON THE DEATH OF LIEUtJ STOLZ

Lieutenant Stolz was at about an altitude of 100 feet, when the machine sud-l denly nose-dived and struck the wateij almost end on. Stolz's skull was fracJ tured and death was undoubtedly in-l stantaneous. The rescuing party was oil hand immediately, and the doctor ap-l plied restoratives within ten minutea after the accident, although it was fell! at the time that they would be of no! avail. The machine was practically a new hydroaeroplane of the Curtiss type, and upon examination after the accident seemed to be in good condition in every way and all the controls intact.

A board is now investigating the accident.

Walter Banning, of Lorain, Ohio, was at the Benoist plant last week, and on seeing the tests of J. E. Pepin's machine, equipped with a 100-h.p. Roberts' motor, ordered a duplicate for his own use, with the understanding that it was to be delivered by the first of June.

L. Q. Day, of Gibson City, 111., a licensed pilot from the Wright school has ordered a little Benoist tractor exhibition machine, to he equipped with radial motor. He expects delivery within the next ten days and is going into exhibition business. Dav is 17 years old, a student at the Illinois State University and probably the youngest licensed aem pilot in the world.

Page 95

INFLUENCE OF SIDE WIND ON VELOCITY AND DIRECTION OF FLIGHT

25 30

35 40 45 50

I. Angle of wind 30

Velocity . offllRbt

meters per sec.

A I E

75,0 23,8 I3,= 9.1 6,9 5,0 4 7 4.0 3,5 3,1

=,59 6,30 10,95 15,84 = 0,S=

=5,79 30,75 35.76 40,76 45,76

126,3 6,20

75,°' 5,54 38,3 8,07 =3,8 12,39 17,0 17,10 13,= =1.90 10.7 26,Sl 9," 31-7=

7.8 36,70

6.9 41-64

136,8 10.95 in,7 8,07 , 75,o 7,77 , 46,9 10,27 : -32.0 14,r6 =5,8,18,59 18,823,25 15.5 28,05 ■3,23=,S6 1I,5|37,78

140,9 15,84 ■=6,= 13,39 103,1 10,27 75.0 10,35 52 5 '2,6l 38.3 "6,14 =9.5,20,31

23.8 24,78

19.9 29,39 '7,0(34, '9

ՠI 143.1 =0,82 '33,0 17,10 I18.0] 14,16 97,5,12,61 75,o,'2,94 56,3 15,03 43,' 18,29 34,3 22,19 28,2 26,46 23,8[30,98

45

A I E

A I E

'44,4 =5,79 136,S 21,90 126,2 'S,59 III,7 16,14 93,7 15,03 75,0 15,53 59,0 17,50 46,9 20,54 38.3 =4,=o 32,0,28,32

■45,3 30,75 139,3 =6,Sl '3I,= 23,25 120,5 20,31 106,9 '8,29 91,0,17,50 75,o IS.I2 61,0 20,00 50,0 22,84 41,6126,36

146,0 '40,9 '34,5 126,2 "5,7 103,1 89,0 75,0 62,6 52,5,

35,76 j',72 28,05 24,78 22,19 =0,54 20,00 =0,71

'46,5 40,76 1 142,2 36,70 '36,8 32,86 130,1 29,39 121,8 26,46 111,7 =4,=o 100.0 22,84 87.41=2,52 75,o'23,29 I, 63,9=5,05 1

146,9 143,1 139,5 133,0

1=6,2

118,0 108,4 97.5 86,1 75,0

45,76 41,64

37,7S 34,'9 30,98 28,32 26,36 25,22 25,05 25,88

II. Angle of wind 60

15

A E

25 30 35 40 45 50

ռ/p>

60,0 5,00

30,0 8,66

■9.' '3,=3

13,9 18,02

10,9 22.90 23,4

8,9 27,84 19,1

7.6 32,80 16,1

6,6 37,76 13,9

5,8 42,7:

8,66 10,00 13,23 17.32 21.79 26,46 31,23 36,06 40,94

5,2 47,70 I 10,9 ]45,82

90,0 60,0 40,9 30,0

100.9113,23 79.ijl3.23

60.0 15.00

46.1 18,03 36.6l21.79

30.0 =5,9S 25,3 30,42 21,8 35,00

19.1 39,70 I7,o|44,44

106,1 18,02 90,0 17,3= 73,9 18,03 60,0 20,00 49,' ==,9' 40,9 =6,46 34.7.30,41 30,0 34,64

26.3 39,06

23.4 43.59

109,1,22,90

96.6 21,79 83.4 21,79 70,9 22,90 60,o125,00

51.1 27.S4 43.9.31,2=

33.2 35,00

33.7 39.o6 30,o|43 30

111,1 =7.84 100,91=6,46

90.0 25,98

79.1 26,46 6S,9 27,84

60.0 30,00 52,4 3=,79

46.1 36,06 40,9 39,70 36,6 43,59

112,4 32.80 103,9 3',23

94.7 30,42

85.3 30,42 76,1 31,22 67,6 32,79 60,0 35,00

53.4 37,76

47.8 40,94 43,0 44 44

"3,1 106,1

73,9 66,6 60,0 54.2 49,1

37,76 36 06 ^5,00 34,64 j 35.00 36,06 37.76 40,00 4=,72 45,83

114,2 42,72

107.8 40,94

100.9 39.7° 93,7'39,o6 86,3 39 06 79 I 39,70 72.2 40,94 65,8 42,72 60,0 45,00 54,8 47,70

47,70 45,82 44,44 43,59

"4,8

109.1

103.0 96.6 90,0

83,4 43,59

77,0 44,44

70.9 45,82

65.2 47,70

6o,o| 50,00

o

o

o

"A

o 2

H

u

X

< <

INFLUENCE OF SIDE WIND ON VELOCITY AND DIRECTION OF FLIGHT

Angle of wind 90

Velocity ol rlielit

43 50

III.

5

10

15

20

=5

30

35

40

45

50

E

A E-

A 1 E

| A 1 E

A ' E

1 A E

A E

A 1 E

A 1 E

A | E

45,0 7,07 26,6 11,18 18,4 15,81

14,0 20,62 ",3 ,25,48

30,40 35,35 40,36 45,33

63,4 11,18 45,0 ,14,14

33.7 '18,03 26,6 22,36

21.8 26,93

18.4 31,63 16,0 36,39 14,0 41,24

12.5 46,09 ",3 50,97

71,6 115,81 1 76,0 20,62

56.3 18,03 63,4 22,36 45,0 121,21 53,1 125,00 36,9 25,00 j 45,0 28,2s 31,0 29,15 38,7 |32,OI 26,6 33,54 33,7 36,06 23,2 38,08 29,8 40,30

20.6 42,73 26,5 44.7=

18.4 47,44 , 24,0 '49,24

16.7 52,20 ij 21,8 153,86

78.7 25,48 68,2 26,92 59,0 29.1*5 5',3 32,0' 45,o 35,46

39.8 39,06

35.5 ,43,02 32,0 ,47,18, 29,0 51.50'

26.6 155,90 ,

80.5 30,40

71.6 31,62 63.4 33,54 56,3 36,05 50,2 39,05 45,o 42,03

40.6 46,10 36,9 50,00

33.7 54.o8 30,9 58,32

81,8 35,35 74,o 36,40

66.8 38,08 60,2 40,31 54,5 '43,01 49,4 46,10 45,o 49 50 4',2 53,15

37.9 57,02 I 35,0 61,03

82,9 40,34

76.0 141,23 69,4 ,42,72 6.3,5 44.72 ;8,0 47,17

53.1 50,00 48,8 53.15 45,o 56,57

41.6 60,21

38.7 t64,03

83,7 45,30

77.5 U6.09

71.6 47,43 66,0 49.25 60,9 51,49

56.3 54,o8 5=,' 57,o2

48.4 60,21 45,0 63,64 42,0 67,27

84,3 78,7 73,3 68,2 6i,4 59,o 55,o 5'.3 .,6,0 45,0

50,25 50,98 5=,=o 53,85 55,90 58,32

6l,03 6-4.03

70,71

Change or course in degrees. E- Velocity of Flight in Meters per second with respect to the earth. To convert into ft. per sec. multiply all velocities by 3.28

Side wind* affect both velocity and the direction ot' flight. In the present tables A indicates the angle to which the direction of flight is changed for the angle of wind indi-

cated at the top of the table when the aircraft moves at the speed shown in the \ertical column to the left, w hile the speed of wind is thai indicated in the horizontal

>'olnnn ahove the letters A-E. The fivu-e^ under E indicate the velocity of the aircraft with respect to the g-ound under the ahove descrihed conditions.

O

O

o

Mayo Military Reconnaissance Tractor

90 H. P. Gyro-"Duplex' Motor

Gyro-"Duplex" Motor

ADOPTED BY LEADING CONSTRUCTORS

110 H.P. Gyro, 9 cylinders, weight 270 pounds 90 H.P. Gyro, 7 cylinders, weight 215 pounds

GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

N. Y. Office: 331 Madison Avenue

774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

inn.......i1!::"

BURGESS- Military Aeroplane DUNNE

furnished to

United States Great Britain Russia

Self-balancing

Self-steering

and

Non-capsizable

Form of wing gives an unprecedented arc of fire and range of observation.

Par excellence the weight and gun-carrying aeroplane of the World.

Tail-less and folding.

Enclosed nacelle with armored cockpit.

Speed range 40-80 miles per hour.

C :mb 400 feet per minute.

Burgess-Dunn* No. 3 Delivered tn U. S. Army at San Diego. December 30

THE BURGESS COMPANY, Marblehead, Mass.

Sole licensees of the American-Dunne Patents


No. 7, 1915, June

VOL. XVI. No. 7

JUNE 15, 1915

15 Cents

EROfMCTIC

ilkik

160 H.P. Model

The output of this model is sold for some weeks to come. Those desiring motors of this type should communicate with the factory at Hammondsport for the necessary arrangements for future deliveries.

All the important American records are held by the Cur-tiss Motor.

Modern factory methods and large facilities have developed Curtiss ^Motors to the highest degree of ■ .efficiency.

Simplicity of design and construction permit overhauling or re! pairing by any good mechanic, no

special knowledge being required.

Light in weight, yet not so light that durability and strength are sacrificed. The factor of safety is large in Curtiss Motors.

69

Curtiss Motor Co.

HAMMONDSPORT NEW YORK

m m

m

m

2476�14159248612

984554

AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 19

"AIRHOLE" AT LANDING.

The velocity of the air at the surface of the earth is not the same as at some elevation from it, and the air may be perfectly still at the ground level while at a comparatively slight height there may be a wind of some 10 m. (,32 ft.) per sec. This is due to the protection afforded the lowest layers of air by the unevenness of the earth surface.

If a flyer runs against a wind of 10 m. per sec, with an absolute velocity of 25 m. per sec., his relative velocity is 15 in. per sec., and when he suddenly enters a stratum of still air his velocity remains only 15 m. per sec. which is not enough for planing: as a result he hits the ground with a thud, having struck an airhole. In landing, it is always a safe thing to select a fully open place where there is nothing to keep the iciud out. The height of fall through an airhole is directly proportional to the velocity of the aircraft. Let G be the weight of the apparatus: v the velocity of the aircraft in still air; Vi the wind velocity, h the height of fall. Further, let -'i = 10. When the craft is in air having Vi = 10, its kinetic energy is

_ C v>

2g

where g = 9.81. When the craft passes into the air having ti = 0, it loses some of its kinetic energy, which then becomes G

A, = - (r-i-0'

The difference between the values of A\ and Ai indicates the kinetic energy A required to bring the aircraft back to the speed that would allow it to float in the lower air stratum. In this case Vi = v — 10. which gives after substitution: 10.C

A = - (v — 5)

3

What is wanted, however, is to establish the relation between v and h. When a craft of weight G falls through h, a kinetic energy A=Gh is liberated, and therefore G/i may be substituted for A in the preceding equation, which finally gives 10

h= — t> - 5).

g

But q is approximately equal to 10. and therefore

h = v — 5

may be accepted as being approximately correct This equation shows that the height of fall through an airhole increases with the speed of the aircraft, and that it is independent of the weight of the aircraft (the latter because G does not figure in the equation for h). Table 1 gives the height of fall through an airhole due to the craft corning from air moving against it at 10 m. (say 32 ft.) per sec. into still air, as functions of the sneed of the airship,— (Das "Luftloch" bci der Landung. K. Heinkel. Der Motorwagan, Vol. 16, No. 4, p. 91, Feb. 10, 1913. V/2 pp.. 1 fig. />/. A.)

(Table on Data Sheet No. 20)

AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 18

COEFFICIENT OF RESISTANCE OF SYMMETRICAL BODIES ACCORDING TO M. EIFFEL.

When a critical speed exists for a body here listed then the coefficient of resistance is given for velocities above the critical speed. When the coefficient is variable otherwise, then it is given for speeds around (0 mi. p. h. These coefficients should be sufficiently accurate between speeds of 30 and 70 mi. p. h. The metric coefficient Km is in kilos and metres per second—the Ke in pounds and miles per hour.

Km Ke

Disc (30 cm.) (coefficient increases with size

with a limit of K = .08)...................07 .0028

Sphere (for all sizes tested)................. .01 .0004

Cup. hemispherical, concave toward wind*.....10 .004

Cup. convex toward wind....................02 .0008

Cylinder, short. 1) = II......................023 .00092

Cylinder, long, less than......................02 .0008

Wire, all sizes ( at 22 m/s = .06 ].............065 .0026

Vibrating wires, same as above...............065 .0026

Inclined wires at 30° Km = .012 at 45° Km

= .028 .................................... — ■-

Cables, all sizes ..............................07 .0028

Strut, streamline, 74 x 25 mm................ .007 .00028

(*Cup, at 16 m/s speed, Km = .09 increasing to .10 at 26 m/s.)

—Compiled by M. P>. Sellers.

SPEEDS IN MILES PER HOUR REDUCED TO FEET AND METERS PER SECOND.

5 miles

per hour

_

7'/i ft. per

sec. =

2.235

mete

IO "

 

=

i4Vi " "

"

4.470

"

15 է

"

=

2itf " "

" =

6.705

*ռ/p>

20 "

" "

=

2g'/3 " ■ռ/p>

" =

8.941

11

25 "

   

36^ " "

 

I I.I76

11

30 "

<t (I

=

44 " "

: _

'3-4II

"

35 "

"

 

5'#" "

" =

15.646

11

40 "

" "

=

ssy} " "

" =

17.882

"

45 "

1* II

=

66 " "

"

20.117

 

50 "

II II

=

73/3 " "

" =

22.352

"

55 "

II (1

=

807-3 " "

"

24.587

t 1

60 "

II II

 

S8 " "

' =

26.822

it

70 "

II II

»

102^ " "

It __

31-293

 

80 "

   

117J/3" "

"

35-763

 

90 "

II II

 

132 " "

 

40.234

 

100 "

ՠI զ#9632;

 

146? j է "

" -

44,704

it

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St.. New York

Telephone. Circle 2289 Cable. Aeronautics. New V;rk

ERNEST L. JONES Editor

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor HARRY SCHULTZ Model Editor

FRANK CASH Ass't Editor

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22.under the Act of March 3. 187<<. 83.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.

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Make atl checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received 6 days before date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must be made for receipt and return.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

OUR TUTORS IN THE ART OF FLYING

By JOHN J. MONTGOMERY, Professor of Santa Clara College

[Editor's Note.—Professor Montgomery wrote the following article for Aeronautics after his gliding experiments were stopped at the time of the San Francises earthquake, but it has never before i.een published. It will be remembered, from Aeron'avtics for October. 190S. to January, 1909. that he built gliders with warping wings with which glides were made from thousands of feet in the air when freed from hot-air balloons, in 1904 and 1905. Professor Montgomery was killed in making some gliding experiments himself, October 31, 1911, having renewed his work in anticipation of building a power machine, with the aid of Victor Lougheed and James K. Plew, of Chicago. The full story of his life work was printed in Aeronautics for November, 1911, written by himself. Professor Montgomery claimed for himself the invention of wing warping.]

The airy waste around us impresses one as an unexplored and untried region, rilled with enchanting ideals and possibilities, and we contemplate with the keenest interest and cherished hope the performances of the feathered creatures that follow their lives of labor or pleasure in its free expanse. And though we may have become accustomed to the sight from unlimited opportunities of observation, we can never resist the temptation of watching the maneuvers of a large bird as it moves along its unseen path, without apparent effort, as if it were a creature superior to the gross things of earth. Each performance seems novel and gives some little light that leads us nearer to an understanding of the mystery and the solution of the problem. And as we observe the varied feats of the same or different birds under diverse conditions, we always find something to correct our first crude ideas .and expand the limits of our conceptions.

In the mountain regions, where 1 performed my first experiments in gliding flight, 1 have watched for hours at a time the easy, graceful movements of buzzards, in the hopes of catching their secret and imitating them. While I remained hidden in the bushes they would pass within a few feet of me, sometimes just above, then in front and again below me, gliding to and fro, tilting and

moving to one side and then the other; sometimes sinking and then rising. Vet all these movements were produced by changes in the adjustment of the wings or body too slight to be detected. P>ut in my crude attempts at imitation, under identical conditions, my gliding machine would make only short flights and gradually descend. And it not un-frequently happened, while I was floundering along in my machine, these birds would glide by time and again, or circle around, and. ascending in bounds, reach elevations of hundreds of feet in a few moments.

While the soaring of these birds is usually easy and graceful, it is not always so. Once during a fierce gale I noticed a buzzard, within twenty feet of me, fighting its way against the storm. There was no attempt at flight by flopping the wings; these were nearly closed, and the bird had somewhat the appearance of diving. It kept up a slight rocking movement, sometimes it would descend and advance and then ascend and recede: but it never varied its position more than a few feet, and though there were no movements in tin body, the act seemed to be one of an intense struggle. As the surrounding country was an open plain, there was no chance for protection in the lee of some hill, and there was nothing but a fair and square contest between wind and bird. Failing to make any advance it opened its wings just a little and shot upward with startling velocity, about three hundred feet, and receded about a hundred: and then continued its journey by successively diving and rising.

Movements somewhat comparable to these are exhibited by a species of hawk that sails at great height, watching for its prey, the California quail. When it sees its victim it dives from its high position with such terrific speed as to produce a loud whistling sound, and when near the ground, with its wings nearly closed, shoots horizontally, with the swiftness and directness of an arrow, through the flock of startled and swiftly flying quail. If it succeeds in seizing one. it flies away with its prey: but if not. it rapidly ascends on motionless wings to a great height, to repeat the attack.

We are accustomed to hold the eagle

as an ideal, and it is certainly worthy of all we think of it. and more. It alone impresses one that it is master of its domain. Its every movement conveys this impression; and they are all so complete and perfect that it teaches us how to glide or soar by demonstrating every change in adjustment with the corresponding movement through the air.

My favorite place for observing these* birds was a secluded spot on the side of a precipitous mountain, the home of nearly a dozen splendid specimens. As they would glide almost within reach— above, below or before me—every change in adjustment could be seen.

The turning or twisting of the wings or tail, the contracting and expanding of the wings and their backward or forward movements, with the corresponding evolutions, were all easily seen.

Sometimes they would engage in play or combat, and then their powers of flight, agility and mastery over the air were fully manifest.

And their control over every phase of flight, from darting down hundreds of feet below to rising hundreds above, to soar where'er they wished, was so perfect and easy that one irresistably felt that the mastery over the air must be within easy reach.

In the high mountains regions, especially those skirting the desert, we occasionally find the California vulture, a giant among birds, whose flight impresses one with its power and majesty. From some mountain tops they may be seen slowly circling and rising out of the deep canon below. And as they approach and glide by or circle with slow majestic movements over the awful rocky abyss, one feels an inexpressible thrill, and as he watches them gracefully rise thousands of feet above him and glide away to some distant mountain range, be longs for the time when he may securely rest on his wings and fearlessly ascend to these dizzy heights.

One of the plainest, most matter-of-fact and business-like exhibitions of soaring I have seen was that of a flock of pelicans that spent a few months rusticating on San Diego Bay. They were line specimens, with large golden pouches, pure white bodies and wings which were tipped with black. Those

that I killed weighed twelve pounds and their wings were nine feet from tip to tip. There was just a hundred in the Hock. They would fish for a while in the morning, and then go for a sailing excursion over the surrounding country. After reaching the height of about a thousand feet they would commence to soar in great circles, keeping in line, one after the other. Viewed from a distance, their column presented a series of waves, the indi\iduals successively descending and ascending.

Their wings were arched down and extended to their fullest extent. <ui watching these immense birds soaring on motionless wings, two striking points impressed themselves: First, there were twelve hundred pounds sustained and moving along without apparent effort; and, second, this not on a single surface, but several in tandem.

As a sharp contrast to the usually easy and graceful movements of soaring one may see, during ocean voyages along the coast, the wild flight of a large bird much resembling the albatross. It has very long and narrow-wings, which arch down, but from a distant side view look like two clumsy sticks. It never flaps its wings except in starting, and when once under headway it glides at terrific speed and. in the face of a strong wind, rapidly passes the vessel. Sometimes it circles around the vessel time and again. At times it skims along the surface of the water, at others it soars aloft, gliding away to great distances, then returning, but at all times tearing along as if it were mad.

Of the various exhibitions of soaring, that of a certain field hawk seems to bring the subject nearest to us. It usually Hies very near the ground, but sometimes starts to soar. In doing this it will fly upward about twenty feet, and then, spreading" its wings, will successively glide down and up, circling as it does so. The difference between its descending and ascending movements is peculiar.

In the descent, the horizontal motion is rapid, and the following ascent is quick and abrupt, almost suggestive of a jump. The rapidity with which it rises is very surprising and the transformation can hardly be realized. We see it flying here and there, barely above the ground, then it simply soars up hundreds of feet and glides away. The operation is so simple and easy, so near at hand and so often repeated that it is almost tantalizing.

In making mention of these few instances of soaring, I have presented them as 1 have found them, sometimes there was wind, sometimes none.

When one has on endless occasions seen birds rise thousands of feet, when there was not a breath of wind apparent anywhere, and when smoke in the neighborhood would rise vertically hundreds of feet; or when he has seen eagles easily soar aloft on the lee side of a mountain in windy weather; or when scattering thistle-down in a wind over a level plain, he finds it hardly rises 20 feet in a thousand, he is not bothered much by the prevailing, upward-trend-of-the-wind theories.

However, most of the instances 1 have

mentioned were selected because of the absence of wind.

On two occasions it was my good fortune to witness phenomena that brought the subject of soaring very close to us.

The first was at the head of San Diego Hay, where I noticed an object high in the air moving" slowly along. The sky was dotted with clouds and the prevailing wind was about 4 miles per hour.

The object was just below the clouds and moving with them, but seemed to be going faster. On viewing it through a strong field glass, I found it to be a large piece of light brown paper more or less crumpled and having a slight rocking motion. I started to follow it. hoping it would come to earth, but as it manifested no such tendency, but rather disappeared in the clouds, I abandoned the attempt. The second was at this college two years ago when my experi-l ments rather enthused the small boys and they took to making small airships! and parachutes and dropping them from the high buildings. They made parachutes out of light tissue paper, with a small figure fastened to the lower ends of the strings. All these come to earth in the regular manner excepting one, and this started on a cruise. When my attention was called to it. it was about a hundred feet high and slowly drifting' south. The movement of the air was southerly, but so gentle that it turned the anemometer on the observatory only occasionally, so that the velocity could hardly lie determined. Vet the little thing kept ascending and receding, taking a path about 45 per cent with the horizon, and in about twenty minutes was lost to view.

THE WILL TO FLY IN LITERATURE

By Prosper Buranelli

The aeroplane, as an object for the thinker, holds a unique place, in that it is a materialization of the most persistent dream which has haunted the human species; and is, as well, the most thorough and excellent embodiment of any dream.

At the dawn of history the will to fly-was venerable with age—yet no less vigorous with youth, nor has its vigor ever dimmed. Never so wide nor so ardent a contagion as the quest for the philosopher's stone, nor the moto pcrpctua, to mention none other: it has been more constant, more unobtrusive, too (you will say because it was more possible), and it is in every respect the type of aspiration which, shared by all men, and ֤eemed futile by most of them, has been followed by a few with desperate tenacity. And, now, it has been fulfilled— and well fulfilled. For the aeroplane, -even though it never be what is known to the generality of people as useful, is still the finest realization of a want well nigh essential to the human soul that lias ever been achieved.

Xot merely to fly has been the long-drawn cry, but to fly like a bird. The -very soul of the will to fly must be

sought in man's envy of the bird, of the mobility, the freedom, the power of the bird, and no mode of aerial locomotion could satisfy the "great heart of mankind" nearly as fully as the winged aeroplane.

The ancient longing for wings is dead. It is fulfilled. Nevermore shall a man envy the soaring eagle, nor shall a poet bemoan that man can only crawl. It is victory, and yet sadness must come to the meditative mind for the aspiration of the ages that is gone. Then it is well for one to betake himself to literature, the psychic records of our species, and commune with the will to fly as given expression by these tongues of human aspiration, the great creative artists of literature, and especially those of poetry. Geothe is the finest in this respect, I think. In Faust, to my mind, are the greatest expressions of our species' longing to fly which are to be found in all the reaches of art. The song of the spirits whom Mephisto conjures to lull Faust to oblivion, and. above all, Faust's great appostrophe to the setting sun. Act II, Scene 3, are transcendent expositions of the will to flv.

Here are presented several odd lines from the latter, translation of James Stuart Blackie:

The Sun slants down, the day hath lived his date,

But on he hies to tend another sphere. () that no wing upon my wish may wait

To follow still and still in his career! Upborne on evening's quenchless beams to greet

The noiseless world illumined at my

*fr ¥ -fc

The heavens above me. under me the sea.

A lovely dream! meanwhile the god is gone.

Alas! the soul in winged fancy free. Seeks for a corporal wing, and findeth none.

Yet in each breast 'tis deeply graven. Upward and onward still to pant,

When over us lost in the blue of heaven. Her quavering song the lark doth chant; * * *

Harry Payne Whitney is planning to become an aviator. He has ordered one I of the latest types of Burgess-Dunne 1 aeroplanes.

TECHNICAL TALKS—By M. B. Sellers

EIFFEL'S "NOUVELLES RECHERCHES"

Aerofoils.—M. Eiffel found that when the speed of the air current was varied. Kx and Ky for some wings also varied; the variation with increasing speed being always such as to improve the wing aerodynamically and to increase the lift ratio.

A number of wings were examined for lift, drift and center of pressure, about which I shall say more at another time.

Constantin Profile.—It was found that the modification of the entering edge of an aerofoil, by making it concave above, as shown in Fig. 1, improved both lift and lift ratio of some wings, especially thick ones, to an appreciable extent; others were improved only slightly or not at all.

TLLIXE PONTOOM

Howard Wright Profile.—This wing resembles two or more wings joined together, the under side forming a continuous curve. (See Fig. 1.) This showed fairlv good lift and efficiency: Kx

at 6° Ky = .044 and - = .08. The

Ky

center of pressure varies only 2'~< of the width between 5° and 15° inclination.

Entering Edge.—An entering edge with the convexity below (see Fig. 1, B) was found superior to one with convexity above (A, Fig. 1), up to an inclination of 3° in the wing tested.

Aspect Ratio.—Beyond an aspect ratio of 6 there is little improvement; for small curvature the aspect ratio may be less: for a camber of 1/30 it may well be 5.

Ol'TLiNE of Wing.—A trapezoid with the long base to the rear is better than when turned the other way, and better than a rectangle.

Tandem, Canard.—For a given spacing, between the forward and rear wings, the canard improves in lift and efficiency by decreasing the difference in inclination between the wings; for a given inclination-difference increased spacing improves the machine. An inclination-difference of 2° seems the best. Raising or lowering the rear plane has little effect.

(Continued)

Ordin ary Monoplane. — Spacing is of less importance than for the canard. The disposition of the resultants at various incidents is more favorable to stability than in case of the canard.

Tandem, Equal Surfaces.—The loss of lift due to interference is greater than in case of the two previous dispositions. Increased declination and spacing improve stability. The biplane is more efficient than the tandem except below 3° inclination.

( Jffsetting ( Staggering).—Offsetting top plane forward helps the lift; at 5°, Ky is increased from .05 to .06; but Kx is increased in about the same proportion, so there is no gain in efficiency. The increase in lift is obviously an advantage.

Aeroplane Models.—M. Eiffel examined a large number of models, about which 1 hope to say more at another

Kx

time. Here are given the minimum-

Ky

for some of them : that would be the minimum amount of thrust necessary to carry one pound (or any unit of

weight) : Bleriot = 0.2 at 10' ; Do-

rand 0.21 at 8° : Alorane-Saulnier 0.17 at 9.6°: Louis Paris mono. 0.12; Tatin "torpedo" 0.13; Letellier Bruneau 0.106; Bristol 0.16: Farman 0.23; Breguet biplane 0.14. The monoplanes require 5 to 6 h.p. per 100 kg., while the biplanes require 4 to 5 h.p.: this is due to the lighter loading of the biplanes. Allowing 2 h.p. for climbing and 70' i efficiency for propellers, we require about 11 h.p. for nionos, and 10 h.p. for biplanes, per 100 kg., or about 5 h.p. per 100 lbs. for monos, and 4^ for biplanes.

Wheels.—Five kinds of wheels were examined. The coefficient of resistance varied from .044 to .065 for the different wheels. Covering the spokes in the usual way (disc wheels), reduced the resistance 50'v. The four Farman wheels at 25 metres per sec. would offer a resistance of 7.6 kilograms uncovered, or 3.7 kg. covered.

Pontoons.—Three models of pontoons were tried: Fabre. Tellier and Breguet. The Fabre (see Fig. 1) was aerodynamically the best; the full sized pontoon weighs 105 kilos., and at 62 mi. per hour the lift would be 58.5 kilos, and the drift 9.55 kilos. The weight not supported and the resistance to advance would be only slightly greater than if a four-wheel chassis were substituted for the pontoon.

Fuselage. — Two Deperdussin and three Farman fuselages were tried. The Deps. gave the least resistance. These were of the "monocoque" type, one with the motor partly hooded (above) : the other with motor completely enclosed except for an annular hole to permit entrance of air for cooling. Without pro-

pellers these two had resistance respectively equal to an area of (1.178 and 0.150 square metres.

Propellers.—M. Eiffel examined 26 model propellers, about which I expect to say more at another time. It was found that when the relation of Y to XI) (Y = \elocity of air current in tunnel. X = revolutions and D diameter of propeller) was such as to make the efficiency maximum, then there was an acceleration of the air current approaching the screw of ll'r and behind it of V

2Y'<. If--diminished below this,

XD

then the acceleration before and behind the screw increased. It was found that two 2-hladed screws clamped at right angles so as to act as a 4-bladed screw, were nearly as efficient as both acting independently. When clamped at 105° thev gave slightly better results than at 90c.

CURTISS PLANT RUSHED

"Tony" Jannus is now associated with the Curtiss Aeroplanes & Motors. Ltd., in Toronto, Can., in the construction and operation of. various machines which they are building for various governments. It is impossible to give any details as to their construction, horsepower or requirements. To this point the various governments have especially asked the manufacturers to pay strict attention.

The largest training school, both land and water, which has ever existed on this continent is in operation. There are now thirty-eight students enrolled to date, all of whom have been passed and accepted by the British Admiralty or the British Army through their representatives at Ottawa. There is a waiting list of approximately six or seven hundred.

J. A. D. McCurdy is managing director of the Curtiss Aeroplanes & Motors, Ltd.

SIGNAL CORPS HAS FINE PLANT

Mr. Benjamin Foss, of the B. F. Stur-tevant Co., recently returned from the Pacific Coast and states that at San Diego, the V. S. Army Signal Corps has developed an excellent and efficient plant for aeronautical training purposes. He also states that Captain Cowan, who is in charge of the station, and his squad are to be congratulated upon the excellent results which they have achieved, the appropriations for aeronautical purposes being very small. He has under him at the present time thirty officers and as many more enlisted men. fourteen military machines being used.

The power required for the shop and for lighting purposes in anil around the camp is obtained from a Sturtevant gasoline generating set operating twelve to fourteen hours a day with unusual success.

THE CURTISS FLYING BOAT PATENT

The patent just issued to Glenn H. Curtiss (U. S. 1.142.754. June 8, 1915; original application filed September 6, 1912. Serial No. 718,840. Divided and this application filed June 4, 1913. Serial No. 771,b46) (see also patent No. 1.085,575. January 27, 1914) seems to cover for this country all hydroaeroplanes and flying boats, i. e.. combinations of air supporting surfaces with a central float-

A complete history of the hydroaeroplane art was published in Aeronautics, 'January. 1913.

The drawings illustrate the description in the patent, and as readers are familiar with the parts, there is no need to go into the details of this.

The operation of the form of the invention shown in the drawings is as follows: When the machine is at rest on

ing body portion. This patent does not cover balancing floats at the extremities of the main plane.

The Patent Office files give the date of conception as December, 1908; disclosure in Januarv, 1909, and reduction to practice in April. 1909.

After unsuccessful attempts, in January. 1909, with twin canoe-shaped pontoons fitted to the "June Hug," the third aeroplane built by the Aerial Experiment Association, delays occurred which prevented further trials of note until January 26, 1911, when actual flights were made by Mr. Curtiss at San Diego (see Aeronautics for March, 1911, and January, 1914) with a system of two floats arranged tandem, one taking the place of the rear wheels of the triangular running gear and the smaller one replacing the forward wheel. Next a single long boat was tried (see Aeronautics for above dates) on February 1, 1911, and subsequently. Then the experiment was made of Hying to a battleship, hoisting the hydroaeroplane on board and returning to the start. (See Aeronautics for April, 1911. A triplane was also Mown with a central float about this time.

It will be remembered that Curtiss flew with a land machine fitted with means for keeping the machine afloat should it fall in the water, at Governors Island. October, 1909, and from Albany to New York, May, 1910. It was not possihle with these latter machines, however, to fly from the water.

the water it is floated by both the forward and rear buoyant portions so that the tail portion increases the longitudinal stability of the machine on the water. When the machine is moving slowly through the water the bow rises and the tail sinks below its normal displacement, the elevated and upwardly inclined bottom of the tail permitting the tail to he more readily depressed with the tendency of the boat to rock rearwardly as it speeds up. As the boat increases in speed it commences to plane upward out of the water at a greater angle of inclination, and when it attains sufficient speed to bring it well up out of the water, due to the forwardly projecting part of the boat beyond the center of gravity and the proximity of the step to the center of gravity, the boat is adapted to rock forward upon the forward hydroplaning surface and travel on the water supported from the water upon said surface with the tail of the boat well elevated. When the boat is thus planing on said hydroplane surface, the bead resistance is greatly decreased, due to the decreased angle of inclination of the hydroplane surface to the water, the elevation of the tail portion and the decreased angle of incidence of the air planes so that the boat rapidly gains in speed to rise in the air, and, by means of the longitudinal aerial balancing planes, may be readily rocked rearwardly about the step 5 to a flying angle to rise from the water. Even if

the bottom surface of the tail of the boat should not be substantially out of the water at this time, the height of the bottom surface of the tail above the rear extremity of the hydroplaning surface will permit this rocking movement without the rear of the tail engaging the water to an undesirable displacement; and if it should engage the water, its flat surface will prevent undue suction of the tail in the water such as would hold the machine in that position.

ABSTRACT OF CLAIMS

In a hydro-aero machine, the combination of one or more relatively narrow main air plane supporting surfaces extending out transversely of the machine in lifting relation thereto; a relatively long, narrow, rigid floating means or central body boat with overhanging bow-floating substantially the entire machine on the water and comprising—a ( 1 ) forward buoyant portion having a fairly broad and deep hydroplane surface (as compared with the tail portion to render the.boat seaworthy, give lateral stability and accommodate an effective hydroplane surface) commencing at a point well in advance of the forward edge of said main planes and of the center of gravity of the machine, extending downwardly and rearwardly along the overhanging- bow at a relatively sharp angle to provide a gliding bottom giving substantial resistance to the boat's diving, thence rearwardly more horizontally in the form of an effective hydroplane surface of such length as to permit the machine to plane upon said surface on the water in gaining speed to raise the tail portion from its normal displacement to facilitate breaking from the water, terminating in a (2) rearwardly facing step in the vicinity of a vertical line through the center of gravity of the machine intermediate the forward and rear edges of the main supporting surface, said step terminating the lowermost hydroplane surface of the machine; and (3) a buoyant rear portion extending from a point in the vicinity of the said center of gravity vertical line to a point well to the rear of said line and aft the rear edge of said main air plane surface, the water-submerged side portions of the tail tapering rearwardly to form a tail portion decidedly lighter and of decidedly less displacement per unit of length when the machine is at rest on the water than the forward broad, deep buoyant portion, said rear portion having a bottom surface commencing at the rear of the step and higher than the bottom of said forward hydroplaning surface, inclined upwardly and rearwardly as a reverse hydroplaning surface beneath the tail, free of head resistant surfaces extending down to said hydroplane surface as would prevent the rocking of the machine about the step, whereby the machine may rock vertically about the step, forward onto said hydroplaning surface and plane on the water at speed with its

light tail portion raised above its normal displacement, with the air plane surface at an angle of incidence less than when the machine is at rest, in order to readily break from the water, when the boat is planing at speed, the machine when at rest being supported on both bottom surfaces of above buoyant portions to give longitudinal stability, the bow being free from aerial balancing and aerial propelling means:—longitudinal aerial stabilizing means located at the rear of the machine, means for driving the machine at such speed as to raise the tail portion and cause the entire machine to be lifted from the water, including an engine mounted above the central boat intermediate the forward and rear edges of the main supporting surface; an air propeller direct-connected and located substantially at the rear of the main plane: a cockpit and an upper deck portion extending from the nose of the boat upwardly and rearwardly to give the bow depth and protect the aviator from wind and spray, in the forward buoyant portion ; an aviator's seat, control mechanism for the lateral and longitudinal aerial stabilizing and for the propelling and steering means located forward of the aerial propeller and in the cockpit, whereby said stabilizing and propelling means are protected and a forward view of the aviator unobstructed by the same; a vertical aerial rudder on the stern of the tail portion and a stationary vertical tin in longitudinal alinement with the forward end of same : horizontal stationary air planes in each side of said h.n and elevators at the rear of said horizontal planes and in alinement therewith :—the 28 claims of the patent comprising combinations of all these separate elements severally and individually; the abstract above given, covering all qualifying combinations cannot be taken literally as representing the text of all claims, as it is a composite statement.

CURTISS OPENS BUFFALO SCHOOL

The Curtiss Aeroplane Co. is establishing a training school in Buffalo. Mr. Curtiss has donated a Curtiss flying boat to the Naval Militia of New York State and agrees to train one aviator and me-I chanic. This is primarily the reason for the locating of the school in Buffalo and any additional naval flyers desired will be taken here along with civilian students.

The site selected is an ideal one. adjacent to the Buffalo Yacht Club and fronting on Lake Erie. A standard Curtiss flying boat and also a large model "K" flying boat will be used. The hangar has been erected.

B. H. Kendrick's flying boat has just been launched at Hammondsport and will be taken immediately to Atlantic City. Air. Kendrick's home, where it will be used for passenger carrying throughout the coming season.

SECURITY LEAGUE ISSUES CALL FOR PUBLIC SUPPORT

Better coast defenses, a definite military- and naval policy, a budget system for appropriating money instead of the present "Pork Barrel" method in Congress, an effective mobile regular army, better go\eminent support for the Na-

in the districts of opposition. Steps have already been taken for branches in nearly 200 prominent cities.

All those interested in the work of the league are invited to send their names and any contributions to the National Security League, 31 Pine street. New York City. Membership is $1.00 yearly; contribulting membership, $5.00 yearly; life membership. $25.00.

f fs

4xi

tional Guard, and the creation of an organized army and navy reserve are among the platform planks upon which the National Security League is sending out an appeal for immediate public support.

Among the names which appear in the membership of this league for national defense are: Joseph H. Choate, former Ambassador to England, honorary president; Alton B. Parker, honorary vice-president: S. Stanwood Menken, president : former Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, chairman of the army committee; J. Bernard Walker, chairman of ihe navy committee; Benjamin F. Tracy, former Secretary of the Navy: Colonel William C. Church, editor of The Army and Xazy Journal.

In the call for support, the league points out that "until a satisfactory plan for disarmament has been worked out and agreed upon by the nations of the world, the United States must be adequately prepared to defend itself against invasion, and also that a military equipment sufficient for this purpose can be bad without recourse to militarism." The league was formed, continues the appeal, "as a preparation not for war but against war."

It is the present plan of the league to make national defense an issue at the coming session of Congress. With this program in view, branches are being organized all over the country, especially

MAYO AEROPLANE MAKES A SUCCESSFUL FLIGHT

The Mayo military tractor biplane, which was constructed in New Haven at the factory of the Mayo Radiator Company, has had its first flight, and from every standpoint it was a great success. Steve MacGordon, the pilot of international reputation, was at the wheel and he circled the Yale bowl and the surrounding territory for a period of 14 minutes.

WICHITA WANTS BALLOON RACE

Wichita is hoping to get the national balloon race. Such was tbe announcement by Walter P. limes, chairman, and Edward F. Mclntyre. manager, of the Wichita Fair.

Mr. Mclntyre asserts the city is located a greater distance from a body of water than any other place from which a flight could be made. The general direction of the wind during October, it is said, would send the balloons northeast, which allows them a distance of 1.000 miles without fear of dropping in a lake.

If tests to be made in Chicago prove satisfactory, natural gas can be used to till the hags, according to Mr. Mclntyre. He was assured, he said, that if natural gas cannot be used, hydrogen will be made.

U. S. MILITARY AVIATION

Lieuts. Kilner, Fitzgerald and Sutton finished the junior military aviator tests Saturday, May 15. In order to complete the straightaway 90-mile crosscountry flights, Lieut. Sutton, in Xo. 32, and Lieut. Kilner, in No. 27, flew from here to Long Beach. Cal.. each making the trip in about two hours. They were considerably held back by strong head winds. The same afternoon Lieut. Fitzgerald, in No. 32, and Lieut. Kilner, in Xo. 27, left Long Beach at 2.10 p. in., reaching their destination neck and neck, in an hour and forty-six minutes. Both machines glided in over the hangars and landed abreast.

The scheme of organization for the First Aero Squadron is now almost complete. Capt. 11. 1). Foulois, the squadron commander, is responsible for the details of the organization. He has been engaged on this difficult undertaking for the past eighteen months and has produced a very thorough and finished system. Capt. Foulois is the first military aviator in the world and has had a breadth of experience in both heavier and lighter than air craft, which makes him eminently qualified for this task. At present there are eleven officers in the squadron, and it is expected that there will be eight flying machines with the organization by July 1. These machines are of the Curtiss J.X. 2 type, and are now at the Curtiss factory awaiting the results of the tests of one. It is contemplated that fourteen motor trucks and two machine shop trucks, all four-wheel drive, and six motor cycles will constitute the transportation section, which is not yet complete in vehicles. The squadron is now organized for purposes of instruction and training into the following twelve sections: Heodquarters, supply, engineer, transportation and eight flying sections.

Tests of No. 41, the first of the eight new Curtiss tractors ordered for the First Aero Squadron, are progressing.

The automatic electric stabilizer, invented by A. J. Macy. and first demonstrated in Hopkinsville. Ky., Xovember, 1913, in a Day tractor piloted by De-Lloyd Thompson, has just had an exhaustive test at the Signal Corps Aviation School. The mechanism was installed in Signal Corps aeroplane Xo. 31, a Martin military tractor biplane. The machine was piloted on different occasions by Capt. Dodd, Lieuts, Taliaferro, Milling and Jones, Mr. Raymond Y. Morris, chief pilot, Curtiss California Company, and Mr. Oscar A. Brindley. civilian instructor in flying. After careful tests, these officers reported that the device kept the machine balanced, afforded automatically the correct hank for turns, made when the aviator used only his rudder, and that it was of such simple, rugged construction as ordinarily to preclude getting out of order. They further reported that the principle of the device is sound and good. Mr. Brindley stated his belief that a stabilizer will be of great aid to the operator in crosscountry flying, since it adds greatly to

the element of safety, to the ease of control, and reduction of fatigue on a long flight.

During the month of April 549 flights were made at the school, by twenty-one aviators, carrying ninety-eight passengers, for a duration of 141 hours and 14 minutes, and an approximate distance of 8,500 miles. One minor accident occurred at Brownsville, Texas, with slight breakage, and one machine was demolished at San Diego, Cal., without any injury to the pilot.

A board of officers is now engaged on a uniform for military aviators. At present the outfit consists of watch, aneroid, compass, helmet, gauntlet, leather coat, goggles and service uniform. The latest types of aircraft are provided with an elaborate instrument equipment, eliminating the necessity of carrying watch, aneroid and other bulky instruments strapped to the wrist and leg. Greater convenience and comfort are sought for the airmen, as the introduction of refinements has demonstrated their value in increased flying efficiency.—Army and Xary Journal.

NAVAL AERONAUTICS

We have fourteen aeroplanes at Pen-sacola. We have fonrteen navy air pilots (expert aviators), and we have eight student naval aviators, and a class of ten more are to be ordered on the first day of July.

ARMY CONTRACTS FOR SHEDS

Plans and specifications for the aeroplane sheds to be erected at the Army Post at Fort Sam Houston, to house the aeroplanes of the proposed aviation school, were opened at the national capital in the office of the chief signal officer, June 20. The two sheds each will house five planes and will cost in the neighborhood of $20 000. Corrugated iron will he used in the construction.

WARRING NATIONS

DROP MONOPLANES

For some time France has discontinued all orders for monoplanes, says a cable dispatch. The type was abandoned by Germany early in the war, and since then England has followed the example, so far as orders for additional aeroplanes are concerned. The monoplanes owned by the contending nations will he used less and less, and, according to present plans, no more will be ordered.

AVIATOR DESTROYS ZEPPELIN-ZEPFELINS RAID ENGLAND

Though Zeppelins have been seen over England and about the suburbs of London at various times, and bombs have been dropped, little damage has been done until the raids of May 31st and

June 6th. It seems most likely that the bomb dropping device which Germany | has been manufacturing has at last been put into use. In these two raids the casualties amounted to 24 non-combatants, with many wounded and fires started. The censor is keeping secret the names of the towns visited. The British viewed the havoc wrought "rather phlegmatically, as necessary and expected incidents of war. There was no panic and little excitement." But when French aviators dropped bombs on Karlsruhe "the pleasant little German capital went wild with consternation, the inhabitants ran into the streets half-clad, shouting and screaming. It was a terrible awakening for them to the realities of war."

The Evening Sun says :

"There is nothing unexpected about Germany's outburst of rage at the bombardment of Karlsruhe by aeroplane. What though it comes hot-foot upon the Zeppelin attack on London and is followed within twenty-four hours by the raid on the northeast coast of England, it stands out in the Teutonic mind as 'a nefarious and senseless art. . . .' They were startled out of the serene confidence in which all civilian Germany seems to have been nursed by the leaders of Kaiserdom—that feeling that nothing was too bad for England because nothing bad ever could or would happen to Germany.

"The Karlsruhe incident is lamentable. The entire system of air raiding is an abomination. Like submarine commerce destroying, it is a barbarous application of modern instrumentalities of war. But, of course, it is absurd to condemn the French for adopting by way of retaliation the German's own method, of which I they and their allies have been repeatedly I the victims since the very first weeks of 1 the war."

The first verified incident of an aviator destroying a dirigible was concerning R. A. J. Warneford, a Canadian sublieutenant in the Royal Xavy, who, on June 7th, attacked the Zeppelin, evidently returning from a trip to England, with incendiary bombs, causing its fall to the ground, wrecked. On May ISth three German airships were reported destroyed by gun fixe.

It is reported the British government is now building a number of large aeroplanes similar to the Sikorsky, capable of carrying five men and five times as much ammunition _as the standard machine. This is the line prophesied by Mr. Goldmerstein in a recent issue of Aeronautics.

NEW CORPORATIONS

The Bounds Aeroplane Company, Ma-dill, Okla.; capital stock, $3,500. Incorporators, Overton Bounds, I. E. McMillan and W. H. Baldwin, Madill.

The data sheets are great dope! I hope you will keep them up.—R. S. B., New York.

That data-sheet idea is a fine thing. Keep it up.—C. B., Minneapolis.

OF AMERICA J9 West 39th Street. New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

A gootl step was taken by the Aeronautical Society of America at its last meeting, when resolutions were adopted for the establishment of the Burridge Foundation as the result of a bequest to the society by the late Lee S. Burridge, its past president, who died May 4th last.

The purposes of the Burridge Foundation are to print and publish the transactions of the society and thus to give to the public the very valuable technical data comprised in the papers which are read before the society after they have been submitted to and discussed by its Technical Board, and reviewed by its engineering body known as the Aeronautical Engineers' Society. A further and highly important feature of the published transactions will comprise digests of all current data and accounts of improvements in relation to aircraft submitted from time to time to the society.

The value of this latter feature of the society's work cannot be overestimated, because it provides a publicity ontlet for the advanced ideas of aeronautical investigators, after careful consideration by competent boards and the elimination of matter devoid of merit.

The publication in periodical form of current available data demonstrating methods of development in the art and science of aeronautics is bound to prove of immense benefit to the industry in pointing the way to improved design and construction, and by creating contemporaneous records of otherwise obscure knowledge regarding individual investigation with its resulting bearing upon the art.

That its publication may be as complete and comprenhensive as it is possible to make them, the Aeronautical Society of America invites the co-operation of all aeronautical investigators, patentees." designers and builders to submit to it the novel points and facts, theory or practice which they are willing to make public for the general good of the industry, with the assurance of the society that the author in each instance will be given full credit for accepted data.

The importance of this work is incalculable, especially for the reason that the few manufacturers of aeroplanes in

this country are fully occupied with war orders for Europe, running their plants to full capacity in turning out their existing product, and cannot, therefore, be expected to devote much attention to costly, time-taking experimental work; wherefore the general art must depend for advancement upon the enterprise of new comers in the field, who may be expected to avail themselves of tbe latest knowledge extant in the natural order of competitive undertaking.

There are thousands of men all over the country working out plans and ideas for improved means of flight, and to America, which blazed the way to success through the works of such men as Langley. Chanute and the Wright brothers, should also belong tbe glory of developing the art of flying to its inevitable future status of being generally accepted most safe and practical method of transportation.

Memhers desiring to read papers before the Society for publication under the Burridge Foundation are requested to communicate with Rudolph R. Grant, Chairman of the Technical Board, with whom all arrangements may be made for the discussion and preliminaries.

Also, all persons having presumably original matters of aeronautical interest which they are willing to have digested and recorded in the society's printed transactions may submit this data to the secretary, whether it be in the form of patents, blue prints or written description. The Technical Board will then consider each subject as presented and prepare digests of all approved material for publication.

The Society invites, and sincerely trusts it will receive the hearty cooperation of all its members in the effort to make its published transactions, as far as possible, a complete record of contemporaneous progress in the art and science of aeronautics.

Henceforth, in view of the labors of the Technical Board the general meetings will occur only on alternate Tnesdays, the Tuesday evenings in the other weeks being devoted to the Technical Board meetings exclusively. This arrangement will prevail throughout the summer months. Therefore, the next general meeting will be on Tuesday, the 22nd of June.

Harry M. Jones thrilled thousands by his remarkable flights over Dorchester Bay on Memorial Day during the trial tests of his new tractor biplane. Traveling at an estimated speed of 65 miles per hour, at an altitude of a thousand feet, and carrying a passenger, he remained in the air for periods of fifteen minutes at a time, putting his machine

through all manner of manoeuvres.

He has selected a six-cylinder Sturte-vant motor for his power plant, and states that the wonderful success of his machine is due to a great extent to the splendid performance of the engine, which develops over 80 h.p.

A. C. PENN'S NAVAL STATION

The tremendous movement of national defense which is sweeping the country is meeting with big support from the citizenry as well as the governmental departments.

The Xavy having designated League Island as the Pennsylvania aeroplane station, the Aero Club of Pennsylvania intends to equip a real unit of national defense and is now arranging to erect a suitable hangar and in other ways pre-part this station.

Conscious of the value of this governmental concession and thoroughly alive to its increased responsibilities, the Aero Club of Pennsylvania has inaugurated a State-wide campaign, designed to extend its activities and stimulate interest in aeronautics throughout its geographical field of operation.

A stated meeting of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania was held in the Bellevue-Stratford. Friday evening. June 18th; also a meeting of the Board of Directors.

Plans for the erection of a hangar at League Island and the purchase of a military aeroplane was presented at the meeting.

PHILADELPHIA AERO CLUB

The Philadelphia Aero Club. Percy Pierce, president: Alan McMurray, secretary, has built up a live organization of thirty-odd members. In the three years' existence of the club five gliders have been built, shed. etc. One made some fifty flights towed by an automobile. This was described in Fly for November. 1913. Tiie club now has a tractor biplane in which tbe members are learning to fly at $10 a lesson, which keeps the machine in repair. While the machine has but a 30-h.p. Gray Eagle motor, air-cooled, the aeroplane serves its purpose.

An article in the July Scribner on "The Aeroplane in Warfare," by Charles L. Freeston, has all the interest of romance, but even- detail is fact based upon months of observation and special study. It gives the most complete information about the part aeroplanes are playing in the present war. There are stories of the exploits of daring aviators.

"The war has tanght us. it has been shown beyond doubt, that, to a large extent, an aviator may be said to bear a charmed life even when over the enemy's fire. Time and time again machines have descended with their planes honeycombed with bullets, and it has been shown that to bring an airman down by gun-fire or ride-fire it is necessary either to kill or wound the man himself or to damage an integral part of the machine to a degree that makes it uncontrollable. RiHe-fi.re has proved ineffective, save by sheer lack, but anti-aircraft guns are a more serious matter."

The aeroplane has brought entirely new problems into war, and the rules that were devised at The Hague Conference have been broken repeatedly. Just what the legal questions are that

are supposed to govern the new warfare is discussed clearly in an article in the July Scribner on "Aerial Warfare and International Law." The author. A. de Lapradelle. is Professor of International Law in the ITniversity of Paris. He has been lecturing" in America.

Guardian is asked for one young aviator and another aviator shot himself recently.

Rear-Admiral Bradley A. Fiske, at the Xaval Academy Alumni dinner, June 3, said:

"An attack by one of the great naval Powers is the only kind we need consider. What would be the character of the attacking force?

"Clearly the attacking force would be as great as the attacking force could spare in order to insure its success and minimize its losses. This means that the attacking force would include battle cruisers, dreadnoughts, predreadnoughts. scouts, cruisers, destroyers, submarines, mine depot ships, mine layers, mine

sweepers, airships and aeroplanes, ali fully manned, and all strategically directed by a general staff.

"What have we with which to oppose this force? A small number of dreadnoughts, predreadnoughts and destroyers than the enemy would bring; no battle cruisers, no effective scouts, one airship recently contracted for, only three good aeroplanes not yet ready, an embryonic aeronautical service, two mine depot ships, one mine layer and twelve mine sweepers: also about forty-five submarines of all kinds and ages, distributed over the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, Panama, Hawaii and the Philippines, none of which has ever attempted the feats like those so effectively performed in foreign navies now; and an inadequate merchant marine from which to get auxiliaries. To man even this insufficient material we have an enlisted force insufficient even for that in time of peace and no trained reserve; and no general staff or similar agency to direct the whole."

President Wilson says: "We are too proud to fight." Whv buy aeroplanes at all?

COMMUNICATIONS

To the Editor of Aeronautics:

Now that the time is Hearing for the advertised transcontinental aeroplane race*, the writer ventures to submit some ideas as to how the most efficient and safest aeruplonc should be made. as. aside from luck and the aviator's skill, the efficiency and safety of the machine will doubtless be the determining fact or s in the race. The objects should therefore be to secure the greatest speed and litt per horse power, to cope with upward, downward, rearward and lateral air currents, land at a slow-speed, rise in a short distance, etc.

the most efficient planes.

In order to secure the greatest lift in proportion to drift from the planes, 1 would divide a given amount of surface into very narrow planes and back-step (completely back-stagger i these planes instead of superposing them or staggering in the usual way. Even a superposed multiplane has been found <by Horatio Phillips) to be much more efficient than the same amount of surface (at the same angle) in monoplane or biplane form, on account of the very high aspect-ratio, and by hack-staggering entirely we prevent any plane from throwing air down onto the top side of the one below, and thus depressing it directly and also indirectly by annulling partly the lift-giving air rarefaction normally existing there; for the suction (except very close) on the one side of a plane or propeller (revolving plane) is negligible as compared with the push given the air on the other side, as is proved by holding one's hand alternately behind and in front of a revolving propeller or electric fan (evidently on account of the air coming in slowly from all directions as a result of the suction); while experiments with models (hy Tcherschersky) have proven that each plane of a completely back-staggered biphane has very nearly monoplane efficiency, instead of simply the upper one having such lift and the lower one having only two-thirds as much, as is the case with a superposed biplane according to Eiffel's experiments; while the head resistance of the upper plane is only one-fifth more than the lower. II ence each plane < except the uppermost ) of a multiplane would have one-half more lift (at the same angle) when back-stepped than when superposed, and as a superposed multiplane (say, with 3 or 6-inch wide planes placed their depth apart or more, the spacing preferably increasing from bottom to top) would probably give at lea>l one-third more lift (for the same angle an 1 amount

of surface) then when in monoplane form, the total lift would therefore be nearly doubled by changing from monoplane to back-staggered multiplane form; while with these very narrow planes the center of lift (erroneously called "center of pressure") could vary at most but an inch or less ordinarily. The back-stepped multiplane, unlike the superposed, would have govd gliding ability—solely for lack of which, in fact, the latter was at first abandoned. Lateral currents could but little affect these narrow-planes, and another advantage would be easily

and quickly variable angle of incidence, thus regulating lifting power and speed at will, permitting slowing for landing, quick rising, high altitude, etc. For this purpose, either the Venetian blind arrangement (only front pivoted) or pivoting the center of a stiff frame of the narrow planes could be used. Also, by curving or sloping the planes slightly downward towara each lateral end and providing upperside vertical or even dihedral sides there, the end losses

from the under side of the planes and the annulling of the air rarefaction on the top side near the ends are both prevented, giving still greater efficiency a method, by the way, applicable to all planes. A very light and narrow "soaring" strip hinged air-tightly to the trailing edge of the planes and allowed a little play between two stops would also, automatically, conserve the rarefaction near the rear of the top s'de, hy preventing the air from curling up over the trailing edge so easily. Air deflectors at '.ha top side of the entering edge, concave or

REAR. Euwrtcy

straight (the former patented recently), may also he used to increase the upper side air rarefaction and hence the lift, as ex|>eriments prove that they more than compensate for their head resistance. (See July. 1913, Aeronautics.) In a multiplane these air deflectors are doubly advantageous, because the upward trend is given to the air just before it strikes the plane next above.

{Continued on Pa.^e 10S)

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AERONAUTICS

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Aeronaut LEO STEVENS

AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET

No. 22

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"air-holes" and ailerons. For coping with upward and downward currents {''air-holes") these quickly variable planes would also be superior, especially if the parts on the opposite sides of the central part be made oppositely variable like ailerons, to be used when the latter are insufficient to restore lateral halance; a large and a small balancing lever being arranged side by side so that both may be grasped in the hand at once when so desired. The ailerons would likewise be made of back-stepped multiplanes, but would preferably be normally zero-angle, so as to turn equally as much upward on one side as downward on the other, thus making the head re sistances equal, so that no use of the steering means would be necessary in conjunction, and hence there would be no violation of the orig-

inal Wright patent; while the balancing is accomplished with smaller (and hence more efficient) angles of incidence, and with half the head resistance caused by the Farman system of ailerons (increasing only the low-side angle and decreasing the high-side angle to streamline), and much less resistance than even that of the German (simply producing a negative angle on the high side) or the Wright system.

downwardly turning sections.

Another means of coping with dow n ward currents is to divide the main planes into sections about a foot or two wide (laterally) and hinge them at or near their entering edge (or else at one lateral edge or diagonally between), so that they will automatically and instantly turn downward when a downward current

conies, letting it pass through instead of depressing or capsizing the machine; while these sections \\ill as quickly resume their normal position (up against the under side of the framework) when the pressure from the front or under side again hecomes normal-—greater than that from the rear or top side. (This arrangement is also to be used in connection with hovering cr vertically rising helicopters, the means for accomplishing which I will explain in my next article.)

two elevators for safety.

As to elevators, for safety when upward or downward currents are encountered, there should be both front and rear, interconnected ones composed likewise of back-stepped multiplanes (preferably front pivoted in an immovable frame).

principles of propeller efficiency.

In regard to propellers, ii is easily proven that greater efficiency is secured by slower speeds of propeller and greater areas of undisturbed air covered (the area of propeller circles heing in proportion to the squares of their diameters); also, that the greater the propeller speed (at any point on it) the smaller should be the pitch, while the greater the forward speed of the machine (relative to the air) and (to a small extent) the greater the blade width, the steeper should be the pitch of the propeller -—other things being equal, in each case. Also, it is easily demonstrated that end losses may be prevented with propellers (as with planes) by curving or hending the blad? somewhat backward (in its plane of revolution) from its ends toward its center, so that the air will tend toward there instead of the ends, especially the outer end (notwithstanding this is counteracted in a non-advancing propeller by the rarefaction-side centripetal in flow at the tips), and -that, by inclining the tips slightly forward (axially), making tbe slipstream flare, a large area of undisturbed air is acted on by the propeller tips during forward motion, and hence enough greater thrust secured to more than compensate for the small loss resulting from the slight angle of the thrust near the tips (as with the celebrated Oaruda propeller of Europe). The blade width should increase exactly as the distance from center. All these points would argue for variable-pitch propellers (if sufficiently more advantageous and if practicable), together with larger diameters (or greater number of propellers) and not too great speed, besides depressed blade centers and forwardly inclined blade tips, gradually increasing- in width from center. Hence the two oppositely turning, 8 or 9-foof. 12-inch wide, steep-pitch propellers of the Wright machine, revolving only about 500 r. p. in., give great efficiency; but I would substitute four propellers (above and below and one either side of center) of the same diameter and pitch, but only half the width, as they could be revolved at the same speed with the same power (by not crossing the chain and by arranging tbem as closely together as possible), and by thus acting on over twice as much area of undisturbed air they woidd give considerably greater thrust— theoretically at least 25 per cent. more.

two extra engines and propellers.

Then beyond the two lateral propellers let us arrange two more, similar in size and each directly connected to a quarter-size engine revolving in the opposite direction from the other, together with a toggle-jointed, slip-jointed, bevel-geared shaft connecting the two propellers, so that only temporary differences in tbe power of the two engines would be transferred from one to tbe other.

These engines would be sufficient to propel the machine in case of the larger engine failing partly or even entirely. All the propellers would preferahly be pushers instead of tractors.

reliable steering means.

These outer propellers would be variable angle or even reversible, so as to be used (he-sides as a brake for stopping quickly after landing) in steering more accurately and reliably than vertical rudders or even than lateral resistance surfaces; but 1 would also provide these for engine stoppage emergencies, placing a tall and narrow vertical rudder in both front and rear to cope with lateral currents striking one at a time.

Uncertainty in steering is also obviated by the singly-acting lateral resistance surfaces (preferably vanes on vertical axes), which have

CURTISS FACILITIES

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Information on Request

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Buffalo, New York

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Page 110

aeronauticsI

r

AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET

No. 23

1

HORSEPOWER FORMULAE.

Four-Stroke Cycle Engines. Authority Formula

A. L. A. II. and Royal Auto Club

D2N 2.5

Brit. Inst, of Auto. En. 0.45 (D-j-L) (D—1.18)

D=LRN

E. P. Roberts.

D = Diam. of cylinder in inches. L= Length of stroke in inches. R:=Rev. per min. of crankshaft. N —Numher of cylinders.

18.000

= H.P.

H.P-= H.P.

Derivation of the A. L. A. M. Horsepower Formula.

The indicated horsepower of a single-cylinder fourcycle engine is equal to one-quarter times the mean effective pressure P, acting throughout the working stroke, times the area of the piston A, in square inches, times the piston speed S divided by 33,000, thus:

PA.S

i. ii. p. = yA-

33,000

Multiplying this by the numher of cylinders N gives the I. H. P. for an engine of the given numher of cylinders, and further multiplying by the mechanical efficiency of the engine E gives the brake horsepower. Therefore the complete equation for I!. II. P, reads: P A S N E

B. H. P. = -

33,000X-J

The A. L. A. M. assumed that all motor car engines will deliver or should deliver their rated power at a piston speed of 1,000 feet per minute; that the mean effective pressure in such engine cyliuders will average 90 pounds per square Inch, and that the mechanical efficiency will average 75 per cent.

Substituting these values in the above E. H. P. equation, and substituting for A its equivalent, 7854 D", the equation reads:

90y.7S54 d2X 1.000 X NiV-75

33,000 X-f

and combining the numerical values it reduces tor B. II. P. = -

or, in round numbers, with a

2.4S9 denominator 2.5.

also been patented by the Wrights; and these in connection with both front and rear rudders would give a quite reliable and efficient steering system.

the high efficiency possible.

By embodying all or nearly all of these efficiency means for planes, propellers and controls into one machine, probably at least two or three times the efficiency of the present aeroplanes could be secured; for it should be borne in mind that they only lift 15 to 40 pounds per horse power, while birds lift 80 to 400. (A successful aviette might even be thus made, if both foot and hand power were used with a single extremely narrow, large diameter propeller and only a vertical rudder for con-

trol.l (>ne other device (hat might well be added would be an automatic balancer, such as the Sperry or Wright, but made instantly sus-pendable, however; this relieving the aviator when tired, or preventing him becoming so, thus enabling longer flights in the race. For automatic stability this multiplane might be built in the form of the Dunne Y-shaped aeroplane.

engine efficiency and reliability.

In regard to the engine, 1 would use a patented device for supplying water vapor to the mixture, thus preventing carbonizing, and would insist on several small extra exhaust ports like a two-cycle engine's, besides two oppositely-opening, reciprocating cam-operated, well-oiled

sliding exhaust valves in the head, with a large 1 oblong port, thus securing rapid, unobstructed and nearly complete exhaust. Also 1 would prefer two self-cleaning spark plugs in each cylinder near the intake (not the exhaust), a silver radiator (if engine is water-cooled), water-heated carbureter and air intake. It should be not over four to six-cylinder (to avoid excessive piston ring length and friction), i long stroke, well balanced, with light yet strong reciprocating parts (preferably steel), ball bear- < ings (the central bearing extra strong) and a single spiral pistol ring to a cylinder. But 1 believe a complete-exhaust, two-cycle engine (with light extra piston in head) will be the , engine of the future.

The writer has not patented any of the devices herein described, and anyone is privileged to use such of them as have not been patented by others.

ELMER G. STILL. Livermore, Cal., .May 24, 1915.

cAERO MART

HANGARS FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK

UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, AT OAKWOOD HEIGHTS, S. 1„ 35 MINUTES FROM SOUTH FERRY, IS A SPLENDID FLYING FIELD WITH HANGARS AT LOW RENTAL. SUITABLE FOR WORK OF DEVELOPMENT, EXHIBITION AND PASSENGER FLIGHTS. AERONAUTICAL AERODROME, INC.,

317 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, TEL. 1287 WORTH.

WANT TO BUY an 80-h.p. Gnome or an SO or 90-h.p. Curtiss. Address John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics.

FOR SALE—Detroit motor, 30 h.p.. Bosch magneto, special Kingston carburetor, special mountings adaptable to monoplane. Lised one hour, guaranteed better than new. $100.00 cash. H, c/o Aeronautics.

4-CYL1NDER 50-h.p. Roberts with propeller hub and Bosch magneto, $450.00. thoroughly overhauled and guaranteed. Address R, c/o Aeronautics. 2t

6-CYLINDER 80-h.p. Maximotor in fine condition. Complete with Mea magneto and propeller hub, $525.00, taken in trade on a new Roberts, Address R, c/o Aeronautics. 2t

FOR SALE—NEW $2,750 FRONTIER 8-CYL1NDER 80-H.P. AEROPLANE MOTOR, GUARANTEED PERFECT. SACRIFICE, $650. COOKE, 127 WEST 64TH STREET. NEW YORK. 2t

FOR SALE—At the right price, one Baldwin machine with 50-h.p. Gnome. Good as new. J. W., care Aeronautics.

WANTED —Mechanic for Curtiss machine. J. W., care Aeronautics

AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 21

AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 20

"AIRHOLE" AT LANDING

Continued from Data Sheet *Vo. 1'J

 

v in miles

 

v in ft.

   

t In km

per [iiin.

c in in

per ecc.

A in m

h In ft.

60

31

14

46

9

29.5

75

47

21

09

16

62.6

100

02

28

92

23

75.5

125

73

35

115

30

98

150

03

42

133

37

122

AERIAL BOMBS AND PROJECTILES

The accompanying chart has been arranged by Wilbur R. Kimball to represent graphically approximate data on falling bombs and projectiles. These values will lie modified by variations in the density of the atmosphere.

The vertical scales of fall in feet may be read for all three curves. The upper horizontal scale may be read for C and the lower one for A and 1!.

The space traversed for any second of time is twice the time (it)minus 1 times 16.08, represented by the curve A on the chart.

The total distance fallen in any number of seconds is graphically shown by the curve U. and is the time in seconds

squared times 16.08, or-

The velocity at the end of fall is gt, i. e., number of seconds times 32.16.

The velocity in feet per second acquired during fall is 8.02 times the square root of the space traversed.

If the projectile has an initial velocity of. e. g., 6-10 ft. per second (on C). approximately that of the projectile fired by a Zeppelin, the corresponding distance shown by the chart which it would have to fall to attain this velocity is 6,400 ft.; and the time required, 20 seconds.

To calculate the time of fall with this intial velocity, add the distances and subtract the corresponding times. For a projection of 6.000 ft., e. g.. add 6.400, making 12.400. requiring 27'4 seconds, less 20 = 7^4 seconds approximately. From curve A the space traversed in the 30th second is 944 ft.

(See Diagram on Data Sheet No. 21)

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Climb 400 feet per minute.

Borgess-Dunne No. 3 Delivered to U. S. Army at Sao Diego. December 30

COMPANY, Marblehead, Mass.

THE BURGESS

Sole licensees of the American-Dunne Patents

mm

Inniiill

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

THE WRIGHT FLYING SCHOOL

Located at Dayton opens May 1st, for the season of 1915. Tuition $250. No other charges of any kind. Enroll now. Booklet on request.

The Wright Company

DAYTON. OHIO New York Ollice: II Pin. St.

The 8-Cylinder 140 Horse Power

(REG. U. S. PAT. OFF.)

Aeronautical Motor

is the most powerful motor in the country that is thoroughly perfected and tried out. Sturtevant motors are used by the U. S. Army and Navy and all the leading aeroplane builders.

Oth

I 4-cylinder, 50 H. P. er s,zesi6-cylinder, 80 H. P.

Specifications upon request

m B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY Hydt Park, Boston, Mass. H


No. 8, 1915, June

VOL. XV1 No. 8

JUNE 30, 1915

15 Cents

im

EROWflflTIC

The output of this model is sold for some weeks to come. Those desiring motors of this type should communicate with the factory at Hammondsport for the necessary arrangements for future deliveries.

All the important American records are held by the Cur-tiss Motor.

160 H.P. Model

Modern factory methods and large facilities have developed Curtiss Motors to the highest degree of efficiency.

implicity of design and con-truction permit overhauling or re-airing by any good mechanic, no special knowledge being required.

Light in weight, yet not so light that durability and strength are sacrificed. The factor of safety is large in Curtiss Motors.

Curtiss Motor Co.

HAMMONDSPORT

NEW YORK

o

o

o

Weight in Pounds per Lineal Foot for Shelby Standard Cold-Drawn Mechanical Tubing

Based on weight of i cubic inch of steel = 0.2833 pound.

Outside diam. inches

iVa

iVi 1% 1V2

i*A 2

2\\ ?\'«

hi 3

3\i 3V2 3%

4

4« 4V2

4% S»

sVfe

5<J'i 6

Thickness in gauge and fractions of an inch

BWG BWG BWG

.141 .179 .216

■ 253 . 291 .328

.36S

ձ74 .236 .221 .301 .267 .367

314 .361 .407

մ54 .501

.432 .498 .563 .629 .694

54S .759

Via

.292

զnbsp;37S

զnbsp;459

■S42 .626

■ 793 .876 .960

1 13 1.29 1.46

1.63 1-79

.407

զnbsp;532

զnbsp;657 .782 .907

I 03

1.16 1.28 1.41

1.66 1.91 2.16

2.41 2.66 2.91

3->6

ՠSOI .668 .834

1.17 1 -34 1 SO 1.67 1.84

2.17 2.50 2.84

1.41

1.62

1.83 2.03 2.24

2.66 3.0S 3-49

3-91 4-33 4-75

5.16 S.58 6.00

6.41 6.83 7-2S

7.67 S.08 8.50

S.92 9-33 9-7S

1.13 1.38 1.63 1.83

213 2.38 2.63

763 8.14

8.64

9.14 9.64 10.14

10.64 ii 14 11.64

I S3 1.83 2.12

2.41 2.70 2-99

3-sS 4.16 4-75

S-33 S-9I 6.so 7.08 7.67 8.2S

8.83 9.42 10.00

10.59 11.17 11.75

12.34 12.92 13 SI

2-34 2.67 3-00 3-34

63 34 8.01 8.68 9 35 10.01 10.68 11-35

14.02 1469 '5-35

64

5-51 6.Si 7-51 8.51 9-51 10.51

11.51

12. S2 1352

14-52 15-52 l6.S2

17-52 18. 52 19.52 20.53

21-53 22.53

5-34 6.63 S.oi 9 35 10.68 12.02 13-35 14.69 16.02 17.36 18.69 20.03 21.36

22.70 24.03 25-37 26.70 28.04 29.37

9.18 10.85

12.52 14.18 15-85 17-52 1919 20.86

22.53 24.20 25-S7

27-53 29.20 30.87

32-54 34-21 35.83

20 IS 16 14 13 12 11 10

.035 .049 .065 .0S3 .095 .109 .120 .134 .156 .INS .219 .250 .313 .375 .500 .625 .750 .875

l.noo

o

o 3 ■o

Published semimonthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St.. New York

Telephone. Circle 22S9 Cable. Aeronautics. New T jrk

ERNEST L. JONES Editor

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor

HARRY SCHULTZ .Model Editor

| Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22. 1WS, under the Act of March 3. 1879. §3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.

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Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS

With this issue is ended I'olume XI'I. The issues for each six months have, up to and including Vol. XV. formed one volume. (For the years 1907 to 1913. inclusive, the magazine was published monthly and six numbers constituted a volume.) Beginning Januory \Sth. 1914. the magazine was published semi-monthly, making 12 issues to each six-months-vohtmc.

There should have been 12 issues for Vol. XV (July-December. 1914), and 12 issues for Vol. XVI (January-June, 1915). Ozi'ing to a lapse in issues and in order to bring the date of publication to that proper, I'ol. XV had but 8 uum-bers. the last thereof being dated October 31, 1914. Vol. XVI did not begin until March IS, 1915, so that to end it

with the June 30th. 1915, issue, according to the established custom, zvill necessitate its constitution of but 8 numbers also.

As stated in the March \5th, 1915. issue, subscriptions were set ahead so that every subscriber will receive the full complement of issues due. Indices are published in the last issue of each volume.

WHEN WILL THE OCEAN BE CROSSED?

By Joseph Brucker

FORMER EDITOR CHICAGO StaatS-Zcitung; COMMISSIONER TO GERMANY FOR THE ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION.

[Editor's Note.—-This article was written for Aeronautics in 1909 when Mr. Brucker was actively engaged1 in his plans to attempt a transatlantic ascent. These plans were eventually defeated and six years have passed, with the projected feat unaccomplished. The Wanamaker aeroplane trip was postponed, first temporarily, and then indefinitely by the war. When will the crossing be made by aircraft?]

Every new record gives a new impetus, and it will certainly be a historical moment when the first aircraft, of whatever construction, ascending in Europe, will land in America, or vice versa.

When Christopher Columbus sailed westward to find a nearer route to India, the caravels were gently driven by the ocean current and the trade winds toward the American shore. These winds blew so steadily that the sailors became very nervous about them, and thought they never could return to their old country. The science of meteorology has explained the nature of the trade winds, and it is not necessary to go into details about them. The name "trade wind" is only used by the English-speaking people. The Spaniards call these winds "passata," because they utilized them for the passage to America. The French call them "vents alizes"—uniform winds. The Germans have adopted the Spanish word and call them "passat-winds."

The Spaniards called that part of the North Atlantic Ocean which is blessed with the trade winds, "el Golfo de las damas" (Women's Ocean), because there even a fair lady could steer a vessel without special effort.

In the center of the North Atlantic, the trade winds reach from the 25th to the 30th degree of latitude in winter,

and from the 30th to the 10th in summer. Near the African Continent the limits run a good deal higher up during the summer; it develops its highest strength between latitude 25 and 15.

On Beaufort's scale the trade winds are registered with a strength of from 4 to 5. an average of 10 meters in a second, 600 meters in a minute, or 36 kilometers in an hour. But they reach even a strength of 45 kilometers, or nearly 28 miles an hour, faster than the record of any ocean steamer.

In the region of the trade winds, the wind blows gently all the year round; storms or calms hardly ever occur, and a passage in an airship from the lnsulae Fortunates (Canary Islands) to the West Indies would be a pleasure and could be accomplished in about four days, as the distance from Teneriffe to Porto Rico is only about 2,500 miles, while that from New York to Bremen is 4,235, and to Hamburg 4,320 miles, a distance which is traversed by the fastest steamers in eight days, none averaging more than 25 miles an hour.

The latest contests show that the trip in high air across the Atlantic is feasible.

In the contest of the American Federation of Aero Clubs, July 4, 1908, the balloon "Fielding," with H. E. Honeywell as pilot and F. D. Fielding as assistant, ascended in Chicago and landed at Shefford, Province of Quebec, Canada, traversing a distance of 896;/ miles and beating the record of the balloon "Pommern" (Erbsloch), which made 87634 miles.

In the James Gordon Bennett International contest. October 12, 1908, the balloon "Helvetia," with Capt. Schaeck as pilot, descended near Molde, Norway, and was 74 hours, or over 3 days and 3

nights in the air. [The distance and duration record is now 1,895 miles and 87 hours, respectively.]

The trip across the Atlantic should start during the last week in July. * * * [when] moon will be full * * *, and the aeronauts will enjoy fine nights during the week. Besides, the second rainy season in the West Indies commences about the middle of August, and that season, which brings heavy storms, must be avoided.

The start should he made from Cadiz, with the first station at Madeira, if necessary; otherwise at Teneriffe, a distance of about 1,400 kilometers, or 870 miles, which can be traversed in less than two days. From the Canary Islands the trip across the ocean can be made directly, and the balloon, traversing a distance of about 2,500 miles in four days, can land in Porto Rico, Hayti or Cuba.

Or it might be more feasible to fly from Teneriffe to the Cape Verde Islands, a distance not greater than that from Cadiz to the Canary Islands. The balloon can be refilled at Porto Grande and can from there fly to Barbadoes or Martinique, a distance of only about 1,500 miles, which can be traversed in three days.

The discovery of America by Christopher Columbus with his little caravels, the first crossing of the Atlantic by a steamer in 1833, the first cable message sent across in 1866, were great and memorable events in the history of the world.

The first landing in America of an airship which ascended in Europe would he just as great and memorable an event, and I will make it the effort of my life to accomplish this feat.

ARE WE TO REMAIN A MINOR AIR POWER ?

Asking whether the time has not arrived for the injection of aircraft into strategical and game-board problems and suggesting that the Naval War College impress upon the services the strategical and tactical aspect of aeronautics, Comdr. Thomas Drayton Parker, U.S.N., in the May-June Proceedings of the Naval Institute calls attention to the sluggishness of public sentiment in the United States in the matter of aerial defense, which apathy would have to be faced if a real effort were made to give to this country a really adequate aerial building program. While we Americans, he points out, jealously compare our navy, ship for ship, with the navies of other first-class Powers, we have been indifferent to the fact that the air navies of France and Germany outnumber ours in the proportion of about sixty to one. Hence a really adequate building program, though moderate in expense compared with that of naval increase, would excite amazement and ridicule. We should take 200 aeroplanes as absolute minimum, for with fewer we would remain a minor air power or no air power at all. Further than this, we must form an idea of the number that France or Germany, say, could bring to this side of the Atlantic in about five years from now, and make that number a desideratum in building.

Doubtless the suggested program of forty-eight aeroplanes and one dirigible represents all that can be attempted, but at this rate, if maintained, we should catch up with France and Germany in about twenty-eight years. After getting under way we could hardly build less for naval use than 100 planes and four dirigibles each year. With that modest program in force for four years, the naval increase budget, exclusive of the cost of hangars, masts, etc., would be $1,100,000 for the hundred planes and $1,000,000 even for the four dirigibles. This total of $2,100,000 would he about one-fourth

the cost of a battleship. The problem of personnel is not so difficult, as a flier can be quickly trained, and our navy list is strong in the lower grades where men of the living age abound. Judging from the mechanical ability and intelligence of our enlisted force, we shall soon have qualified fliers from forward. But to utilize these officers or men, immediate changes in existing law are necessary. Without a corresponding increase in the navy list, it is difficult to see how officer-aviators are to be provided in the navy too small already for purely marine purposes. Development in material will inevitably be retarded by the natural desire to avoid crippling the sea-going fleet.

Aircraft bombs appeal to Commander Parker as a grave menace to particular structures. Me quotes the testimony of Riley Scott, the inventor of a bonib-throwing apparatus, before the Military Affairs Committee of the House in August, 1913, in which he said he believed the Panama Canal could be put out of business in one or two hours by an enemy with a flock of aeroplanes which would drop one explosive after another either on the locks or in the Culebra Cut to cause slides by the shaking of the earth. Our best defense against aircraft attack on the canal is aircraft of our own. permanently based, like the submarines, on the Isthmus. We need strong aeroplane stations at San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle. Honolulu, Guam and Manila. The lack of proper aerial eyes for our fleet, the author ascribes, first, to lack of public interest in military aviation: second, to tardy service appreciation of its nature and importance; third, to a marked need of government support, and, fourth, to the backwardness of our aerial industries for want of fostering. After quoting the report of the Aeronautical Board, Commander Parker suggests that it will be a defect if in war the army aviators are

not available as a naval reserve and vice versa. The lack of a joint flying school or its equivalent seems to him to be a weakness of our dual organization.

As to which type, plane or dirigible, is best, Commander Parker says both types are needed and the dirigible without delay. Germany has "pulled the chestnuts out of the fire," her aviators having passed through fire and storm. France began building aeroplanes only and soon found that she must have dirigibles too. Germany began with dirigibles and now has as many aeroplanes as France. England built aeroplanes and is now rushing dirigibles into air. Every minute wasted now by us is a moment of danger.

The policy clearly indicated for us is this: Air strength superior, at the point of application, to that of the strongest opponent considered. As to whether we should build rigids, non-rigids or semi-rigids, the essayist says that we cannot build Zeppelins (rigids) before learning to make and handle non-rigids, and by that time the relative usefulness of the Zeppelin should be shown. The opportunity presented by this war is a golden one for us. We can utilize the teachings of the conflict. We can observe, prepare and obtain command of the air in the Western Atlantic. With a minimum of effort we can get an air fleet of the latest kind, always supposing we are not interrupted. As to dirigibles, we are fortunate in another way. A first-class shed is a necessity to a dirigible and the sheds of Europe have become too small. If, after training with a few non-rigids, we build only the largest air dreadnoughts, with revolving sheds to match, we can quickly rival those who have "borne the heat and burden of the day." Like Germany, we can standardize our aeroplanes and, building only the best, may find ourselves when Europe takes breath among the great air Powers.

AERO SQUADRON LEAVE SAN DIEGO

The First Aero Squadron, which will be composed of 20 officers, 90 enlisted men, and 8 machines, will not go to San Antonio until about the first of December. They will leave San Diego about the 25th of July for the Field Artillery School of Fire at Fort Sill, and will be used in connection with the field artillery during the Fall course of instruction.

The pessimism in the press about the condition of Army aeronautics is not warranted by facts. "We have at the present plenty of machines for our needs and can get machines whenever we want them. Everybody has overlooked the main point. It is not the number of machines that any nation has, but the number of trained fliers, or, in other words, the real fighting strength of a country is not gauged by the amount of material on hand, but the value of its personnel.

A storehouse full of field guns or rifles is of no value unless you have men trained to use them efficiently," said a high military authority on aeronautics to a representative of AERONAUTICS.

STURTEVANT WORKS NIGHTS

The B. F. Sturtevant Co. have found that their present facilities for the testing of their gasoline motors is inadequate, owing to the large volume of orders which are being filled for their eight-cylinder 140 H. P. aeronautical motor and consequently work is being carried on day and night in the erection of a new test plant. This building when completed will be devoted exclusively to the testing of the aeronautical motors.

The work is being carried on under the personal supervision of Mr. Noble Foss, designer of the eight-cylinder motor, and Mr: Channinghouse, an expert in charge ofthe testing of the motors.

The equipment will consist of the most improved and up to date machines including several large stands provided with calibrated moulinets. Nothing will he lacking in order to determine the oil and gasoline consumption, the brake horsepower and other tests with the greatest precision.

The new plant will be in full operation within a week.

TRINITY HONORS WRIGHT.

Hartford, Conn., June 23.—Orville Wright received the honorary degree of Doctor of Science at the eighty-ninth commencement at Trinity College, Hartford, June 23rd.

William Thaw is said to be the only American aviator actually at the front with the French aero corps. Six other American aviators, including Norman Prince, who has been training, near Paris, expect to leave soon for the front.

Page 117

DATA ON TURNBUCKLES

A most valuable paper to the engineer who may be working on new aeroplanes, or to the manufacturer of accessories, was some time ago presented to the Laboratory Committee of the Aeronautical Sociey, in England, by J. Erime-low and \Y. G. Mann.

Twelve tests were made with turn-buckles regularly on the market, each specimen being pulled to destruction.

Then the least area of gunnietal at 7854d,'-'X44

any section =-

20

7T

But this is equal to — (df—d") 4

therefore d/-=d,3X V X<1\ and dj=\ (d=+ ',' <lr).

In size 4 it will be seen that it is necessary to make the diameter at the adjustment bole d», larger than d-., as shown in Figs. I and 11. The length of this enlargement may he taken as 38-

The above tests were carried out at the East London College (University of London), and the authors are indebted to Prof. D. A. Low for his valuable supervision and suggestions.

TABLE I

TESTS OF ACTUAL WIRE STRAIVERS

Specimen

J

d,

d.

L

ir

K

E

F

Maximum load ■ lbs.

1(a)

J *

մ

■437

4-5

2-0

ղ73

^187

■490

3200

1(6)

 

4

մ37

4-5

2 0

ղ60

■187

մ90

2450

2(a)

T«"

■205

ճ14

4-0

175

ձ75

127

ճ7.5

1475

2(6)

Tb*

■267

ղ82

3-25

1-25

■214

ձ27

ճ73

lorn

2(c)

ih"

■294

ճ13

4 0

r-75

■185

126

ճ71

1475

2(rf)

le

■270

ղ82

3-25

1-25

ձ77

ձ27

ճ75

1250

*3 (a)

 

■230

ղ50

2-625

1125

ձ68

■09

■308

1000

3(6)

 

ղ30

■250

2-625

1125

■175

■09

ճ08

975

Ha)

 

ղ24

ղ50

2-0

■8125

ձ24

■072

ղ49

500

4(6)

1*

■193

■218

2-0

ո75

■124

հ72

ղ38

875

5(a)

s'V"

ձ40

ձ55

1-75

■75

ձ1

■064

ձ86

425

5(6)

is

ձ46

ձ55

1-75

շ5

11

հ64

ձ86

400

Broke in the guumotai pol

The strainers were tested complete in order to find the weakest part, and to provide data for the design of strainers of such dimensions that the strength of the gunnietal body portion should be equal to the strength of the steel screwed portion, at the bottom of the thread.

The sizes of the wire strainers are classified according to the diameter of the threaded steel eye bolts.

Table [ gives the sizes and breaking loads of the actual specimens. From these data the average breaking stress of the steel screw* was found to be 44 tons per square inch.

lit the first series of tests it was noticeable that, with one exception, all the specimens broke in the screwed steel portion. Several of the strainers were next turned down until the gunmetal portion was obviously weaker than the steel portion. Careful measurements were taken, and the specimens were again tested to destruction in a manner similar to that shown in Fig. 1. From these tests, and the single specimen which broke in the gunmetal portion during the first test, the average tensile strength of the gunmetal was found to be 20 tons per square inch.

The dimensions given in Table 11 were next calculated in the following manner, assuming Whitworth screws: d =diameter of steel bolt. di=diameter at bottom of thread (WhitworthL

Then 7S54d,"=area of steel at bottom of thread; and շ854di"X44-=breaking load in tons=F.

X.P.—In each test the steel portion was screwed in a distance M=3d.

For the center portion containing the adjustment hole. d:l is found as follows: ( 7854 d/ — ,d;,1 20=7S54 drx44=F

1 F

.-. d:,2---8<1»=

շ854

20x 7854

"One day in Chicago." said Beachey, 'I had just concluded one flight and ■vas preparing to go up again—[ was after the altitude record that time— when a young fellow bustled up to me and introduced himself as a newspaper reporter especially commissioned by his paper to write my obituary notice. He asked for an interview, but \ told him he'd have to wait until after my flight, as I was almost ready to go aloft and the crowds were waiting.

"But the fellow was not to he put off.

'"'Nothing doing!' he insisted. 'That probably will be too late. The old man saw you do your fool stunts this morning, and he sent me out here to get the facts for your obituary, so we can have it set up in case we need it in a hurry. There's no use, Mr. Beachey, in beating around the bush about this business; you've got to talk to me. You're going to slam down and bump the old earth good and hard one of these days—

DIMENSION'S OF WIRE STRAINERS.

14

6J" 3"

55" 2>*

4J* 2"

3J" . ir

2J- | I""

* For the nrst four size* tile diameter o[ tin- hole used fur adjuslmeut wai taken as the last ,'0*. as per tahle.

t The speeimtna in actual use give very approximately thr rules L = lsd and H =S1

or d.t:

whence d;:

ղ738-dn — -0636 F=0;

1-2738+\ 1-628-+-254

maybe today—and my paper wants to know what it can say about your past life. We want to get it all set up, so there won't be that to interfere with getting the details of the smash-up.'"

THE ZEPPELIN AS AN OFFENSIVE WEAPON

(From a Correspondent)

In view of tile repeated visits paid to England by German airships, and the consequently increased curiosity as to their capabilities, the present would seem to be a suitable opportunity for a discussion of the characteristics of a modern Zeppelin.

As a result of the descent of Z4 at Ltineville in 1913 we are fortunately in possession of tolerably accurate information on the subject, thanks to an article by M. Georges Prade, which has recently appeared in l.c Journal, and which, it is believed, embodies the details obtained by the French and British authorities in their examination of the ship.

The Z4 had a volume of 20.000 cubic metres and, therefore, a lifting capacity of slightly more than 20 tons.

Each of the 180-h.p. Maybach motors weighed approximately 1,000 lbs., and consumed about 100 lbs. of fuel per hour, while the weight of the "carcass" of the airship, without the motors, was 31,600 lbs. According to M. Prade, who may be accepted as a reliable authority, a 22-ton vessel, which is the army type, weighs about one-eighth more than the 20-ton ship—say, 4,000 lbs.—and the 28-ton naval type, having a volume of 27,000 cubic metres, has an additional burden of 7,700 lbs. to lift, giving a total "tare" of 43,300 lbs. for this type. Airships of this size require at least four motors, weighing in the aggregate 4,000 lbs., and consuming fuel to the extent of 400 lbs. per hour.

A crew of at least 20 men is carried, who would weigh an additional 3,000 lbs. Both the LI and L2 were manned by 28 men at the time of their destruction.

To attain a height of 6,000 feet the crew of Z4 had been compelled to jettison 6,600 lbs. of ballast, and a 28-ton vessel would therefore be provided with water or sand to a weight of at least 9,000 lbs. for this purpose.

This completes the sum of the data available, from which it is proposed to determine the capabilities of a Zeppelin of naval type effecting a 12-hour flight

with a crew of 20 men.

Setting forth the various items in tabular form, the following result is obtained :

Lbs.

Weight of "'carcass"..............43,300

Weight of four motors........... 4,000

Weight of fuel (.400 lbs. per hour) 5,000

Weight of crew ................. 3,000

Weight of wireless apparatus..... 200

Weight of ballast ................ 9,000

Gross weight ..................64,500

As already stated, the type of vessel under consideration is capable of lifting a gross weight of 28 tons, or 62,720 lbs., which shows a deficit of nearly a ton; a sufficient answer to the statement so constantly reiterated that a Zeppelin can carry a load of 5 tons of explosives.

The apparent liability of these craft to lift their own weight when fully loaded, without the addition of any offensive weapons, necessitates the consideration

of a feature in their design which is commonly overlooked.

All Zeppelins are fitted with a series of horizontal fins which, possibly in conjunction with the bottom of the gondolas and connecting gangway, act as aerofoils, and consequently exercise a considerable dynamic lift. According to an American authority, in an early example, this lift amounted to between 2 or 3 tons, which will undoubtedly have been improved upon in recent jears, so that it is safe to assume that in the "L" type this force will amount to some 4 tons.

1 f this be the case, with its motors working, one of these ships can in all probability carry a ton and a half to two tons of explosives in addition to machine guns when provisioned for a 12-hour cruise, but it is important to bear in mind that this is only possible when the motors are running. If the motive power fails from any cause, the aircraft would be compelled to descend, unless a sufficient quantity of fuel or ballast had been expended to counterbalance the deficiency in lift. This brings us to the consideration of a suggestion which has frequently been made that, with a view to surprise, a Zeppelin would shape its course to windward of the object, and, having stopped its engines, drift down over it.

It has already been shown that this is impossible for a fully loaded airship at the commencement of a long voyage, but it remains to be considered whether it is a possibility after a journey over the North Sea to the neighborhood of these islands.

From the nearest airship base in Germany to the English coast is nearly 300 miles, which, at an average speed of 35 m.p.h., would take Syi hours to cover, during which time the engines would have consumed about a ton and a half of fuel.

If the Zeppelin, then, set out with 1 yi tons of explosives on board, by the time she arrived here she would be approximately in a condition of static equilibrium.

This, however, does not take into account the almost insuperable objection to the course under consideration that an airship drifting with the wind in the manner suggested would not have steerage way and would, in all probability, yaw broadside on to the wind and become completely unmanageable unless the engines were restarted.

It will be noticed that by estimating for a flight of only 12 hours' duration the amount of fuel to be borne has been by no means overestimated, in view of the distance to be traversed in making a journey from the airship base to this country.

As the average speed of a Zeppelin has been said to be considerably higher than the figure mentioned here, it may be well to recall that on a recent occasion five hours was expended by a hostile airship in arriving at the English coast from a

point distant 180 miles, an average speed' of 36 m.p.h.

The weight of the explosive bombs habitually carried by Zeppelins is 185 lbs., while they are usually provided in addition with a number of incendiary bombs weighing about 20 lbs. each.

Having arrived at the conclusion that it is scarcely feasible for more than \l/> tons of explosives to be carried, it can be computed that the crew are in a position to drop 14 or 15 explosive bombs and some 20 of an incendiary nature, or, if preferred, 200 incendiary projectiles and 7 or 8 explosives.

This conclusion is confirmed by the experience of Alay 10, when 100 incendiary and 4 or 5 explosive bombs were dropped on Southend and district, which, one may assume, was the total number carried on that occasion, as it is unlikely that the ship would have returned home with some of her ammunition still unexpended, since there was apparently no definite objective in view.

TO AERONAUTICAL DERELICTS

In a letter from a reformed nut: As for my humble self—talk about turning Pegasus into a plow-horse, that is nothing to the spectacle of America's best aeronautic engineer serving as chauffeur to a hoe. So far gardening has not proved any more remunerative than aeronautics—and you know how much that is. I had no idea it took so long to grow tilings—everything but weeds, that is. However. I have a little kitchen patch that is supplying a daily contribution to my menu, and the lake is full of fish and turtles, and plenty of rabbits in the woods—so—on the whole զmdash;I should worry and get short-circuits in my spark plugs. Under such conditions the entire Allied Army can't starve me out, and that's more than you poor devils still aeronanting can say. Best of all, the outdoor life in the most perfect climate ever made is rapidly restoring my health. I'll soon be strong enough, at this rate, to operate one of those cute little man-power ornithopters your devoted friends are so often inventing and then getting sore because you won't boost them in the nut mag. And not the least charm of the life is its freedom and independence. I have hired a boy to come and wake me every morning at five, and say, "The Commander wants you to get up at once and make a recou-naisance over the enemy's lines." Whereupon I retort, "Tell the Commander to go make a reconnaisance over the northwest corner of Hell and from that point do a vertical volplane!" and go back to sleep serenely. Ah, this is the life! When at last the fateful day comes that you must get out of town two jumps ahead of your creditors, come to me and I'll give you peace and rest.

Yours to the end of the War.

RAUSENBERGER 12-CYLINDER MOTOR

The first 12-cylinder motor to be produced in this country is the "Rausenber-ger," manufactured by the City Engineering Co., of Dayton, Ohio. It antedates the 12-cylinder automobile engines now the latest in automobiledom. This motor was used by Cecil Peoli and attained prominence through his flights with it. The ban just put on aero engine testing at the Automobile Club of America prevents us from giving data on brake horse power, fuel consumption and the like. Several characteristics follow.

The cylinder dimensions are -Hs-iuch bore by eight-inch stroke. The valves are all in head and mechanically operated ; copper spun water jackets, two liosch magnetos, two Schebeler carburetors, oil system return type, water cooled, weight 5y0 pounds, 5 gallons water for cooling.

Cylinders are made from a fine grade of grey iron with copper skin water jackets with all valves in head mechanically operated. The pistons are made from same material as cylinders using three rings. Pistons weigh 2'/t pounds. Valves are of nickel steel, operated by rocker arms. All valve seats are located in cylinder bead.

Two model "L" Schebeler carburetors. 1-V.J inches, are used. One for each 6 cylinders, evenly distributing gas to all cylinders. The levers are connected together.

Water pump is of centrifugal type mounted on front of gear case driven direct from end of crank shaft.

Oil system is of the return type, actuated by a plunger pump driven by an eccentric on cam shaft. This pump has only one valve. The oil is forced

through all main bearings from where it distributes to splash basin. The surplus oil overflows back into oil pump, where it goes through a fine filter before it can return to pump. When the motor runs no smoke can be seen.

The crank case is made from a tough alloy of aluminum. Eight main bearings are located in case. On each bearings are two yj-inch special studs to hold bearing caps. Under each nut a flat machined washer is used to make a solid seat for nut. The nuts are hardened and slotted for cotter-pins. The gear case is cast integral on front end of case. On the rear end a long extension is provided for propellor clearance. The base of case has an oil reservoir with a capacity of 4 gallons. The crankshaft is made from Chrome-Vanadium, oil treated and hollow thruout.

Connecting rods are made from drop forged nickel steel of the I beam type. At the piston end a bronze bushing is fitted. The lower end has two special bolts to hold cap and liners.

All main bearings are made from Parson white brass of ample size.

An S. K. F. radial ball thrust bearing is used and runs in oil. This bearing holds the alignment of crank shaft and thrust from the propellor, no change for push or pull.

Cam shaft is made from a tough steel with all of the 24 cams out integral, hardened and ground. Seven bronze bearings support the shaft. This, too, is held in position endways by one bearing at the end allowing the shaft to float free.

Two Bosch magnetos are used, mounted on gear case cover and driven direct from timing gear. Bosch spark plugs and cables used. Metric threads.

GREAT ACTIVITY AT THE THOMAS PLANT

Behind closed gates and locked doors a small army of men at the Thomas plant are busily engaged making the new Thomas military tractors, which have gained wide international attention.

The Thomas Bros, hesitated to accept a large foreign order with specific "rush" clauses. To-day they are breaking the speed limit in furnishing machines much more promptly than asked for in their contract, and increasing the capacity of their plant by over a hundred times.

This company will soon be able to turn out, on the average, a machine for every working day.

The plant is divided into eight departments. At the head of each is an expert closely scrutinizing the work of each of his men. A special inspector carefully examines and criticises each and every part, the construction and the placing of each one of the thousand and one parts that go to make up the Thomas military tractor.

Personally supervising every phase of the construction of this machine are the Thomas Bros.' engineering staff.

To the observer who saw their plant three months ago, the growth seemed almost mushroom-like, but it is indeed not a mushroom growth. It was not, however, the work only of the past few months. During many years of experimentation and study, this company was preparing for this when their business would come into its own. Their dream has been realized and they are now fully prepared to meet the emergency that the demands of foreign governments and even our own have put upon the capacity of their skill and facilities.

Seven of the twenty-four machines which were ordered by a foreign government a few weeks ago have been tested and delivered. The rest of the order is in process of construction and will soon be ready for shipment.

With the orders for the construction of miltary tractors, another department of the Thomas Bros.'s business has had a phenomenal growth. At the back and front doors of this plant come prospective students from all over the. world, asking for admission to their school. Interest in aviation seems to be spreading rapidly, if the applications received by the company are any indication of the tendency.

With the erection of the new sheds, the long lease which this company was able to obtain for a straightaway, and the excellent facilities over Cayuga Lake for flying boats and hydroplanes, there is no school that can excel the Thomas. With experienced men to train the students in even' phase of the profession, with the constant supply of machines for testing and exhibitions, a student at the Thomas School can gain experience with rapid strides.

R. W. JANNUS OPENS AT TOLEDO

Rog'er W. Jannus, who for more than a year has been giving demonstration flights with his hydroaeroplane at Spring Gardens, has located at Toledo, Ohio. He will open a flying school at Toledo. The Jannus brother. Roger and Anthony, have delighted hundreds of Baltimoreans by their exhibitions, and those who have witnessed the flights will be sorry to see the young aviators leave.

THOMAS SELLS U. S.

The N'avy Department announced a contract for two tractor hydroaeroplanes at $12,000 each, to be delivered by the Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Company, of Ithaca, N. Y„ early in July. They will be used in training officers and men in handling this type of machine as compared to the pusher type now in use and tested for availability for use in rough weather.

CURTISS MAKING

AIR DREADNAUGHT

Charles M. Manly and Dr. A. F. Zahm are at the Curtiss works in Toronto working on a monster land biplane. The Toronto shop is in charge of J. A. D. McCunly. Tony Jannus has lately joined the Curtiss forces.

STEWART VACUUM

GAS FEED SYSTEM

The trouble of leaky pressure tanks and the neeessit3' for air or suction pumps are done away with by the Stewart vacuum gasoline system now being used on Curtiss aeroplanes. The illustration shows a special-built car so fitted to demonstrate that gasoline will run uphill—when properly induced. With this system the flow to the carburetor is actually by gravity, but the supply is taken from a large tank located in any spot where it is desired to have it placed.

The Stewart vacuum gasoline system comprises a small round tank, mounted on either side of dash. This tank is divided into two chambers, upper and luwer. The upper chamber is connected to the intake manifold, while another pipe connects it with the main gasoline supply tank. The lower chamber is connected with the carburetor.

The intake strokes of the motor create a vacuum in the upper chamber of the tank, and this vacuum draws gasoline from the supply tank.

As the gasoline flows into this upper chamber it raises a float valve. When this float valve reaches a certain height it automatically shuts off the vacuum valve, and opens an atmospheric valve, which lets the gasoline flow down into the lower chamber. The float in the upper chamber drops with the gasoline flowing out, and when it reaches a certain point it in turn reopens the vacuum valve, and the process of refilling the upper chamber begins again. The same processes are repeated continuously and absolutely automatically. The lower chamber is always open to the atmosphere, so that the gasoline flows to the carburetor, as required, uninterruptedly and with an even pressure.

The amount of gasoline always remaining in the tank gets the heat from the motor, and thereby aids carburetion, as also makes starting easier, by reason of supplying warm gasoline to carburetor.

Lower chamber of tank is constructed as a filter, and prevents any water or sediment that may be in gasoline from passing into carburetor. A petcock in bottom of the tank permits drawing off this sediment, and also allows one to

draw gasoline, if required for priming or cleaning purposes.

Address of the Stewart-Warner Speedometer Corp. will be found in your Data Sheets under "Instruments."

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS

IMPORTS

April, 1915 .................... none

Same period, 1914, part only... none Ten months ending April. 1915,

parts only ...................$ 2,291

Same period, 1914, parts only... 26,359 Same period, 1913, 13 aeroplanes ($50,920): parts ($1,7/6); total .......................... 52.696

DOMESTIC EXPORTS April. 1915. 46 aeroplanes ($318,492): parts ($39,086)........$357,578

Same period, 1914, 2 aeroplanes ($6,500); parts ($6,646); total .......................... 13,146

r

i'

I

Ten months ending April, 1915, 80 aeroplanes ($590,857), parts ($283,916) ; total ............ 874,773

Same period, 1914, 29 aeroplanes ($157,424); parts ($36,577); total ........................ 194,001

Same period, 1913. 25 aeroplanes ($73,450) ; parts ($23,524) ; total ............................ 96,974

EXPORTS OF FOREIGN

April, 1915 .................... none

Ten months ending April, 1915. none Same period, 1914, 1 aeroplane

($4,049); parts ($900).......$ 4.949

IN WAREHOUSE APRIL 31

1915. 1 aeroplane...............$ 1,856

1914........................... none

RACE AT PACIFIC EXPOSITION

Four balloons were on hand to race fin June 10 at the San Francisco Exposition grounds: George B. Harrison Jewel City): Leon Brooks (Venice); Clarence Drake (Queen of the Pacific) ; Edward Unger (California).

The high wind tore the Drake and Unger balloons and Drake hopped in the basket with Harrison, who was the only one to get away. Brooks' bag was torn as he got in. but he kept going just the

same, bumped over a few buildings, trees and other minor details and finally dropped in the bay and was rescued. The following day Unger repaired his balloon, and with Guy T. Slaughter, president of the Pacific Aero Club, went after 11 arrison's figure. I larrison landed at Collegeville, a distance of about 75 miles. Unger traveled 110 miles, to Patterson, near Modesto. There was supposed to have been some $10,000 in the way of a prize, but an unkind newspaper suggests the winner's share will be mostly glory.

NILES LOOPS WITH PASSENGER

On June 16th Charles Niles, the old Thomas Brothers flyer, later with the Curtiss contingent, looped the loop and flew upside down with Steve MacGordon in a Bleriot-type monoplane built by Harold Kantner of the Huntington Aircraft Company, on the Hempstead Plains. The motor was a 90-h.p. Gyro.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS

Philadelphia, June 17.—Thomas E. Eldridge and George H. Simmerman, president and vice-president, respectively of the Aeronautical Recreation Society, ascended in the Greater Philadelphia II. from Point Breeze. The balloon sailed over the citv and landed five hours later at White Bog, N. J.

BALLOON UP 28,900 FEET

San Francisco, June 21.—A height of 28,900 feet was reported reached by Edward Unger in the balloon Jewel City. This is believed to constitute an American record.

AVIATION SCHOOL FRAUD IS CHARGE

Becoming a stockholder and pupil of the Curtis Howell Aviation School of Richmond, Cal.. proved an expensive venture for Walter Herzer, a song writer, 241 Sansome street, who caused the arrest of Frederick V. Persons. 2712 Derby street, Berkeley, on a warrant issued by Police Judge Morris Oppen-lieini. Herzer alleged in his complaint that he was fleeced of $1,500, and accused Persons of obtaining money by false pretenses.

Persons, according to Herzer, represented himself as the president of the Howell School, and stated that the institution had more than sixty pupils: that the income from tuition amounted to more than $585, and that a $5,000 French racing machine was a part of the equipment.

It was upon these representations, Herzer stated, that he was induced to invest $1,500. All of Persons' statements, according to the complainant, were false. —San Francisco Chronicle.

WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT OFF

The new Wright-Curtiss suit was postponed, on motion, by Judge Hazel at Buffalo, on June 21.

NAVY STARTS CLASS

Nine officers on July I of the Navy and Marine Corps selected by the Navy Department to form the class in aeronautics at the station at Pensacola, Fla. The class will assemble at once.

The men selected are: Lieuts. E. F. Tohnson, A. C. Read; Lieuts. (junior grade) E. G. Has, R. Paunack, W. W. Corry, Ensigns J. P. Norfleet, H. W. Scofield, all of the Navy. From the Marine Corps, Lieuts. S. F. T. Evans and A. E. Cunningham were chosen.

MAY BE NEW RECORD

Stephen MacGordon and two passengers flew 1 hour 37 min. on June 25 at Hempstead in a Heinrich Gyro-motored biplane. The altitude made was 6.000 feet.

NEW CORPORATIONS

Russell Aeroplane Co.. Great Falls, Mont.; $20,000; E. L. Russell. Frank Hodeus. Albert Michalsyk, G. S. Russell, Geo. H. Minson, Hanson Brothers, Jess Pogreba, Carl Smith.

FOR SALE—Some used aeroplane motors at moderate prices. Also parts, propellers and accessories. Aircraft Co., Inc.. 1737 Broadway, New York City.

MANIMOTOR—6 cylinders, 72 H. P., used but one hour. Double ignition. Cost $1,700. Will sell to the first offer for $490 cash, as 1 need the money. Propeller included. Write L. W., Canton, O.

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AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

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OFFICIAL BULLETIN

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERS MEETING.

A special meeting: of the Aeronautical Engineers Society. A. S. of A.. Charles W. Howell in the chair, was held on Tuesday evening, June 30, at the rooms of the Aeronautical Society of America, for the purpose of reviewing a paper presented by Mr. Charles R. Witte-niann. which had previously been discussed by the Technical Board of the Aeronautical Society. The Engineers Society invited the Technical Board to join in its deliberations, resulting in an extremely interesting debate, which included a dissertation on the character of the turbulent motion of air created by a plane surface at a normal angle of attack in flight.

The Wittemann paper, which is devoted to a type of multi-plane machine, having large carrying capacity, capable nf making long sustained flights, received the approval of both the Technical Board and Engineers Society, and will now be printed and published in pamphlet form under the provisions of the Bur-ridge Foundation.

In the conrse of the evening a significant statement was made by Mr. Gold-merstein regarding the subordination of air craft to military needs, he saying:

"Stability is a secondary matter—efficiency also. The only reason for building an aeroplane now is for war purposes. The demand is for a machine to fly say a thousand miles and carry a large weight of explosives. If it is stable, all the better. If it is not we will put on it a more competent flyer, or a stabilizer. If it is efficient, very well. If not we will put more engine power into it. But it must answer the demand stated, that is the main point."

Members of the Aero. Engineers' Society in session at the above special meeting were: Frederick W. Barker, Merrill E. Clark. Lewis R. Compton. Leon Goldmerstein, Oscar Hermanson, Charles W. Howell and Walter V. Kamp. The Technical Board was represented by its members: Earl Atkinson. H. L. Coakley. Rudolph R. Grant, M. P.. Sellers and Charles R. Wittemann. Capt. W. I. Chambers. U. S. N.. also of the Technical Board, submitted

his views on the paper in writing. Other members of the society present were Edward 1 hirant and Ernest L.Jones.

Other papers are now in course of preparation, and will take the same course.

The general meetings of the Aeronautical Society for July will be on the first and third Tuesdays, and meetings of the Technical Board will be mi the second and fourth Tuesdays.

The regular meeting of the club was held at the Bellevue-Stratford Friday evening, June 18, President Joseph A. Steinmetz. chairman. There was a large and enthusiastic attendance. The chairman reported that a committee had visited League Island on June 16 for the purpose of inspecting a plot of ground that had been set apart by the government as the Pennsylvania Aeroplane Station and bad found it admirably adapted for the purpose.

An invitation from the commander, C. B. Price, lT. S. X.. to the members of the club and their friends to visit the Pennsylvania Aeroplane Station at League Island, July 3. by the government tug, was accepted and a committee was named to complete arrangements.

With the object of expediting the business of the club, sub-committees were outlined as follows:

Press

State

Municipal

Naval

Military

Legislative

Law

Finance

It was also decided to further stimulate Statewide interest by the appointment of club representatives in each county.

Pending the organization of a Pennsylvania National Guard and Naval Militia Aviation Corps, the generous offer of David H. McCulloch, of a Curtiss flying boat and his services as pilot, was accepted by the club on behalf of the State.

Increased interest in the club by additional enrollments was noted, and on motion duly seconded. Captain John J. Knapp. U. S. N., Commander C. B. Price, U. S. \\, and Lieut-Commander W. H. Hunt, U. S. N.. were unanimously

elected members Plans for a ladies auxiliary were also considered and proper action assured.

After general discussion of the current plans to raise a National Defense Fund to develop the Pennsylvania Aeroplane Station at League Island; increased membership; and the extension of the chili's influence throughout the State, in which every member present pledged his hearty co-operation, the meeting adjourned subject to the call of the president.

TEXAS AERO CLUB FORMED.

The Texas Aero Club was formed June 10th by San Antonio business men and Army officers.

The meeting was called at the suggestion of Brig.-Gen. Robert K. Evans, who broached the matter to staff officers at Fort Sam Houston on his visit a few days before.

The establishment, of the Army's school of aviation at Fort Sam Houston and the development of a strong aero club in the State, with headquarters in San Antonio, will make San Antonio an aviation center for that State, and may lead to the building of aeroplane factories there.

In this connection others present brought out the fact that 200 acres of good manufacturing site are awaiting acceptance by an aeroplane company with the proper financial backing.

By unanimous motion it was decided to organize the club and obtain a charter. A committee of five was appointed to work out the details of the organization and report to another meeting. The committee is composed of Richard Xeg-ley, Franz C. Groos, Chester Terrell. J. H. Savage and James Kapp.

Among those who have signified their intention of membership in the club are: Maj.-Gen. Frederick Funston, Rrig.-Gen. James Parker, Brig.-Gen. R. K. Evans, Lieut.-Col. J. W. Heard. Capt. W. G. Ball. Col. W. S. Scott, Maj. Leroy S. Lyon, Lieut. John H. Read, Jr., Lieut. Hornsby Evans. Leon Walthall. N. S. Graham, J. H. Frost, Abe Wolfson. 11. J. Gutman, C. H. Jenkins, Claude P.irk-head, Albert Kronkosky, Fred W. Cook, Charles Graebner, Jake Wolff. D. J. Woodward. Franz C. Groos, Winchester Kelso. J. H\ Savage. A. B. Weakley, Richard Negiey. R. C. Jones. Harold Kayton. Phil Jackson. W. J Deniger and Chester Terrell.

Seventy-five members are expected to join the organization immediately.

Gyro Motor Company should now be addressed at 774 Girard street, Washington, D. C., as the New York office has been closed.

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MODEL NOTES

THE SCHOBER-FUNK COMPRESSED AIR-DRIVEN MODEL

By HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor

3/16 in.; the rear wheels 2 x l/\ in.

The motor is a two-cylinder, horizontally opposed. The valve is rotary and the pistons are fitted with leather cups. The bore is 5-s x ss in. stroke. The motor complete weighs B}4 oz. The propeller is 15 in. in diameter. The complete machine weighs 2 lbs.

The model shown in the accompanying drawing was constructed by Messrs. Schober and bunk of the Aero Science Club. Many of the members of this organization have built compressed air motors and models for this type of propulsion. Recently Mr. J. MacMahon made a flight of 17 seconds with a com-

pressed air model, wliich is believed to be an American record for this type of model. The model herein shown was destroyed by the bursting of the reservoir before any extensive tests could be made. The constructors were positive that their model would have been a complete success but for this disastrous incident.

The model is a tractor monoplane as shown, entirely constructed of metal. The reservoir was of very best thin sheet bronze wrapped with thin piano wire and dome-shaped caps were soldered on each end. The reservoir also served as the fuselage, the tail and planes being elastically secured thereto.

The main plane had a span of 4 ft. 8 in., chord of 9V2 in. at the center, 8 in. at the tips, and had a slight dihedral angle. It was entirely constructed of flat steel wire with a bamboo main beam as was the tail plane.

The chassis was constructed of heavy piano wire built strong to protect the propeller, all joints on the chassis being wrapped with fine steel wire and soldered. Four steel rubber tired wheels were employed, the front pair being 1 x

TWO PASSENGERS KILLED

Ouincy, Mass., June 18.—An aeroplane plunged to earth with three men today, two of them dying as a result. George H. Hersey, Jr., of this city, a mechanician, was killed instantly, and William D. Ely of Providence. R. I., wdio was receiving flying instructions from Harry M. Jones, the operator of the machine, sustained injuries from which he died on the wa}' to the hospital. Jones probably escaped serious injury by falling on the bodies of the others.

Mr. Jones says that it was not a good flying day, and the machine did not have the usual lifting ability, although the motor was up to speed. He was attempting to carry an unusual load for the purpose of determining the maximum lifting capacity of his machine. It was necessary to make two attempts before getting off the ground and the machine climbed very slowly on a straight away flight for a distance of about one-half mile from the field. When he started to turn to the left and return to the field the machine dropped

rapidly on the turn and was seen to wobble considerably. Mr. Jones explains that he did this in an attempt to make his machine rise on the turn. Finding that he was unsuccessful he nosed the machine down for quick landing on the only suitable spot in the vicinity which was 75 ft. below and directly beneath him at the time. The machine continued in this dive until it struck the ground on a hillside and overturned.

Mr. Jones has no recollection of the happenings during the few seconds following his decision to make a hasty landing. Witnesses state, however, that the machine appeared to be coming out of the dive and expressed the opinion that if he had been at a higher altitude he would have made a successful landing. Mr. Jones either misjudged the distance or when he nosed the machine down the two passengers, one of whom was sitting on the other's lap, were thrown forward in the cockpit which threw the centre of gravity of the machine so far forward that it would not respond to the controls as readily as the operator has been accustomed to.

The aeroplane was inspected immediately after the accident by George H. Armitage, an intimate friend, who has made several cross-country flights with Mr. Jones during the past few weeks and was very familiar with the action of this machine in the air. Mr. Armitage states that the control wires were all intact and the only broken wire was one of the cross wires between the skids and he believes that the accident was caused by no failure of the machine. He further says that the motor was running at the time.

Jones had started a school at Squan-tum and since finishing his machine on June 1st he had made over thirty flights, the two most prominent being a flight with a passenger at a high altitude over the City of Boston on June 10th and from Boston to Providence and return on June loth, a distance of 90 miles. He never indulged in spectacular stunts, his bent being "straight" flying and all that knew him were impressed with the great care which he exercised. He is recovering rapidly and expects to leave the hospital within a few days.

In reference to Mr. Noble Foss' connection with the design of the machine it should be explained that this was confined to the motor only, which was a six-cylinder SO H. P. Sturtevant engine built by the B. F. Sturtevant Co. with which Mr. Foss is connected. The aeroplane was designed and constructed jointly by Mr. Fred S. Channinghouse of Quincy, Mass., and Mr. Jones and was a tractor biplane with (he Wright wing surface and warping control.

_

Aeronautics

Page 125

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Page 126

aeronautics!

INDEX TO VOLUME XVI.

Note. Volume I!started with the first issue, thru of July, 19!>7; Volume II started with the issue nf January, 190S; Volume f J J, with the July. 1908, issue; Volume IV, with the January. 1909. number; Volume V. with the July, 1*/09, number; Volume VI. with the January, l'Mo. issue; Volume Yll. with the July, 1'UO, issue; \'olume VIII. with the January. 1^11. number; Volume IX, with the Julv, 1911. issue; Volume X. with January, 1912; Volume XI, with Tulv, 1912; Volume XII. with January, 1913"; Volume Mil, with July, 1913; \'nlume XIV, with Tanuarv 15, 1914, and Volume XV. with July 15, 1914.

There are only eight numbers in \*olume XV. as explained in the issue of March 15. 1915, and in Volume XVI, as explained in the June 30, 1915. issue.

<July principal articles a*e indexed. Xew s notes in general and smaller mentions are not indexed. Page.

Accidents, Fatal:

Reachey, Lincoln...................23, 43

Xewberrv, Geo. L.................... 85

Peoli, Cecil........................... 38

Stites, Frank......................... 23

Stnltz. Ensign M. 1.................78. 94

Two Passengers with Harry M. Jones. . lib Aeroplanes with Variable I ncidents, by

M. P.. Sellers ........................ 3

Aeroplanes:

Sloane Tractor........................ 8

1 leinrich Tractor...................... 21

Huntington Tractor................... 25

Chris toff erson Tractor ................ 37

Rumpler ............................. *10

Bristol .............................. 55

Goupy ............................54, S7

Clement-Boy ard Armored.............. 68

Xieuport Armored.................... ''8

l'arisano ............................. 85

Nieunort <>nc-Seater.................. 8t

R. E. P. Monoplane.................. 87

Aircraft and Pence Treaties.............. 44

Aviators, Status ot Captured............ 75

Army:

Curtiss Tracings for Signal Corps. . . . 8(-, 101

IT. S. Military Aviation............104. 127

Contracts for Sheds................... 105

Articles, Principal (Nut Otherwise Indexed:

Aeronautical Reserve 1 Mans............ 126

Aeroplanes with Variable Incidents, bv

M. IV Sellers......................... 3

Aircnft and Pence Treaties........... 44

Are We to Rem tin a Minor Air Power? llo Elements of a Gyrocopter, by Emile Berliner.............................. 51

Future of the Aeroplane Industry, by

Leon Goldmerstein.................. 35

Holes in the Air. bv \V. J- Humphries,

Ph. D.....................3y

Conference. First Joint, on Aviation.. II

Navy Dirigible Specifications.......... 20

Navy Opens Bids for 9 Hydros........ 4

Offset Planes; Cunstautin Profile, bv M.

P.. Sellers ....................____ 67

Wing Profile of Great Unit Lift, by

M. R. Sellers ...................... 67

Colt Automatic ' Inn................... 10

Eiffel's "Xouveiles Kecherches," bv M'.

B. Sellers.......................... 8S

Data on Turnbuckles.................. 117

Dropping Messages from Aeroplanes.... 1-* Eiffel's ''Noilveilcs Recherche s," by M.

B. Sellers ......................... 101

Resistance of Bodies in Motion in a

Fluid, by M. P. Sellers............ 19

Our Tutors in the Art of Flying, by

Prof. J. J. Montgomery.............. 99

Story of Flight, by Wilbur Wright... 52. (19

Aviators, Status of Captured........... 75

The First Flying Model, by Wilhelm

Kress and * >. Chanute.............. 83

The Will to Fly in Literature, by P.

P.uranelli .......................... I0l>

When Will the Ocean Be Crossed? by

Joseph Brucker .................... 115

Zeppelin, The, as an Offensive Weapon. 118

Balloon Ascensions ..................7 6, 120

Rurridge, Lee S., Death of.............. 71

Clubs:

Aeronautical Society Bulletins........

................'.. 28, 46. 56, 71. 90, 105

Aeronautical Engineers Society......28. 122

Aero Science Club..................2S, 71

Aero Clubs of Pennsylvania,

46. 56, 90, 105, 122

Peoria Aero Club..................... 90

Philadelphia Aero Club................ 105

Texas Aero Club..................... 122

Harlem Model Aero Club............. 127

Colt Automatic Gun..................... 10

Conference on Aviation, First Joint....... 11

1 lata Sheets:

Guy Wire and Cable Data (1)......... 42

Guy Wire and Cable Data <2>......... 46

Official World Records (3 and 4)..58. 60 Trade Directory. 5, 6, 7, 8. 9, 10, 11, 12,

13, 62. 63. f-6, 74. 76. 78, 79. 88, 94 Compression Strengths ot Sheeting Tubing (16)........................... SS

Pounds (Avdp) in Kilagrams (16)...... 8S

Compound Units...................... 92

Influence nf Side Wind and Velocity

and Direction of Flight (14 and 15).. 95 Coefficient of Resistance of Symmetrical

Bodies (Eiffel), by M. IV Sellers (18). 98 Speeds in Miles Per Hour Reduced to

Feet and Metres Per Second (IS)---- 98

"Airhole" at Landing (19) (20).....98, HI

Density of Gas (22)................... 108

Horsepower Formulae (23)............ 110

Aerial Bombs and Projectiles (20) (21). Ill

Weights of Sbelbv Tubing (24)........ 114

Speed Table (25)..................... 114

Velocity of Rise and Lifting Power of Balloons (26)....................... 127

Dropping Messages from Aeroplanes..... 14

Eiffel's "Xouvelles Recherches," bv M. B,

Sellers........................____88, 101

Elements of a Gyrocopter, by Emile Berliner ................................ 51

Exports and Imports........7, 23, 58, 76. 120

First Flying Model, by Wilhelm Kress and

O. Chanute........................... 83

Future of the Aeroplane Industry, by Leon

Goldmerstein ......................* ծ 35

Holes in the Air, by W. J. Humphries,

Ph. D................................ 39

11 vdroaeroplnnes and Fying Boats:

"Benoist Boat, 1915..................8, 86

Christofferson Boat, 1915.............. 22

Jannus. 1915 ......................... 54

Curtiss Flying Boat Patent............. 102

Libellous Letters of Henry Woodhouse. . 70

MacMecben- Kamp Dirigible.............. 84

Models:

Schober Glider........................ 2(>

Obst Monoplane Flying Boat.......... 72

Schober-Funk Compressed Air.......... 124

Motors:

Sturtevant, 140 H. P.................6, 76

Mounting a Gyro..................... 9

Roberts 100 II. P..................... 10

Roberts 200 11. P..................... 10

Maximoior. 110-120 II. V.............. 20

Frederickson Two-Cycle............... 24

Rausenberger 12 cylinder.............. 119

Navy, United Slates:

Opens Bids for Hydros................ 4

Appropriation ........................ 14

Dirigible Specifications................ 20

Naval Militia Aero Corps...........36, 86

Inter-Aeroplane "Phone................ 36

Pensacola News....................... 41

Awards Contract to Burgess Co.,...... 58

Navy's Xew Air Craft................ 60

Buys Airship......................... 74

Equipment at Pensacola................ 104

Starts Class .......................... 121

National Advisory Committee............ 36

Offset Planes: Constat!tin Profile, by M.

IV Sellers............................. 67

Our Tutors in the Art of Flying, by Prof.

J. J. Montgomery.................... 99

Records:

New Record for Thomas Tractor...... 7

Endurance, by Lieut Jones........... 29

Hydroaeroplane Attitude, by Lieut. Bellinger ............................. 57

Official World Records..............58, 60

Xew Navy Record..................... 121

MacGordon and Two Passengers....... 121

Resistance of Bodies- in M otion in a

Fluid, bv M. B. Sellers................ 19

Stewart Vacuum Gas System............ 120

Story of Flight. The, by Wilbur Wright. 52, 09

When Will the Ocean Be Crossed? by

Joseph Brucker ...................... 115

Will, The. to Fly in Literature, by Prosper P.uranelli......................... 100

Wing Profile of Great Unit Lift, by M.

B. Sellers ............................ 67

Wrigbt-Curtiss Suit ...............9, 92, 121

AERONAUTICAL RESERVE PLANS

Plans of the War and Navy Departments for the eventual organization of fifteen aviation squadrons for the National Guard of the States and twenty-two squadrons for the Naval Militia have been formulated.

The Navy Department offers to loan aeroplanes to the Naval Militia, and the realization of the plan depends now almost entirely upon how quickly there can be gotten volunteers to form the corps. The Secretary of the Navy has authority to establish an aeronautic force for the Naval Militia, but there is not available the necessary fund to organise full size aviation squadrons. The Navy Department also offers to train the officers and men of the Naval Militia enrolled for aeronautic duty, and urges that they be sent to an aeronautic station of the

Navy, or to an aeronautic ship for training.

"It must be borne in mind." the letter states, "that there are not enough aeroplanes now available for this purpose." therefore it urges the Militia authorities to encourage public subscription to develop aviation corps for the Militia. This movement has resulted in securing aeroplanes for different States, as follows: A Curtiss flying" boat for Naval Militia of New York; a Curtiss flying boat for Illinois Naval Reserve: use of Curtiss flying boat and two biplanes for Naval Militia of Pennsylvania; use of Thomas and Sloane tractor biplanes for National Guard of Oklahoma; use of two Curtiss biplanes for the National Guard of New-York: use of Schmitt biplane for National Guard of New Jersey. The cash subscriptions received by the Aero Club

of America, it is announced, amount to almost $8 000.

The War Department's organizational plans call for the maintenance of an aero squadron of organized militia in each of four States, viz.. New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois and Texas. This number, the authorities urge, should eventually be increased to one for each tactical division, fifteen in all. An aero squadron consists, according to the Tables of Organization, of twenty-one officers and ninety-three enlisted men, operating eight aeroplanes.

Volunteers—men with knowledge of aeroplanes or gas engines and electricians with knowledge of radio as applied to aeroplanes—are urgently needed to make the realization of all these plans possible and to form the corps. Apply direct to the commanding officer of the Militia of your State.—Army and Xcivy Journal.

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AVIATION NOTES.

Signal Corps Aviation School, San Diego. Cal.. June 17, 1015.

June 8, 1915, was Admiral Howard's Day at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, in honor of Admiral Howard, commanding the Pacific Fleet. The ceremonies included a parade in which Cavalry, Coast Artillery and Navy contingents participated. During the parade three Army aeroplanes Hew over the city and the exposition.

During the past week Lieuts. Mac Dill and Christie undertook their J. M. A. tests. Lieut. Christie completed his tests without incident. Lieut. MacDill on his 90-mile straightaway encountered such strong head winds that it took him three hours to cover 88 miles. Within two miles of his destination he was required to make a forced landing with a dead motor and to land in a ploughed field. The machine was unable to get a footing in the soft earth and went over on its nose, dishing a wheel and damaging the planes.

Lieut. FitzGerald, piloting aeroplane No. 38 (Martin tractor), with Lieut. Ciorrell as passenger, Saturday, June 12, made a flight to Long Beach. Lieut. Christie piloted the machine on the return flight for an official J. M. A. test.

The House Appropriation Committee visited the aerodrome last week. Each member made a flight in (he living boat No. 34. with Mr. Francis Wildman. the flying boat instructor, piloting.

A new water hangar is being constructed to house the Burgess-Dunne (S.C. aeroplane No. 361, which will be equipped with pontoons and assigned to hydro duty. The machine will be used for experimental work in connection with Coast Artillery service. Plans are now contemplated for further extension and development of the hydro organization.

Two new OX motors and two new Martin machines, type TT (military tractor) have been ordered delivered on July 1 for the training department. At the present time there are thirteen student aviators (officers) and eight enlisted men under training.

Lieut. Chapman flew from Xorth Island to Long Beach June 16, piloting S.C. aeroplane No. 37. Lieut. MacDill flew the machine back on his official J. M. A. ^'O-mile cross-country flight on June 17.

Mr. Raymund Y. Morris, chief pilot and general manager of the Curtiss California company, was married to Miss Grace Gibson at Coronado, Cal.. June 12. at noon. The bride and groom departed that afternoon for Los Angeles, and the following day left for a honeymoon trip to New York.

The Curtiss Aeroplane Company has խtarted work on a steel frame paint shop in connection with its plant in Churchill street, Buffalo, to cost $4,000.

HARLEM MODEL AERO CLUB FORMS.

On the 25th of June, 1915, the Harlem Model Aero Cub formed. The following officers were elected : Harry Schultz, President; Alfred K. Parker, Vice-President; George A. Cavanagh, Secretary; George Bauer, Treasurer.

Immediately after its organization a great number of applications for membership were received and which will be given attention in due course.

The purpose of the organization is to promote model Hying and experimentation of all kinds, to engage in model contests, hold model contents of all kinds and to enter competition with other clubs.

The club announces its intention to enter the coming National and Inter-Club contents, its representatives in those contests being Messrs. Marker. Bauer, Cavanagh and Schultz and possibly several other well known model flyers connected with the club.

Further information regarding the Club will be furnished by Harry Schultz. President. No. 23 West 106th Street. New York City.

I beg to advise you that the advertisement (one insertion) inserted in your magazine has brought in about 10 to 12 replies; and in that lot were two parties with just what was needed. —An Advertiser.

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

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