American Magazine of Aeronautics: Volume 15, 1914 - No. 1, 1914, July - No. 2, 1914, July - No. 3, 1914, August - No. 4, 1914, August - No. 5, 1914, September - No. 6, 1914, September - No. 7, 1914, October - No. 8, 1914, October to 1915, February - Aviation - Flying - Airport - Aerodrome - Aircraft

March 3, 2020

Discover the American Magazine of Aeronautics (Volume 15, 1914)
» No. 1, 1914, July
» No. 2, 1914, July
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» No. 5, 1914, September
» No. 6, 1914, September
» No. 7, 1914, October
» No. 8, 1914, October to 1915, February


No. 1, 1914, July

XV. No. 1 JULY 15, 1914 ** *>nts

-"\

No king ever enjoyed such sport as this. Four to five hundred miles without pause, at a speed of more than a mile a minute.

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PlT, ? AERONAUTICS. Tulv 15. 1914

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Aeronautical Engineers

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HOW TO FIND THE WAY ACROSS THE OCEAN

By LEON GOLDMERSTEIN

Associate Editor A. S. M. E. Journal, Chairman Technical Board Aeronautical Society of America

When Lieutenant Porte FtS

Across the Atlantic one of the greatest difficulties facing him will be to find his way to Europe. The ship's captain is in a far better position "in this respect. In the first place, he has a vessel which can keep its direction much better than an airship. It is less liable to drift, and the captain has far better facilities for making an estimate of the possible drift, if any, because he knows the currents, and can easily estimate the force and direction of the wind. Also, the steamer, especially the modern passenger vessel, is rather overengined than otherwise, and, barring gales, will cleave its way no matter what the wind or tide may be. Finally, the captain has elaborate instruments for making observations and carefully worked-out tables for taking care of all possible errors, whether those of observation, or due to lack of precision in the indica-^job of his instruments. What is TailT more important, however, is that the ship's captain has all the time he wants and pretty comfortable surroundings for making his calculations, while, even if he should commit a small error (and this is not likely), he would still have enough fuel and provisions to get to his destination.

The position of the airship pilot is entirely different. He has only a limited knowledge of the drift of his ship, as there may be movements of large bodies of air which can carry his craft miles and miles out of his way without his having the slightest intimation of the deviation. He has only the scantiest instruments at his command, and the dip and zigzag of the flight, together with the jar and whirr of the engine, make correct observation a matter of the greatest difficulty. The use of nautical tables in his case depends on his knowledge of his elevation, which he does not have, as barometer readings at his level would be of value only if he knew what the barometer reads at sea level, which, of course, he does not. It is hardly necessary to add that the present day aeroplane is not the kind of place peculiarly suitable for performing mathematical calculations, and an error would be especially dangerous, owing to the fact that both fuel and provisions have to be taken only in such amounts as

would permit the fliers to reach their goal. In fact, from what is known of the flight of Porte, it appears is rather to risk going without breakfast on the last day, than carrying any American food over to the British market.

The problem rises, therefore, as to whether there is any way of finding the way across the sea without having to carry a certified navigator aboard, and running the risk to lose the way notwithstanding. What is known as the wireless radio-goniometer, a long name tor a comparatively simple thing, may prove to be the solution of this particular difficulty.

The essential part of a radiogoniometer, or wireless directionfinder, is a system of two loops of wires of equal size, suspended vertically and crossing each other at right angles. This forms what is known as the aerial circuit, and includes, in addition to the wire loops, a coil of wire and a condenser in series with each of the loops. The two coils of wire, with their condenser, are contained in a box provided with a handle which permits to vary both condensers simultaneously. Inside the crossed coils there is a third coil, called the exploring coil, mounted on a vertical spindle so that it can he set at various angles with respect to the fixed coils. The detecting system, which is contained in a separate box and connected by wires to the exploring coil, consists of a pair of telephones and a crystal of carborundum, in series with a potentiometer and battery, the latter being required to sensitize the carborundum crystal. The exploring coil picks up the signals from the aerial circuits, and passes them on to the detector, where they are rendered audible in the telephone.

The finding of the direction by means of this apparatus is based essentially on the following considerations: The relative strength of the current induced by an incoming electric oscillation depends on the angle which the direction of the aerial forms with the direction of the propagation of the wave. The currents induced in the aerial pass later on through the coils in the direction-finding instruments and

produce there two magnetic fields, the relative strength of which depends on the relative strength of the currents induced in the two aerials, and, as the fields are at right angles to one another, they produce a resultant field at right angles to the direction from which the signals are coming. The exploring coil will receive its loudest signals when its plane is at right angles to the resultant field, or in the direction from which the signals are coming.

The theory of the apparatus is somewhat complicated, but its actual manipulation is extremely simple, and in less than half a minute one can locate the direction from which tbe signals are coming. There will be no trouble to design the apparatus so that it would weigh not more than a few pounds, and be easily adjustable to a given length of wave. By combining the direction with some kind of amplifier, such as an audion detector or gas amplifier, signals coming from a considerable distance could he easily heard even above the noise of the engine.

The system to he used would be, therefore, to have a number of land stations—such as Newfoundland, Long Island, Massachusetts, Ireland, etc.—send out for one minute every half hour signals on a wave length not used for messages, say 900 meters. The pilot tigures them out beforehand, and the angle he has to keep with the beeline from the station to which he refers, and all he has to do is, every time he gets the signals, to correct his direction with respect to them. He has no calculations to make, and if he misses some signal he will get one next time.

This system might be considerably elaborated by providing for vessels at sea to send both signals and their position, and equipping the aviator for each trip with a special chart giving direct readings of his position lor each angle with the signal line from a ship, no matter what the position of the latter may me. That would really mean having a modified and very much simplified Bow ditch for aerial navigation, and we do not see how this could be obviated otherwise.

THE TRANSATLANTIC FLYER "AMERICA"

After three weeks of experimenting it has been decided to apply the "sea-sled" principle to Rodman Wanamaker's flying boat, America. Trials of the machine, hastily equipped with a false hottom in the shape of an inverted V, proved this construction to be the one best bet for raising a heavy load off the surface of the water.

Thus fitted out, the America planed nicely at twenty miles an hour and with only half the available power. Therefore, Glenn II. Curtiss has started work on an entire new hull of the sea-sled type and the work will be finished by July 26. Present indications are that the Wanamaker expedition will start for Newfoundland on August

1 and that Lieutenant John Cyril Porte and George E. A. Ilallett will make their attempt to fly the Atlantic about August 10.

Following is a detailed description of the machine as it now stands: Length over all, 37^2 feet: length of hull. 33 feet; width of hull, 7 feet: depth of hull, 6 feet; length of cabin, 7 feet; height of cabin, 5 feet: width of cabin, 4 feet; spread upper wing, 74 feet; spread lower wing, 46 feet; chord, both, 7 feet; gap, between wing, 7^ feet; weight, empty, approximately 3,000 lbs.; weight, fully loaded, approximately 5,000 lbs.; speed, 62-65 miles per hour in still air; to this add or suhstract speed of wind machine is traveling with or against.

Description of hull: Forward section, for 16 feet 6 inches is of the im-erted Yee-bottom cont ruction, or "sea-sled" type. Aft of this a conical tail terminating in a point twenty feet from the main body of the boat. Over the main section a rigid top fitted with celluloid windows, forming an enclosed cabin or pilot house. Here are seats for the two pilots; dual controls throughout, so that either may operate the machine, or both simultaneously.

Construction of hull: Over a framework of closely spaced ash ribs a planking of spruce, covered with heavy canvas set in marine glue. The bottom of the forward section double skinned and inter-

THE "AMERICA" WITH TEN ON BOARD

laid with Sea Island cotton set in marine glue. Fastenings are several thousand brass screws and copper rivets.

Description of wings: Wings are composed of seven sections; a center panel of ten by seven feet above the power plant; four main sections (two upper and two lower) approximately 18 x / ft., and two overhangs on the upper surface measuring 15 x 7 ft. each. The shape of the wings is known as the X. P. L. wing section, which after exhaustive experiments made at the National Physical Laboratory, Ted-dington. Eng., was considered most efficient for this work. The wing frames are built up solidly of ash and spruce, covered with a heavy ribhed silk which is coated with a special water and fireproof dope.

Controls: The aerial rudder for turning from left to right has a depth of five feet and a length of four and one-half feet. The elevators are located on either side of the main rudder, and their dimensions are six feet by four and one-hal f feet. The ailerons or trailing flaps at the extremities of the wings are at present single acting, and measure fourteen feet in length by a maximum of four feet in depth. These are used to correct the lateral balance of the machine. If one side tips up the flap on that side is pulled above the normal level of the plane, with the combined result of slowing the speed of that side and at the same time depressing it through the pressure on the upper side of the flap. These controls are operated as follows: The rudder, by turning the wheel to left or right; the elevators, by pulling the wheel forward or back; the ailerons, by foot pedals.

Power Plant: Consists of two Model O-X Curtiss aviation motors rated at 90-100 h p. each, "Bosch equipped, of course." These are mounted midway between the planes, each four and a half feet fr<>m the center. Two propellers, one to each motor, are bolted direct to the motor shafts. They turn at a maximum speed of 1,250 to 1,300 revolutions per minute, but the machine is expected to fly under perfect control with the motor^ turning at less than 1,000 revolution'- per minute. The machine is expected to fly with either one or both should occasion demand.

Fuel supply: Seven gasoline

tanks have a total capacity of 312 gallons of gasoline; two tanks mounted on the engine beds have a capacity of 30 gallons of lubricating oil. Six main tanks are located just aft of the pilot house; these drain simultaneously, and the fuel is pumped to a gravity feed tank midway between the motors by a rotary gear pump. A special gauge on the side of this gravity tank indicates the action of the pump. In case the gear pump fails the aviators have an auxiliary hand pump. In 30 hours the two engines consume a little over 280 gallons of gas and 9Yi gallons of oil, after a 30-hour run of each engine.

I nstruments: The compass is nearly as large as ship's, especially constructed by the late Lord Kelvin's firm in England, which makes the instruments for the British admiralty. Tachometers show engine speed, aneroids show altitude, special Walt ham watches for time, the standard Pitot tube speed indicator as used on all Curtiss boats, inclinometers, fuel and oil gauges complete the equipment, except for the Sperry drift indilator which shows on a dial directly the drift from a straight course, having been tested out on a U. S. Navy airboat flown by Lieut. Towers. In the cabin are Lieut. Porte's navigation instruments, such as sextant, chart table, etc.

BURGESS INAUGURATES AERIAL JOURNALISM

Under the auspices of the Boston Journal, the Burgess-Dunne seaplane took the first pictures of a news nature ever taken in this country from an aeroplane so far as may be recalled.

Less than 12 hours after the great Salem fire, piloted hy Clifford Webster, the liurgess-Duniie seaplane carried a press photographer over the blazing ruins at an extremely low altitude.

The photographer rose from his ^eat. walked forward and snapped the pictures, leaning out over the front of the fuselage to the side of Webster. The flight lasted an hour and five minutes, in which a large numbe>* of pictures were taken. The photographer was on his feet most of the time excepting when changing plates and had no difficulty in

taking views both from the rear and front of the machine.

It will be noticed that the ruins were still smoking and very hot. Webster found the air very turbulent, of whirlwind variety, with a strong ascending column in the center. The successful operation of the machine through these air conditions with a man walking from forward to back of the fuselage, a distance of eight feet, gives one an idea of the stability of the Rurgess-Dunne seaplane and widens the area of possible usefulness of aircraft. ._

The air-craft industry of France is mostly confined to the manufacture of aeroplanes, 1,350 of a total motive force of 80,000 horsepower. 7 dirigibles of an aggregate of 1,760 horsepower and 64.500 tons capacity having been manufactured in

1912. The financial condition of the aeronautical industry was fair during 1913. Most of the orders received were for air craft for military and naval purposes for the French and foreign Governments, principally Great Britain and Russia. There were 272 aeroplanes, valued at $5,707,782. exported in

1913, and 13 hvdroaeroplanes, valued at $297,606.'

Your magazine has come to hand, and read with interest, for it is interesting to one who is not especially interested in the work beyond a general understanding of the world's progress, and to those who are directly interested, owners or contemplated owners, it certainly must be indispensable.

Will say that for the uninitiated your journal inspires confidence to believe more readily and to know how to believe more that is seer, in the "evcrv-day press." W. \V. McC, San Pedro, N. M

This story is being told of George Beany, the w. k. aviator. It seems, according to the relator, Mrs. Realty wanted to buy George a present, but couldn't seem to find anything just suited, so she explained her quandary to another of Mineola's products, saying: ''George doesn't smoke or drink, or go out nights or play cards and I don't know what to buy."

The friend: "Is he fond of fancy work ?"

WIRELESS AS CONNECTED WITH AERONAUTICS

WILLIAM DUBILIER, R.S.A., A.A.LE.E.

[Abstract from Mr. Dubilier's paper read before the Aeronautical Society of America, June 11 th, where he prefaced his remarks with a note on the history of wireless and its adaptation to aeronautics. At the conclusion of his consideration of various systems he showed lantern slides of various experimental sets which have been employed here and abroad in military and civilian trials, and then showed in operation two complete sets as have been adapted and ordered by the English and the American Governments for aeroplane and balloon work.]

For wireless installations on board aeroplanes and balloons the most important consideration has been to install apparatus which will conform to the limitations of the weight and space, and still provide a suitable and efficient means for transmitting messages to the desired points with the small aerial wire system and power limited to the size of air craft. The demand for light and easy removable stations for Army and Navy work is constantly increasing. During the time of war, wireless communication, due to the way in which the stations can be quickly removed, is of great service in connection with aeronautics, for it enables the leaders of the battle to send commands rapidly and to receive the position of the enemy. Tbe operator is usually carried as a passenger and transmits signals at the same time as he makes observations. The apparatus used in all respects is interchangeable with the portable field sets, as this enables any operator of the field signal corps to work the aeroplane outfit when necessary. It is so arranged that the machines are of double key type so that messages can be sent by either the aviator or the passenger.

The current is obtained from a generator friction driven from the fly wheel of the engine or from storage cells. Experiments have also been made with wind motors, where the generator was driven by an aero fan.

The equipment at present used hy the U. S. Government has an output of about 125 watts, weighs about 75 pounds, and it has been claimed that a radius of 30 miles has been obtained. The new equipment designed by the author has a total weight of less than 20 pounds with double the capacity and less than l/2 the space, so that immediately one will be able to see the advantages from every standpoint.

Recently several European governments have been making experiments with apparatus for army work and have arranged conditions .contrary to those which have been planned and adopted by all wireless workers up to date; in fact, have gone hack to old days when the ordinary Hertz oscillator, untuned and of open circuit, was used. Now several officials have suggested the use of apparatus wherein the transmitter is not tuned, and they advance several points in its favor.

First, in transmitting a sharply tuned signal it takes a longer time for the receptor to get into proper adjustment for receiving these signals.

Secondly, the transmitter can be more quickly adjusted, as it is not necessary to carefully adjust the oscillating circuits in order to bring them in resonance.

Thirdly, messages can be sent in secret code, hence it does not matter whether the enemy receives them or not. Then if the signals sent out are not tuned sharply, the greatest hindrance can be done to

used, which is let down from the aeroplane or balloon or an auxiliary balloon used for elevating wires. This plays a very important part in determining the range of a wireless station, for, roughly, it varies directly with the height of an aerial and cube root of the power.

Many different kinds of apparatus have been designed for aeroplane work. Portable stations supplied

the enemy by interfering with their stations, for it will be difficult for them to tune out these highly damped waves. It has therefore been desirable to send out waves with a flat resonance curve.

In order to get the largest amount of power out of the transmitting station and to arrange the circuits in resonance, the following figures will be of great interest to give one an idea of the size of the aerial and capacities that is necessary in installations The speed of electric waves is about one billion feet per second. If oscillations or waves of a frequency of one million is desired, it will be necessary to have a wave length of about 1,000 feet, for to send messages with wave lengths of very much less, is not practical, due to many difficulties, such as absorption, heat losses, induction losses, etc., therefore, if signals are to he sent longer wave lengths should he obtained by using larger inductances. The size of these are also limited, for the machine again becomes inefficient when too much inductance and too little aerial capacity is used, hence, a compromise must he made, where-hy sufficient aerial length and surface is used, coupled with a fairly large inductance. To get an idea of the length of the aerial, roughly, the wave length transmitted is 5 times the length of the aerial, plus 10 times the length of wire in the coil or helix. To make up the length, usually a trailing wire is

by the Marconi Company, type L, especially adopted for aeroplanes, weigh 50 pounds, have a capacity of 50 watts and a radius of about 10 miles. Type Ll weighs 200 pounds, has a capacity of about 500 watts and a sending radius of 50 miles, while type M. for dirigible balloon work, has a capacity of 1,500 watts, a sending radius of 200 miles and weighs 500 pounds. One of these installations was tried on board the Flanders, a British machine, and was made up in 2 separate contained units with the idea of distributing the weight. It fitted underneath the pilot and passenger seats, and the only part exposed was the manipulating key with several controller switches, which were placed in the most convenient position for the operator to carry out the simultaneous work of observing and reporting.

Another aeroplane installation used is one constructed by the Lor-enz Company, using a quenched discharge gap for the production of nearly continuous oscillations. The outside dimensions of the box are 15 x 15 x 21 inches. The weight of the transmitter without the generator is 100 pounds, the dynamo used is 500 volts with a capacity of 500 watts. This apparatus consists of a discharge gap made of 2 large electrodes, each electrode shaped like a half ball and cooled by a hydro-carhun vapor. Although this

apparatus is not efficient, it has already been installed by several foreign governments.

The Telefunken Company have also made an apparatus for aeroplane work which has a capacity of about 300 watts and occupies 3 cubic feet. A small dynamo is used, belt or friction driven from the main engine, and this apparatus has a sending radius of from 15 to 20 miles.

For balloon installations, where large aerials can be constructed, much greater distances could be obtained. It has been reported that the Zeppelin airships are transmitting signals 200 miles with a 5 kw. installation, and all the Zeppelin airships that are making public trips have on board regular telegraph forms, the same as used on ship stations, and passengers can send tbeir messages at published rates to any part of the world.

Tbe greatest danger attached to balloons from wireless installations is the fact that the gas may become ignited hy sparks produced by induced currents that occur in metal parts. This danger cannot be eliminated with the larger installations where high voltage transformers are used, but there are certain systems, such as the Poulsen, Lorenz and that devised by the author, where the voltage of the transmitting oscillations are greatly reduced, thus eliminating to some extent the danger of induced currents. All metal parts, such as the valves, etc., must be thoroughly covered with a thick coating of some form of insulating varnish. For balloon work the wireless telephone is the most practical method for transmitting communications, for it eliminates the telegraph operator, the danger of explosions by brush discharges and makes possible quick transmission of signals. Fig. I shows Dubilier wireless telephone installations for balloons and aeroplanes.

The aerial on board the Zeppelin balloon is almost 600 feet long, and a 500 cycle generator is driven by an independent engine at a speed of 3.000 revolutions per minute. The wave length varies from 400 to 1,200 meters.

The illustration (Fig. II, Dubilier wireless telegraph apparatus for aeroplane?) herewith shows a port-aide Duhilicr apparatus weighing 20 pounds with a maximum rapacity of y2 kw. The system devised by Mr. Dubilier eliminates the use of the difficult high frequency alternator. A small direct current dynamo is used, and then by a simple device alternating currents are produced having any desired frequency from 200 to 800 cycles, thus sending signals with musical notes. The apparatus is much easier and cheaper to construct than any yet provided for portable work, is much smaller and much more compact for a given power, therefore more portable and readily adapted for transport purposes. It is especially designed for aeroplane installations, where power, space and weight are important considerations.

From tests made both by the British and United States Government the apparatus has proven itself 100 per cent, more efficient than any of the machines vet tried. Tn a report issued by Captain LeFroy, at Aldershot, a 60 watt, 110 volt set was used, and signals were sent from a standard portable aerial and

received on a service peck aerial 30 feet high consisting of 2 wires in parallel, 4 feet apart. A ground net with a peg driven 12 inches into the earth was used as a balanced capacity. The station was erected on grass, and 104 volts direct current were used for transrr itting. The current in the aerial v as \y2 amperes. The condenser capacity was .0015 inf., a loose coupler be-

Roughly, the principal used isl the producing of pulsating currents of a musical frequency from direct currents by means of a tuned circuit. This circuit contains a condenser charging device, condenser and an inductance. The condenser charging device is set in operation mechanically or electro mechanically, and hy means of springs is given a certain definite working

ing used. The maximum voltage across the spark gap was 7,000, which was of fie quenched type adjusted to give the best readings in the aerial. Tests w ere trade with1 three ranges, in connection with a 300 watt Marconi installation >■ > alongside for co nparisons. From Aldershot a motor car with a portable installation went out to three distances, first to Hook Common, 9 miles; second to Overton, 1 i m.JiS; third, to Whitchurch, 25 miles. In the first two places signals were received clear and good, being 8 times audibility at the latter test. At the third test tbe receiving end was connected to the wrong side of the aerial, which was directive and which was in a valley so that no signals were obtained. Captain LeFroy reported that this apparatus, which weighed but 15 pounds less the generator had a safe range of 20 miles over land. The same apparatus operated on a 50 volt accumulator weighing 35 pounds had a radius of approximately the same distances.

Fig. 1.

frequency, say 500 cycles. Then the inductance and capacity is so varied that its natural frequency is also 500 or a harmonic of the frequency of the oscillator. Under this condition the primary current is transformed into pulsating currents having a sine wave with over 90 per cent, efficiency. A suitable analogy can be shown by having constant water flowing out of a faucet, which will represent direct current, and then having another faucet with water running out into a cup or into a vessel which operates a lever by means of its weight when it becomes filled. This lever closes a valve, and at the same time drops and turns over the vessel, which releases the water. The release of the water operates the lever in the opposite direction, due to its lighter weight, and the vessel is then brought up again in position. The valve is simultaneously opened and the water again allowed to flow into the vessel until it is filled, and then the operation is repeated. Hence, we have quantities

of water being thrown out instead of a continuous flow; so does this system operate on direct current.

The inductance of the primary oscillating circuit acts as the primary of a high tension transformer, the secondary discharge of which produces oscillations in the well-known manner. A quenched spark is used of a special design and is shown on the cover of the apparatus. This gap consists of long copper bars with smoothly planed ends placed about .003 of an inch apart, the discharge taking place between the planed ends. Any number can he connected by a small short circuiting rod. The inductance is mounted in back of the instrument and is connected to a hot wire ammeter, which indicates the amount of power that is being radiated.

In experiments carried out by

.Mr. E. J. Simon and L. J. Lesh, an aerofan was used to drive the generator. This was equipped on board a Curtiss military hydro-aeroplane and was of about M kw. capacity, with a 500 cycle generator driven by a fan 20 inches in diameter, and aerial wire 600 feet long was wound on a reel and weighted by a 3-pound piece of lead; this was used as the trailer and taken in as it became necessary. The installation weighed 105 pounds, and it was found necessary to attain a fairly good speed to generate enough power to operate the apparatus efficiently.

In connection with aeroplane military work, a motor car installation is being used by the English Government. The capacity is 1V2 kw., and the generator is run by the motor engine. The aerial can be erected in a short time and when

folded up fits on the side of the car. It has been found that these motor car stations are only suitable for well-constructed roads. The range of the apparatus was from 50 to 70 miles.

The question of receiving signals on board aeroplanes and balloons has been a very difficult one, for the noises and vibrations of the engines and air currents make it unpractical to receive signals with a telephone receiver. A receiving apparatus was designed for the Austrian Government in which a visible signal was used. The operator is able to observe dots and dashes by means of a small light. It is advisable to use Prof. Flemming's oscillation valve or Dr. De Forest's audium, for they act as amplifiers to the received signals and are not affected by vibrations.

THE LAW OF SIMILITUDE

As to the means of stepping from the model to the aeroplane; it is known that the force on a surface due to the wind may be written as KSY2, S being the area of the surface, V the speed of the wind, and K a quantity which for two similar surfaces similarly placed is approximately a constant, independent that is of the velocity and the area. If K were really constant the step from model to aeroplane would be simple; to obtain the force on the aeroplane at a given speed it would merely be necessary to measure that on the model at some speed and increase it in the ratio of surface of the aeroplane to that of the model and of the squares of the respective velocities. But experiment proves that the force is not strictly proportional to the square of the speed. If the lift and drift coefficients of an aerofoil, 1.1*., the ratio of the lift or of the drift to the square of the speed, be determined, they are found to vary with the speed. This is shown in Figs. 2 and 3, which represent the result of such a series of experiments, and in which, as the speed changes from 10 to 50 feet per second, there is a growth in the coefficients.

At an early point in the work of the Advisory Committee for Aero-

nautics, Lord Kayleigh called attention to the fact that if K be not

rent, L some linear dimension of the surface, and v the kinematic

; 1 . ; ' 1

           

1

     

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-2 ՠ t * *

K> - .1 «* « *L

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constant for similar surfaces it VL

must depend on the quantity -■

v

or in mathematical terms be ex-VL

pressible as a function of -

v

where V is the velocity of the cur-

viscosity of the air. If then we plot the value of K as found for an aerofoil in a given position, hut for different values of the velocity against VL, the spots ought to be on a smooth curve and the form of this curve will determine K as a function of VL. This has been done in Fig. 4, where the values of the lift to the drift ratio are plotted against VL (or rather, for convenience, against log VL) for the series of experiments show.n in the preceding curves.

Again, experiments have been made at the Aerodynamical Laboratory of the University of Paris on full-sized aerofoils. These have been repeated at the Laboratory on models 1-16 of the scale, and when the results are reduced by the above law. the agreement in the lift experiments is practically complete; the measurement of the drift is more difficult and the agreement is less good, but the results for the ratio are given in Fig. 4, and it appears that at the highest value of VL yet reached in the model experiments the value of the ratio lift-drift is somewhat less than for the full scale experiments, but that values for the coefficient found from the 50 ft. per sec. observations in the channel do not differ greatly from those belonging to the

actual machine. This point can be tures. The beams are very deep and craft a speed of sixty miles an hour checked more fully when the large strong, and the ribs are built up in on the water and seventy miles an

channel is complete, and the necessity of checking it afforded a strong reason for the building of that channel.

the most improved monoplane fash- hour in the air, ion, closely spaced and with light, false ribs between every one to preserve the special shape of the

wing and prevent any sagging of AT JOHNSON'S SCHOOL

From ' The Development of the the cloth. The wings are covered ~ . , , . ,

Aeroplane," being the second Wil- with linen treated with four coats Consistent good weather has been

bur Wright Memorial Lecture, de- of aero varnish and two coats of productive of much flying at the

Hvered by Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, spar varnish; tRus giving the planes " ՠ Johnson School of Aviation

F. R. S., F. Ae. S., before the a smooth finish that is proof against at Conesus Lake. The machines

weather and seas. Tbe struts which nave been in the air from daylight

fit into special steel sockets are of t!11 dark practically every day for

streamline form wrapped with linen the Past three weeks, and great num-

and treated with the same varnish bers of People have watched the

Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, at the Royal United Service Institution, Whitehall, on Wed nesday, May 20, 1914.

■ Marion LT^Swlw wtth LV. — — W զnbsp;of t=h>on4 r>f«er- —

flying daily. Not a few people have taken advantage of the opportunity and taken a ride over the lake.

Walter Johnson brought up the new school boat and put it through its paces successfully, and it has been doing good work every day. This boat is equipped with one of the new Kirkham 70 h.p. motors, and seems to have considerable excess power.

The school has purchased two new motors and will have dual control boats for both inside of a couple of weeks, and from all appearances will have use for all of them, as the summer class is pretty well filled.

KANTNER WINS NEW YORK RACE

Harold Kantner, with a Schmidt monoplane, won in 43 m 26 1/3 s. 5o over Albert S. Ileinrich in a Hein-r;ch monoplane (46 m. 46 4/5 s.)

C*T i-\ a »rn T^-r tt»xt ^ 4 m the JU,V "* 3'r r3Ce f,'0m Gov-

oLUANE FLYING BOAT as used on the wings, making them ernor's Island, in New York Ilar-

Loa L.V

The first trials of the new Sloane S"?^"8^^1 ^1 ele/"e.nts an/J renf

flying-boat were concluded at Stein! der.'.nS them ..alinost '"capable of way Eeach, L. I June.

he latter nfrt nf rotting or ^'"ing; an important Club at Seag latter part ot consideration in flying-boat work, starting line

bor, to Spuyten Duyvil, back down the river to the Atlantic Yacht ate and return to the between Governor's

This flvine-boat usinc the T)Pn AI] t!ie gPy wires are doubled, as Island and Mistress Liberty. The ...-ii-..?in-?..?oaS u^!ng Dep- are also all the control wires The Ileinrich machine was flown ♦«

The flying boats of Yerplanck (Curtiss), Niles (Boland) and

are also all'the control wires. The ^ ~- --- ---- t"~\"\ "I

monoplane style of rib, winch was t_ail planes, elevator and rudder are Governors island trom its shea ai expected to compare favorably both 0f ample size and pleasing lines, Hempstead in quick rising and weight carrying vvliich blend in with the rest of the with the best military monoplanes machine. and tractor biplanes. At the first trials, with three people aboard and the throttle only half open, the new craft literally "tore off the water," with Gil pat rick as pilot.

This "sporting type" helongs to the class of long hulled water-planes. The central hull furnishes the flotation, as well as acting as a fuselage to carry tail planes and rudder.

Just as tbe main bull is constructed of solid mahogany, so are the two wing tip pontoons. These wing tip pontoons only weigh about six pounds apiece. The motor is placed a little over midway between the planes, affording a space for two passengers in the rear, just in back of the two front seats, from which the craft is controlled. The hull is of single step tvpe, V bot-torn, in front, and constructed in Tbe new Sloane three-in-one con- Burnside {Thomas) were to nave the usual manner with spruce and trol has heen designed especially gone in the race, but tbe heavy ash frames. The front dash is low for flying-boat use and to better water off Coney Island prevented and gracefully shaped, affording an meet naval requirements. Tbe con- getting off. Burnside had flown efficient wind and spray shield. The trol is operated entirely through down from Dobbs Ferry. On July hull itself measures 23 feet long the steering wheel. leaving the op- 0 Mr. and Mrs. Burnside flew back and 36 inches wide, with a beam erator's feet and shoulders free. It to

motor quit.

„ Dobbs Ferry in a sensational ,. is in duplicate and operates in the flight which ended in a forced at the top. The height of the hull following manner—pushing the descent on the water when the 100 is 40 in., which keeps the wings wheel backward and forward steers Daimler well above the water. The top the machine up and down, rocking

wing has a span of 42 ft. and a the whole wheel from side to side, _---

chord of 6 in., and the lower wing works the ailerons, while turning has a span of 30 ft. and a chord of the wheel to the right and left op-

The ailerons are fitted erates the rudder. I consider AERONAUTICS a re-

markably interesting paper. The power plant consisted of a One especially nice feature is the 110 If. P. Boland motor turning illustrations, which I find very in-The interior construction of the an 8 ft. diameter by 6 ft. 6 in. pitch structive. planes is one of the special fea- Charavay propeller, which gave the II- D. S.

of 36 in. at the bottom and 44

5 ft. 6

to the outer extremities of each wing, and each measure 9 ft. x 30

TJ. S. ARMY AEROPLANE COMPETITION

Brigadier-General George P. Scrjven has just issued a circular covering conditions of a contest to be held at the Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego around October 14, this year.

The contest is open to all builders, and the matter of royalty to The Wright Co. will probably be taken care of by the Government, whose privilege in the matter of patent rights has been fully explained in AERONAUTICS.

If five or more machines qualify, the Signal Corps will purchase the three which make in order the greatest number of points; the first for $12,000, the second for $10,000, and the third for $8,000. If but three or four qualify, the first two will be purchased at $12,000 and $10,000. respect ively. If but two qualify, the one making the highest number of points will be purchased at $12,000.

All inquiries concerning this competition should be addressed to the Chief Signal Officer of the Army. Washington, D. C.

The type desired, a military reconnaissance aeroplane, must possess following characteristics: Biplane, erclosed fusilage, two seater, dual con'rol, maximum speed of i ot less than seventy and a minimum spee * of not more than 40 miles per hour when carrying fuel and oil for four hours' flight at seventy r iles ner hour and a useful load if 450 pounds, and i ndtr these conditions of load, to climb 4,000 feet in ten minutes. First class material and workmanship. Head resistance to be kept down. Power plant is to be located in front of the occupants and suited to the requirements of the aeroplane. The motor must be capable of throttling to 20 per cent, of full speed and running without overheating over the land. The motor must be supplied with a positive means of stopping by a short circuiting device, hy release of compression or by other suitable means. It is desirable that the radiators, if used, should conform to stream-line requirements and act as an effective shelter for the motor. The motor should be provided with positively driven pump for pumping gasoline from the reservoir to the service tank and will also be provided with attachments for hooking on a flexible tachometer, the shaft for this purpose to come off the motor at right angles to the propeller shaft, preferably downward. The propeller or propellers should be of sufficient form and construction and suited for the particular machine and possessing a minimum efficiency of 70 per cent., that is to say, to have a slip of not over 30 per cent. The controls should be of such a type as approved by the Chief Signal Officer of the Army. During the trials the builder may use such controls as are familiar to his demonstrator, but the Signal Corps design shall be substituted at tbe builder's expense prior to delivery and acceptance of any machine acquired as a result of this competition. Wear and friction in the control leads must be eliminated in every possihle way, and tbe leads shall he as direct as possible. Leads to pitching and steering shall be in duplicate. The landing gear to be

as strong and simple as possible to be efficient in absorbing shocks in landing and running at full speed over rough and plowed ground. The maximum gliding angle shall under no condition exceed 1 on 6, that is to say, one foot of drop for each six feet of advance. All parts shall be efficiently protected from the action of the weather by the use of suitable paint or furnished with covers. The power plant shall be so arranged as to be readily removed and replaced bodily without disturbing the alignment or the fastenings of the planes or landing gear. The machine complete shall be capable of being assembled from transportation cases in not to exceed two hours by four mechanicians and of being disassembled and packed in transportation cases in not more than one hour and a half by the same number of mechanicians. No part shall be of such length that when packed in its case the case shall exceed twenty feet in length.

The manufacturers who desire to enter this competition shall inform the Chief Signal Officer of the Army on or before September 1, 1914, of this fact in writing and shall supply the President of the Board of Officers who will conduct the tests, the following data on or before October 1, 1914

blades and blade area of the propeller or propellers used and if geared down, the ratio of gearing.

The machines entering the competition must he delivered on the ground of tbe Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego, Cal., on or before October 20, 1914, at the manufacturer's expense. Each manufacturer sball supply a demonstrator. The Signal Corps will provide suitable housing for the machines and the fuel and oil for the tests. The competitive test will be conducted by a Board of Officers to be appointed by the Chief Signal Officer of the Army under detailed rules to be promulgated later.

To enter the competition, each machine must qualify by demonstrating by actual trial that it complies with the above requirements by making a non-stop flight of four hours in the air and by making the climb fully loaded, of 4,000 feet in ten minutes. Tbe machines will be graded by points, taking into consideration the following:

Const nuct ion and workmanship, speed, maximum and minimum, climbing and manoeuvering ability, ease of handling, gliding angle, inherent stability, suitability of landing gear, distance of run on the ground when starting and landing, held of vision, etc.

(a) Weight, fully loaded when fully equipped.

(b) Normal angle of incidence in horizontal flight.

(c) Gliding angles.

(d) Safe ranges of angle of incidence.

(e) Fuel oil and water consumption with certificate of performance (subsequently described).

(f) Blueprint or diagram to scale of aeroplane and motor complete.

(g) Stress diagram of planes showing tensile and bending stress on heams, struts and brace wires, clearly indicating the material used and tbe factor of safety in each member, together with moment diagrams.

(h) Itemized weight of parts. The certificate of performance

shall consist in a certified test of the motor as follows:

1. One hour run at the rated B. II. P. on the test stand.

2. Half hour run at the maximum power on the stand.

3. A run of half hour at 20 per cent, of the rated revolutions per minute. During tbe test, the following data shall be reported:

Revolutions per minute at the rated B. II. P.

Revolutions per minute at maximum B II. P.

Minimum revolutions per minute. The oil per B. II. P. and the fuel per B. II, P.

A statement of the condition of the motor at the end of a half hour run.

In addition to the above data, the following information shall be noted on the certified test sheet to accompany each motor:

The maker's number, horsepower, stroke, diameter of shaft, piston displacement, type of magneto, type of tachometer used in test, weight complete, starting arrangement, carbureter (trade name), cooling system, lubricating system, type of spark plugs used, date and place of test, the type, pitch, number of

NAVAL APPROPRIATION PASSED

The President signed the Naval Appropriation Bill on June 30. It is with the greatest regret, however, that we record the fact that the SI,297,700 extra to the appropriation recommended by the Board of Aeronautics (see AERONAUTICS for Jan. 31) was not added by the Naval Affairs Committee so that aeronautics in the Navy will have to drag along about as before, depending on what the various bureaus can spare, which will probably be in the neigh borhood of $200,000.

Thus plans for an enlarged air navy will have to wait another year and give other countries still more of an opportunity to equip themselves in advance of the United States.

Tonv Jannus carried a 340-pound man recently -n one of the many passenger flights he has been mak-ng from SandusEy, where he has established himself. His brother Roger Jannus, has been flying the r.enoUt "Lark of Duluth, owned by William Jones of that city.

BALLOONISTS FOUND

Roy Donaldson and Wilbur Henderson, who were almost given up for lost in the balloon race from Portland. Ore., June 11, returned to Portland June 17. They were six days finding a habitation and were emaciated and on the point of collapse when they staggered to a hut and asked for food.

FOR SALE—Our last year's monoplanes and biplanes; very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. F. M., 152.2 Norwood ave., Toledo, Ohio.

PANAMA PICTURERS PINCHED

San Francisco, July 1U.—Warrants for the arrest of Charles K. Field, editor of "The Sunset Magazine." a photographer, and Riley E. Scott of bomb-dropping fame, were issued today at the request of John W. Preston, United States District Attorney. They are charged with disclosing military secrets, and the penalty is ten years' imprisonment or a ? 10,000 fine for such disclosure if made abroad, and one year or a $1,000 fine if made in the United States.

In April "Sunset" published an article entitled "Can the Panama Canal Be Destroyed from the Air?" Reproductions of photographs taken from an aeroplane accompanied the text.

"By the act of March 3, 1911, Congress strengthened the regulation, so that it is now a violation of a plain statute for a civilian to take or publish photographs of any fortification, whether complete or in process of construction. The War Department regards the enforcement of this law as absolutely essential, and my instructions are emphatic in this case."

The fact that the pictures complained of in this case were taken from an aeroplane raises for the first time an interesting point of jurisdiction by the national authorities over the upper air and involves a decision as to whether a person sailing over a reservation can be held to have unlawfully entered it. This point is quite as important in a military view as the right to take photographs, because a military expert might by merely passing over a fortress observe enough to enable him afterward to draw an accurate sketch of the defences.

In this instance, however, department officials pointed out, the publication specifically directed attention to alleged shortcomings of the defence system of the Panama Canal.

BUSINESS TROUBLES

Fargo, N. D., June 18.—It is said Bob St. Henry, the birdman, borrowed some money once when here on an aviation exhibition. A local man, who indorsed his note, has been looking for some way to get even. Recently St. Henry's aeroplane, being shipped from Montana to Winnipeg, was taken off the train here to be transferred. The local man heard it was on the depot platform and had it attached. There is some legal red tape to unwind, but he hopes to secure the machine and will start some of his friends in the aviation husiness.

Pittsburgh, Pa., July 7.—Following a meeting of several hundred stockholders of the "Italian Aeroplane Co.," Louis Maida and M. Loretio Manasterio were arrested, charged with failure to show the books of the company. The company is said to have been organized ahout nine months ago and scores of Italians bought $1 shares in the concern. Peter Angelo was made head of the company shortly after its organization. Announcements were made that one of the company's machines would make flights at Brunots Island July 4, but the flight did not take place. Maida and Manasterio were committed to the county jail charged with embezzlement.

Richmond, Va., July 3.—Simeon Scott paid to see a ball game at Broad Street Park on April 19, 1913. Before the game was over an aeroplane swooped down from the heavens and swiped him on the back. He therefore brought suit against the Park, demanding damages in the sum of $300, claiming the aeroplane was an advertised attraction.

The defendant demurred to the plaintiff's evidence, declaring that it had no connection whatever with the aeroplane, and that it was not one of its duties to guard against dangers it could not foresee such as the falling into the park of an aeroplane which it had not employed or hired.

The jury thought that Mr. Scott should recover $150 for his injuries, and brought in a verdict for that amount July 2. Judge Crump however, sustained the defendant's demurrer, and setting aside the jury's finding, entered a verdict for the defendant.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

Imports for May, 1 and parts valued at $5,776, the aeroplane remaining in warehouse on May 31.

Exports, 1 and parts, $4,558. No exports of foreign made machines. Goods in warehouse May 31, $5,276.

NEW CORPORATIONS

Sanaudres Wireless & Aero Yisi-hle Message Co., develop system of telegraphic optic acoustics on aeroplanes, semaphoric signal system, $100,000; C. B. Mason, A. Matters. A. Sanaudres, 124 Thompson street.

Lansing, Mich., June 22.— International Flying Boat Transit Co., Detroit. $10,000; stockholders are D. B. Hartley, John H. Fietzell, I*. M. Coates, etc.

The Southern Ballooning Company, Cherryville, N. C.; capital, $3,000 authorized and $1,000 subscribed by J. F. Weathers and others for giving public exhibitions of balloon ascensions and aerial flights.

Deselektro Company, Augusta, Me., to manufacture and deal in battleships, aerial craft and all other vessels of war; capital, $1,000,000. President. R. S. Buzzell; treasurer, L. J. Coleman, Augusta.

ARMY BUYS MARTIN TRACTOR

The Signal Corps has accepted a new Glenn Martin tractor (Curtiss 100 h.p. motor), recently completed, upon its meeting the usual requirements of the Army in tests at San Diego. Observers report this latest acquisition one of the finest machines ever seen outside of France. A second machine may also be bought from Martin. On July 7 Martin flew 71 miles over the ocean from Balboa Bay to North Island. Martin carried Lieut. T. S. Bo wen as a passenger and made the trip in 175 minutes, with his Army machine.

Flying done at the S. C. Aviation School, San Diego, Cal.. week ending July 4, 1914: 28 flights; 4 h. 28 m. in air; 14 passengers carried.

Summary, January 1, 1914, to July 4, 1914: 1.151 flights; 314 h. 5Vi m. in air; 559 passengers carried.

ALTITUDE RECORD IS NOW 24,600 FEET

On July 14 Heinrich Oelrich established a new world altitude record, 24,600 feet (7,500 metres), from Leipsic. Otto Linnekogel made the previous record on July 9, 6,600 metres, at Johannisthal.

DIRIGIBLE UP 35 HOURS

The dirigible duration record has been increased to 35 h. 20 m. by the French airship "Adjutant Vin-cenot," which carried its pilot and eight passengers this period on June 29, beating the German record held by the Zeppelin L-3, 34 h. 59 m.

'PLANE RECORD NOW 24 HOURS

Reinhold Boehm (Albatross biplane, 75 h.p. 6 cyl. Mercedes motor), using the same machine employed by Landmann in making his non-stop flight of 21 h. 49 m. on June 28, flew on July 11 from Johannisthal non-stop for 24 h. 12 m. Speaking of his wonderful flight, he said:

"My provisions consisted of a vacuum flask filled with cold milk, several packets of chocolate, and a few cakes. Despite the heavy load, I ascended easily, and in order to save petrol flew slowly around the aerodome. First 1 did not go higher than 30 feet. As night wore on I went higher and for an hour or two I left Johannisthal and flew across Berlin and Potsdam.

"I returned to the aerodome at mid ni ght and then took u p my weary circuit. How many rounds I made I suppose nobody will ever know. I must have covered roundly 1,350 miles, as my speed averaged 37^4 miles an hour. The engine was working perfectly at the finish. If I had had enough petrol 1 could easily have flown another twelve hours. I finished fresher than I started, although I was on duty for twelve hours without rest before 1 went up. The Atlantic flight is sure to be accomplished soon. It is only a case of a powerful enough machine. No machine, in my opinion, will be practicable which does not contain three engines, none of which should be worked to its limit. There should also be two separate pilots. I found myself growing stronger after the first ten or twelve hours. I f you can survive the strain of that period the rest is easy."

Toward the end of the flight a fierce thunder storm burst over the aerodome, but Bohm refused to give up. During the daylight hours Bohm put in a good deal of time reading, but usually had to contend with brisk winds, especially at the higher altitudes. When the storm came on he had been alert. His hands were sore and hardened from the steering.

The machine was equipped with Rosch plugs, magneto and starter.

A new world's record of 18 hours 10 minutes was made on June 24 bv Gustav Basser at Johannisthal, aviator alone. He used a Rumpler military hi plane, Bosch equipped. The American record is—oh, what's the use?

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics

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GOODYEAR WANTS NATIONAL BALLOON RACE

The balloon "Goodyear," piloted by R. A. D. Preston, M. 1). Tremelin. aide, won the National Balloon Race from St. Louis July 11. They landed near Constance. Ky., July 12, less than 24 hours after the start. Ralph II. Upson, who used the same balloon in winning the international race last fall, and Preston will comprise two of the American team this year, Capt. II. Eugene Honeywell being the third, in the international race from Kansas City in October.

The contestants were as follows, in the order in which they finished. Official distances have not yet been measured:

I.—"Goodyear/* R. A. D. Preston and M. I>. Tremelin to Constance, Ky., 320 miles.

5.—"America III," Dr. Jerome Kingsbury and C. P. Wynne, president Pennsylvania Aero Club, landed near Princeton, Ind , 143 miles.

8.—"San Francisco 1915," E. S. Cole and R. E. Emcyir landed near McLeansboro, 111., 98 miles.

2.—"Pennsylvania II," Arthur T. Atherholt and P. T. Sharpies landed near Rockville, 111., 214 miles.

6.—"Miss Sofia," William Ass man n. no aide, landed near Flat Rock. 111., 132 miles.

4.—"Uncle Sam." Paul J. McCul-lough and Win. II. Trefts, landed near Lewis. Ind., 154 miles.

3.—"Aero Club of St. Louis," John Perry and Albert Yon Hoffmann, landed near Terrc Haute, Ind., 161 miles.

7.—-"Kansas City II," John Watts and W. F. Comstock, landed near Enfield, 111.. 105 miles.

Berry was asked for damages to a cornfield when he and a young woman made their landing on a farm near East St Louis on June 18 and the balloon was held by the farmer for payment.

The "America III" is the gift of Rodman Wanamaker to the Aero Club of America. It made its trial ascent the first week of July with Dr. Kingsbury, Clarence P. Wynne, A. R. I law ley, Henry W'oodhouse and C. Jerome Edwards. The balloon was made by Leo Stevens.

it was decided, as was anticipated, not to award the Grand Prix of $77,200. Two prizes were awarded, one of $10,000 to the Sperry Gvroscopic Co. and the other of $6,000 to the Paul Schmitt biplane with variable angle of incidence. It was also decided to award seven consolation prizes as follows: $3,000 to Caudron Brothers for their two-seated biplane, $2,000 to the Doutre stabilizer, $2,000 to the Societe Avi-Auto for the Lelarge carburettor, $1,600 for the Etcve stabilizer, $1.000 to the Moreau monoplane, $400 to the Kohert parachute, and $200 to MM. Philippe and Perron for their "demarreur."

SPERRY WINS STABILITY PRIZE

The Sperry gyroscopic stabilizer, fitted to a Curtiss Hying boat, won $10,000 of the safety prizes offered hy L* Union pour la Securite en Aeroplanes, as noted in AERONAUTICS for April, 1913. A note on the Sperry apparatus was published in the issue of Feb. 14, 1914. The U. S. Navy stands ready to purchase one or more of these instruments upon satisfactory demonstration. Various trials were made heretofore, but changes suggested and no perfected instrument has yet been installed for sale-demonstration to the Navy.

The French contest was concluded near Marseilles on July 2. In the demonstration Lawrence Sperry operated his Curtiss machine at all angles, leaving the stahilizer to correct the forced instability. In one instance Sperry rose in the machine and held bis

hands above his head while a mechanic crawled out to the wing-ends. M. Rene Outnton, president of the National Aerial League, flew with Sperry, who took his hands from the wheel and allowed the machine to take its own gliding angle under the operation of the automatic stabilizer, and even a glide was made with the stahilizer with one wing up at an angle of 45 degrees during the glide. As explained in the previous article in AERONAUTICS, the machine may be banked and the instrument set to maintain this bank, despite any disturbances, or the stabilizer may be set to keep the machine level.

As finally evolved, the machine consists of a double set of gyroscopes, operated by the aeroplane engine. One pair of these gyroscopes is attached to the lateral ailerons. The other pair controls the tail rudder and keeps the machine on even keel.

The illustration shows the installation of the perfected apparatus, looking from the bow of the flying boat, and the plate anemometer.

Altogether the committee since the opening of the competition on January 1, witnessed trials by 21 competitors out of the 56 who had entered. After a very long sitting

BROCK AGAIN WINS

London, July 12.— Walter L. Brock, our American friend, flying an SO h. p. M orane-Saunier, won the race from London to Paris and back, covering the 502 miles in 7 h 3 m. 6 s., an average speed of 71 \~2 m.p.h.

The only other competitor to finish was Garros, whose net flying time was S h. 28 m. 47s.. with the sime type of machine. This is the third big race Brock has won abroad, the other two being the aerial Derby, as previously mentioned, and the Loudon-Manchester race.

GARAIX SECURES

ANOTHER RECORD

At Chartres on July 2 Garaix on the Schmitt hi plane, in which August Belmont is interested, fitted with 160 h.p. Rhone motor, succeeded in regaining for France the duration record for pilot and three passengers which had been held by Gsell with 3 h. 11 m. 30 s. The new record made by Garaix is 4 h. 3 in, 29 s.

AERONAUTICS, Tulv 15, 1914

Pace 13

VICTOR J.

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-Address--

Sloane Aeroplane Co.

1733 Broadway New York

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years

The Wright Company

DAYTON. OHIO New York Office: II Pine St.

"airhole"

The velocity of the air at the surface of the earth is not the same as at some elevation from it, and the air may he perfectly still at the ground level while at a comparatively slight height there may be a wind of some 10 m. (32 ft.) per sec. This is due to the protection afforded the lowest layers of air by the un-evenness of tbe earth surface.

If a flyer runs against a wind of 10 m. per sec, with an absolute velocity of 25 m. per sec., his relative velocity is 15 m. per sec, and when he suddenly enters a stratum of still air his velocity remains only 15 m. per sec, which is not enough for planing; as a result he hits the ground with a thud, having struck an airhole. In landing, it is always a safe thing to select a fully open place where there is nothing to keep the wind out. The height of fall through an airhole is directly proportional to the velocity of the aircraft. Let G be the weight of the apparatus; v the velocity of the aircraft in still air; vl the wind velocity; h the height of fall. Further, let v1 =10. When the craft is in air having vx = 10, its kinetic energy is Gv2

2g

where g = 9.81. When the craft passes into the air having vl = 0, it loses some of its kinetic energy, which then becomes

G

a3 = — <* — v,y

2g

t landing.

The difference between the values of Ax and At indicates the kinetic energy A required to bring the aircraft back to the speed that would allow it to float in the lower air stratum. In this case vx~ v— 10, which gives after substitution:

What is wanted, however, is to establish the relation between v and h. When a craft of weight G falls through h, a kinetic energy A = Gh is liberated, and therefore Gh may be substituted for A in the preceding equation, which finally gives 10

h — — (v—5), S

But g is approximately equal to 10, and therefore h = v — 5

may be accepted as being approximately correct. This equation shows that the height of fall through an airhole increases with the speed of the aircraft, and that it is independent of the weight of the aircraft (the latter because G does not figure in the equation for h). Table 1 gives the height of fall through an airhole due to the craft coming from air moving against it at 10 m. (say 32 ft.) per sec. into still air, as functions of the speed of the airship.—(Das "Luft-loch" bei der Landung, E. Heinkel. Der Motorwagen, Vol. 16, No. 4, p. 91, Feb. 10, 1913. iy3 pp., 1 fig. ptA.)

v in miles per min.

cin ft. per see.

h in m

31 47 62 78 93

14 21 28 35 42

46 69 92 115 138

9 16 23 30 37

||eF^RyS RATI

) Wateh.fk.oo

Mquid

glvi5

rFRDWAND * <

NITM, KA1

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black. White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the caovas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to tbe wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagooal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Maia. U. S. A.

Boland Flying Boat

ONLY TWO CONTROLS SIMPLEST TO OPERATE

BOLAND MOTORS-60,70,100-125 H.P.

Repair and Construction Work in Best Equipped Factory

AEROMARINE PLANE & MOTOR CO.

Exclusive manufacturers under Boland Patents AVONDALE, N. J.

90-100 H. P. MAXIMOTOR being successfully tested for brake horse-power, developing 110 actual brake horse-power, at 1300 revolutions. Weighing 370 pounds complete with Magneto, Carburetor and Propeller Coupling.

Constructors, as well a* Aviators, are MAXIMOTOR'S most ardent supporters.

There will be a new 8-cylinder "V" type* 120 H. P. motor addition to the MAXIMOTOR family.

tfMi^ri rums

DETROIT

1528 jefferson avenue. e.

Watch for the developments

Catalog on request

THE COAST LINE TO

MACK I IM

DETROIT, y TOLEDO,

CLEVELAND, BUFFALO, I PT.HURON, ALPENA, NIAGARA FALLS. ^ ST. IGNACE.

"THE LAKES ARE CALLING YOU"

A RR ANGE, your vacation or buaines* trip to include our /-\ palatial lake ateamera. Every detail that counta for your convenience and comfort haa been provided.

Daily service between Detroit and Cleveland, and Detroit and Buffalo. Day trips between Detroit and Cleveland during July and August. Four trips weekly from Toledo and Detroit to Mackinac Uland" and way porta. Special Steamer Cleveland to Mackinac Island two trips weekly June 25th to September 10th, making no atopa enroute except ot Detroit every trip. Daily service between Toledo and Put-in-Bay June 10th to September 10th.

Railroad tickets accepted for tranaportition on D. & C. Line ateamers in either direction between Detroit and Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland.

Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet giving detailed description of various trips. Address L. G. Lewis, General Passenger Agent, Detroit, Mich.

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company

Philip H. McMillan, President. A. A. Schantz, Vice Pres. and Genl. Mgr.

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY

64th Si. & Weil End Ave., New York City

Aba Manufacturers a! Autamabila Radiators ol all type.

WITH MANY ILLUSTRATIONS

AVIATION

Net $4.00; postage 21 cts. extra

By ALGERNON E. BERRIMAN, M.I.A.E., A.F.Ae.S.

Technical Editor of "Flight"

A popular technical work of interest to the general student as well as to the man who Is in aviation as a profession. To the amateur builder of aeroplanes in the United States it will be of Incalculable benefit.

Chapters include: Wbat an Aeroplane Is: Instrnetlveness of Paper Models; Constructional Features of the Modern Aeroplane; Equilibrium in the Air; Lateral Balance; Steering; Longitudinal Stsbility; Principles of Propulsion; Concerning Resistance: Tbe Cambered Winer: Work of Lilienthal, Wrights, Volsln, Farniaii, Dunne and Weiss; British Military Trials of 1912; Hydroaeroplaoes; Accidents; Romance and Early History: Founding of the Science of Flight; Invention of tbc Glider and Pioneers; History and Appendicea containing numerical examples, application of laws, etc.

THE NAVY BOATS AT PENSACOLA

are equipped with

PARAGON PROPELLERS

Send for Photographs of Latest Designs

The three-bladed PARAGONS used by the Navy Aviators give the highest results ever attained. The two-bladed PARAGONS are unequalled. Efficiency, Security, Satisfaction—are back of the name PARAGON—the mark of first-class equipment. Three-Bladed NAVY PARAGONS kept in stock.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md-

NEW

GYRO DUPLEX

The first and only American revolving cylinder motor.

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs.

No backfiring, no intake valves to grind, perfect cooling, easy starting, will run in any position.

Oil Consumption Cut 50%

$30,000 to be given in prizes to builders of aeroplanes by U. S. Government.

Why install a power plant that is one-third of your total weight when you can get a GYRO DUPLEX at two and one-half lbs. per brake H. P.

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

AIRCRAFT COMPANY

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida

The Xew Benoist Fluino Buat in Action


No. 2, 1914, July

XV. No. 2

JULY 31, 1914

15 Cents

MflliiiillM

ERONffllTICS

I

m

Properly oj E. W »- r-!8CHON

Some Competitive Trophies Won in 1913—Wirt

CURTISS 0-X MOTORS

Except by Their Products, the Curtiss Companies were not Directly Represented in Any of These Events

No king ever enjoyed such sport as this. Four to five hundred miles without pause, at a speed of more than a mile a minute.

Five hundred thousand passenger miles without one serious accident. Used by six Governments and by private owners nearly everywhere.

THE MACKAY TROPHY, won by

Lieutenants J. E. Carberry and Fred Seydel, U. S. Army; flying 58 miles in 46 minutes.

TIMES AERIAL DERBY, won by

William S. Luckey, flying around Manhattan; 60 miles in 52 minutes.

TIMES AERIAL DERBY, second, Charles F. Niles.

AERO and HYDRO 1,000-mile Cruise Trophy, won by J. B. R. Verplanck and Beckwith Havens; Chicago to Detroit.

MICHIGAN AERO CLUB 1,000-mile Speed Trophy, won by Verplanck and Havens; Chicago to Detroit.

Ask for Our Catalogs

THE CURTISS MOTOR CO.,

21 Lake St., Htmmondsport, N. Y.

CURTISS O-X M°T°RS

OLD PROPELLERS

jiiiiii.i..............i......iiHiii..........n.....>.....<<»»><......>...................ծ........................................*......".......

E Don't throw them away. Patronize our Propeller Hospital. If you have a substantial E

E propeller of any make that is poor, useless or inefficient, we can make a good one of it, at :

= small cost, no matter what pitch; we can change the pitch to suit. Sounds impossible, =

E but 'tis true. E

E The three-bladed Paragons used on all Navy Machines give the highest results ever E

: attained. Two-bladed Paragons are unequalled. Efficiency, Security, Satisfaction,—are =

z back of the name PARAGON the mark of first-class equipment. E

^iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii..........iiiiiii Ash for Free Photographs iiiiimiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinir

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg Street, BALTIMORE, MD.

NEW

GYRO DUPLEX

The first and only American revolving cylinder motor.

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs.

WESTERN UNION TELEGRAM

Chicago, III.. Aug. 4. 1914.

GYRO MOTOR CO..

774 Girard St.. Washington, D. C. My Gyro eighty a wonder. Climbed twelve thousand feet in nineteen minutes and went over in loop with all kinds of reserve pnwer. Have located sixteen thousand foot haro-graph and will go after American altitude record in Kansas City tomorrow. If 1 succeed it will be official. Will write particulars

li,ter' De LLOYD THOMPSON.

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 Girard Street

Washington, D. C.

< BEN0IST «e

AIRCRAFT COMPANY

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida

Thf AVw Henoist Vlyinu Boat in Action

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

AEROXAUTICS, July 31. 1914.

rase 19

A SUGGESTION FOR THE POWER PLANT OF AN

AEROPLANE*

By DAVID L. GALLUP, M.E , Professor of Gas Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute

This paper has tn deal indirectly with the question of power plant in an aeroplane, and lias in reality two objects in view; First, to bring to your attention certain principles and their effect upon the performance of the gasoline engine, and. secondly, to do this in as brief and concise a manner as is possible.

Some of you are aware of the apparatus installed at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute some years ago for the purpose of testing aeroplane propellers, and possibly are acquainted with the results, a few of which were presented in a paper at one of the branch society meeting* last fall; but in order that those who are not familiar with them may appreciate the value and significance of the experiments conducted, a brief resume will be given here. (Report and description of plant and tests was given in AERONAUTICS, July, 1911.)

The main tesUuK plant is located at a lake about nve miles from the institute, and consists principally of a steel boom 85 feet in length, and which is free to rotate about a vertical axis at the center of the boom. At the end of this boom is placed the propeller, which is driven, through a system of gears, by an electric motor located at the center of the boom. The axis of the propeller shaft is at right angles to that of the boom, and is therefore tangent to the circle described by the same.

Rotation of the propeller about its own axis produces a thrust which is available for rotating the boom at any desired speed, and which may be controlled in various ways.

Arrangements have been made whereby the speed of the propeller in r.p.m., the speed of the boom tip in m.p.h., the thrust of the propeller in lbs., and the h.p. delivered to the propeller may be readily determined by instruments suitably placed.

An additional scheme for testing was embodied in the use of an iceboat driven by an aeroplane propeller, and which made possible the obtaining of very high speed in a straight line.

' Many tests have been made with these two forms of apparatus, and on many styles of propellers, with the result that there is on hand some very interesting data concerning the performance oi propellers under conditions similar to those in actual service.

Perhaps the most notable feature which was developed from tests of the average propeller was the drop in thrust as speed through the air increases, and the approach to zero thrust as this continues to increase.

In the type of propeller put out a few years ago, with a pitch of 5 to 7 feet, this drop is very noticeable. In such cases the "standing" thrust is the maximum obtained, and this falls off as flight begins, and in almost direct proportion, until at ordinary speeds through the air the thrust exerted by the propeller is approximately not over half of the maximum obtained when stationary.

Later types of propellers having lar,ge pitches, such as 9 to 12 ft., give a characteristic somewhat different from that just mentioned, in that the maximum thrust is obtained after the aeroplane has begun to move through the air. The speed

at which this is obtained is approximately 10 to 25 m.p.h., after which the thrust falls off as before.

Still other forms of propellers, notably the "variable pitch" type, may be so constructed as to give a fairly uniform thrust throughout what might be termed the working range of speeds, and wkich is. of course, the ideal condition.

Simultaneously with the experiments for obtaining the thrust characteristics of propellers, was obtained data showing the "effectiveness" of the latter at various r.p.m. "Effectiveness" in this case has reference to the til rust in pounds per h.p. necessary to drive the propeller, and is, as can be readily seen, the only proper measure of the value of a propeller.

Time will not permit of going into a tabulation of this data, but a study of the same seems to indicate that a relatively low r.p.m. is more desirable than wbat is now common practice, and which runs from 1,000 to 1 ,S0O r.p.m. Tbese high speeds result in a great deal of energy loss due to the needless churning of the air, and also on account of the fact that the time involved in a half revolution" of the propeller is so small each blade of the latter is brought to do its work in a disturbed atmosphere, all of which naturally tends to reduce the "effectiveness" of a propeller.

The Wright propeller, of large diameter, large pitch and low r.p.m., is an excellent example of a highly effective propeller doing with a small engine practically what some of the larger engines, driving propellers of small diameter, low pitch, at high r.p.m., accomplish.

In the majority of cases, propellers are direct-connected to the crank shaft of the engine, and for the two reasons that transmission through gearing or chains introduces a greater possibility of breakdown, and also since it has always been supposed that high r.p.m. of the propeller was preferable. High r.p.m. naturally goes with the customary type of gasoline engine, and this in turn follows, since it is established that for a given h.p. output a high speed engine weighs less, and hence is an argument for its adoption in aeroplane practice.

The real object of this paper is to endeavor to show that there are manv reasons why these ideas should be abandoned in favor of an engine of the slow-speed type, driving a propeller of large diameter and large pitch.

Taking up the propeller, as before stated, the average high-speed type is working at ordinary flight speeds at greatly reduced "effectiveness," and this can be materially bettered by reducing the r.p.m., or rather hy increasing the pitch to correspond to the reduced r.p.m., in order that the thrust may not be ie«ri-::if d. This w ill give a greater per cent, of efficiency for the whole system, and for the reasons stated in the beginning.

Tui ning now to the engine, an analysis of its performance indicates that, generally speaking, with a given bore the power is proportional to the piston speed. This may be effected by increasing the r.p.m. for a given stroke, or increasing the stroke for a given r.p.m.

A concrete illustration of the pnini it is desired to bring out may be It rm1 in the following. Two engines of identical bcre, but having in >nc case a stroke equal to the bore and in ilie c thcr a stroke equal to twice the bore, with, other things being equal, deliver exactly the same h.p. at a certain r.p.m. for the first, and at half that r.p.m. for the second. Piston speeds and gas speeds are identical in both engines. There are, however, certain differences, and it is on these that the argument depends.

In the short-stroke motor, although the total jacket loss per minute is the same as in the long-stroke motor, the surface exposed to the heat is half as great and the number of times per minute is twice as great, necessitating a much heavier duty per sq. in. of wall surface in the short than in the long-stroke motor. The significance of this is apparent when it is considered that the popular motor for aeroplane purposes is air cooled.

Following this, the number of r.p.m. is in the long-stroke motor being reduced for a given power output, the shocks due to reciprocation are correspondingly less, and this point may be extended to cover iranv of the parts of the engine. The value incident to this is self-evident. Valve breakages, crystallization, valve-spring trouble, loose hearings, etc, are to a large extent reduced, and in some cases entirely eliminated.

The only real disadvantage which can be traced to the adoption of the Inng-stroke motor, of the slow-speed type, is represented by the increased total weight making the weight per h.p. output greater. To just what extent this would be is nut absolutely known, since automobile engineering has not progressed sufficiently for conclusions to be drawn regarding relative weights per h.p. for equivalent designs, since few, if any, exist: but the general opinion seems to prevail that the per cent, increase would be relatively small—say 10. This, of course, is negligible when all factors are taken intn consideration, since all of the preceding statements have attempted to show that much more "effectiveness" per lb. of engine and aeroplane would result if these ideas were adopted.

Briefly, then, the arguments are:

1. Increased effectiveness of propeller ;

2. Increased life of engine.

As both of these have a direct bearing upon the safety of the aviator or his passenger, there should be no further need .for argument, if the data upon which the statements are based is correct.

In conclusion, then, it is stated that the ideal arrangement consists of the long-stroke motor of such dimensions that 700 to 1,000 r.p.m is the speed at which maximum h.p. is developed, and direct connected to this a propeller of such dimensions as to absorb the maximum h.p. at the speed mentioned, and also to give its maximum thrust after flight has begun if of the constant-pitch type.

*l'aper read before the New Haven P. ranch of the American So ciety of Mechanical Engineers, May I.

In 1009 an 1 ntemational Juridic Committee on Aviation was organized at I'aris and with the year igio began publishing the "Revue juri-dique international de la Locomotion aerienne." The committee on January 10. 1910, decided upon the outline of a legal code of the air. The committee itself consists of j urists, lawyers and legal students in principal countries. The national membership forms a national committee acting through a representative executive committee in Paris. This executive committee makes general studies upon a point of law and issues its preliminary decisions to national committees, which report back their opinions. The text decided upon in this way is definitively passed at annual congresses.

The importance of such work is shown by the experiences of the Institute of International Law, whose preliminary studies have been the foundation uf every international law codification in existence. Peyond question the committee's code will be the basis of diplomatic action when time for that is ripe.

The .American committee consists of James 1 Jrown Scott, 2 Jackson Place, Washington, national delegate to executive committee; Charles E. Peach, 95 rue des Petits-Champs, Paris, national reporter; 1 )enys P. Myers. 40 Mt. Vernon Street, Post on, national secretary; Arthur K. Kulin, New York City; Gov. Simeon E. Paid win of Connecticut, George Whitelock of Maryland, William W. Sm it hers of Pennsylvania, Joseph Wheless of Missouri and Ambrose Kennedy of Rhode Island.

Through the procedure above described tlie following text has been decided upon:

Book I. Public Aerial Law.

CHAPThR I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF AERIAL CIRCULATION.

Art. i. Aerial circulation free, except for right of subjacent states to take certain measures with a view to own security and that of persons and property of their inhabitants. Art. 2. It is prohibited to pass above fortified and military works, etc., or neighborhood within a radius determined by the military authorities. Art. 3. Administrative and police authorities regulate or prohibit circulation above built-over areas.

CHAPTER 11. NATIONALITY AND REGISTRATION OF AIRCRAFT.

Art. 4. Every aircraft must have one nationality only. Art. 5. Nationality of aircraft that of owner. Tf aircraft belongs to a company, nationality that of headquarters of company. If owners of aircraft are of different nationalities, its nationality will be that of Joint owners who possess two-thirds value. Art. 6. Every aircraft must bear sign indicative of nationality. Art. 7. Every aircraft must carry descriptive document containing information proper to individualize. Art 8. Every owner before putting craft into circulation outside private aerodromes must have obtained from public authorities inscription upon a register of mat riculation kept by proper authority. Each state regulates registration within own terri-

tory. Art. 9. Aircraft must bear distinctive mark indicating place ot registration. Art. 10. Registration lists will be published.

CHAPTER III. LANDING AND ALIGHTING ON WATER.

Art. 11. .Aircraft may land upon unenclosed properties; also alight upon and navigate all waters. Art. 12. Except in the case of "force majeure," this right is prohibited to them: (a) in the boundaries of closed properties; (h) within the boundaries of areas built over, ports and roadsteads, outside of spaces reserved for this purpose; (c) in navigable channels where the difficulty of passage necessitates this prohibition, which must be expressly formulated by the comi>etent authorities. Art. 13. Every aircraft which enters above a prohibited zone is to alight at first signal from competent authorities as soon as possible.

CHAPTER IV. JETTISON.

Arl. 14. Jettison consists in any voluntary throwing overboard of objects. Art. 15. Jettison of all nature to injure persons or property prohibited, except in case of imminent danger. Art. 16. In any case, damage done gives cause for reparation.

CHAPTER V. WRECKS.

Art. 17. Whoever finds all or part of disabled and abandoned aircraft must make declaration thereof to proper authority. Art. 18. Competent authority, when duly advised, will immediately take the measures necessary to assure the preservation of wreck and discovery of owner. Art. 10. < hvner of wreck may reclaim it from the authorities in charge within period of one year from discovery by paying expenses of preserving. In addition he must pay finder premium of discovery calculated on the basis of 10 per cent, of value on the day of restitution, minus expenses.

CHAPTLR VI. LEGISLATION APPL [ CA-P.LE AND JURISDICTION COMPETENT IN RESPECT TO AERIAL LOCOMOTION.

Art. 20. Aircraft which is above the high sea or territory not under the sovereignty of any state is subject to legislation and jurisdiction of country whose nationality it possesses. Art. 21. When an aircraft is above territory of a foreign state, the acts committed and the deeds occurring on hoard, which are of a nature to compromise security or public order of subjacent state, are regulated by the legislation of territorial state and judged by its courts. Art. 22. Reparation for damages caused to the persons and goods above the territory of the subjacent state by an aircraft is regulated by the law of this state. The action for relief may be brought either before the courts of this state or hefore the courts of the state whose nationality the aircraft possesses. Art. 23. Acts committed and deeds occurring in space on hoard an aircraft and which do in it affect the security or the public order of the subjacent state remain subject to the legislation and the jurisdiction of the country whose nationality the aircraft possesses. Art. 24. 7n case of a birth or a death on board during an aerial voyage, the pilot will make record

thereof on the log-book. In the first place where the aircraft shall land the pi bit will have to deposit a copy of the record which he shall have made. The deposit \v il 1 be made as follows: If the place is part of the territory whose nationality the aircraft possesses, to the proper public authority; if the place is situated in foreign territory, in the hands of the consul whose nationality the aircraft possesses. In case there is no consul in this place, the copy of the record will he sent by the pilot by registered mail to the consular authority, or to the competent authority whose nationality the aircraft possesses.

Book II. Private Aerial Law,

TITLE 1. CIVIL. CHAPTER I. PROPERTY ABOVE.

Art. 25. No one may, on account of a property right, hinder the passage of an aircraft under conditions winch do not present for him any appreciable inconvenience. Art. 26. Any abuse of the right of passage gives cause against its responsible author for action for damages.

CHAPTER II. REPARATION FOR DAMAGE CAUSED BY AIRCRAFT.

Art. 27. Reparation for damage caused by an aircraft either to persons or goods that are on the surface of the earth falls on the custodian of the aircraft, the right of the i 11 j 11 red person to look to the one responsible at common law being unimpaired. Art. 28. The custodian, held to reparation for the damage done, has a recourse against the responsible author thereof in accordance with the common law. Art. 29. In case the damage should be due wholly or in part to the act of the person injured, the judge shall have the right to pronounce the total or partial exoneration of the custodian. Art. 30. The custodian may bring the exception of "force majeure" as a defense. Art. 31. The provisions of Art 27 are not applicable if, at the moment of the accident, the person injured or the thing damaged were transported by aircraft, or if the person injured was himself occupied in the management of the machine.

The remainder of the code is yet to be worked out.

THE INTERNATIONAL CODE OF AERIAL LAW

THE SELLERS QUADROPLANE.

Are we now to have the Ford of the air? An aeroplane which costs little, economical in upkeep and repairs, eliminates the professional driver, cuts shed cost and adapts pleasure flying to the proletariat?

Matthew C. Sellers, whose contributions to AERONAUTICS have been invaluable, has been flying his novel machine at the Aeronautical Society's aerodome at Oak wood 11 eights. St at en Island, during the last of July. Readers are familiar with flights made from time to time during the past six years. The feature of rising automatically from the ground and the wheels automatically raising to land on skids was used hy Mr. Sellers in his gliders in 190$ and since in the power machine, with which he began (lying in 1909. (See patent and drawings in October, 1909. issue.)

of spruce. The curve is ] in 16 and set at 5 degrees, the normal angle of flight, the c. of p. comes about 2/5 from the front edge. The fabric is cotton cloth, coated with Conover varnish. The eanibre is 21/i ins.

The planes are spaced 2 ft. 2 in. vertically apart. They are supported on inclined struts attached to the front spar of each plane, the rear of the wing being supported by pusts from the inclined strut*, these nosts being nearly vertical. The upper wing acts as an elevator, being pivoted on the front spar. The machine is stabilized laterally by depressing either ends of the two upper planes to lift the low sides of the machine, the high side of the planes being left to flatten out by anv increased air pressure.

Control of elevation is effected by

The disposition of the planes in steps is due to wind tunnel experiments made by Mr. Sellers in 1903 and to results obtained with models made at that time and later. The same machine, without an engine, was used as glider in the summer of 190S and in December, 1908, made its first short flight, using a French iHitheil-Chalmers 2 cyl. opposed engine giving about 5 h.p. This engine was used intermittently till the present engine (Hates 2 cyl. opposed, S b.h.p.) was put on and flights made with it in the fall of 1° 10. Since then various improvements have been tried out and experiments made to determine the dimensions of the most efficient propeller fur the conditions. In comparing this machine with others in regard to horsepower it must be remembered that, for simplicity, this propeller is direct connected, and that if geared, greater efficiency woidd be obtained this may be done later on.

The machine in its present form does not emhody the final construction and it is certain that when a full set of double surface wings and a-proper fuselage are used the efficiency will be considerably improved. t Experiments have also been made with the propeller behind on an extension shaft, employing, in that case, a warping vertical rudder.

The machine spreads 18 ft., is 12 ft. total length and about 8 ft. high. There are four supporting planes, 3 ft. bv 18 ft., arranged in steps, the highest in front. These have, in the past, heen single surfaced, but a trial is now heing made with two of these double surfaced. The ribs, in pockets, are 1.5 ft. apart, made

a handle bar which is rotated about its horizontal axis; left and right steering by movement about its vertical axis in the same manner as a bicycle is steered; while lateral stability is maintained by rocking the handle bar in a vertical plane, the bar being universale mounted.

The operator sils on a spring seat, slightly in front of the c. of g. on a level with the skids. The machine runs on 3 wheels, the rear wheel being spring mounted so that as the propeller is started the whole machine is tipped forward, raising the rear of the machine, so that the planes are at a very small angle. As speed over the ground increases, the spring on the rear wheel is extended and the rear of the machine depressed, thereby increasing the angle of the planes and causing the machine to leave the ground without any operation of the elevator plane. When the motor is cut «»lT for landing the two f runt wheels automatically spring up and allow the machine to alight on its skids. The machine stops within about 30 feet.

The weight of the machine complete is about 110 Ins., without gas and oil. The speed is 21 m.p.h. The aviatnr. Mr. Sellers, who weighs 140 lbs-, brings the weight carried up to 250 lbs., which is 31 lbs. per li.h.p. and l'.i lbs. per sq. ft. of surface, the total lifting surface being 200 sq. ft.

The vertical rudder is triangular in shape, with about 7 sq. ft. of surface. There is also a fixed flat surface set at a negative angle of 4 degrees about ml a level with the second plane frrnn the top. This has about S sq. ft. of surface.

In flight, banking fur a turn is done entirely with the rudder. The warping is not used as a rule but is cc.-iMunally used to prevent over-banking._______

EMERSON ENGINES AGAIN MARKETED.

The well known two cycle engine, the Emerson, has been placed on the market again by the Her forth Engine Co., Alexandria. Va. The manufacture of these has been taken u > hy this company and for a limited time, in view of the removal to a larger factory, special prices are qinited $1,200 for the six cylinder, 100 h.p.. and $900 for the four cylinder. 60 h.p., the former prices of the Emerson Engine Co. being ?2.-OdO and $1,400, respectively. Quick deliveries can be made of these.

View of the Sellers Machine with Propeller in the Rear.

The engine is a 2 cyl., 3^ ins. All repair parts can now he fur-by 35£ ins., opposed 4 cycle Pates nished fur those engines now in motor, air cooled, driving a tractor service. It will be remembered that screw 5 ft. 6 ins. diam. by 27 ins. the flights of Tony Jannns in Wash-pitch at 1,350 r.p.m.; standing ington in earlier days made this thrust 90 I lis. The engine is rated engine well known. Jannns is t" at 10 h.p. and tests show it develops this day an exponent of the two S h.p. at 1,350 r.p.m. cycle motor and a user.

THE "AMERICA'S' FLIGHT POSTPONED.

EUROPEANS BATTLE IN THE AIR.

The preliminary trials wit

Rodman YVanamaker transatlantic flying boat America were concluded with two impressive flights. First Glenn II. Curtiss flew the machine with a total useful load of considerable more than a ton. Ile started out with more than 200 gallons of gasoline and one passenger. P.y degrees this load was increased by two more passengers and some four hundred pounds of sand. The weight carried was considered to equal the weight of enough gasoline and oil to fly the America for twenty-four hours. Three 100 h.p. motors were used, the third being placed on the top plane, driving a tractor screw. Lieutenant Porte estimates that the flight from New Pound-land to the Azores will take from seventeen to twenty hours, according to wind conditions.

Next day Lieutenant Porte made the longest flight so far made with the machine. Leaving the flying camp about 7 o'clock he flew to the 1 'cnii Van end of the lake. There a short stop was made, and the return flight may be said to have heen made after dark. On this flight Porte was accompanied by George llallett. the assistant pilot selected for the transatlantic project.

WHY THE POSTPONEMENT. Following these tests Mr. Curtiss, 1 .ieu tenant Porte, and Mr. Cash, personal representative of Mr. Rod-nnn Wanamaker, held a consultation of war to debate the advisability of trying to get the machine in condition to ship to New Foundland on Wednesday. Mr. Curtiss thought it possible the machine could be patched up and crated in time to r:iteli the August 1 boat from New York, but advised enough delay to give him an opportunity to properly rebuild the hot torn of the boat and io incorporate in the rebuilding such modifications as had been suggested In' the series of twenty-seven experiments carried out. Lieutenant Porte did not like the delay because he knew if he failed to catch the boat sailing August 1 he could not get another ship before August S; that would mean arriving at New Foundland August 13 or 14 and it would be at least the 17th or 18th before the machine could be assembled ready for the big adventure. As the period of equinoxial storms begins hetween the 10th and 21)tli of August, and these would prevail until the latter part of September. In other words, if the boat were shipped Friday instead of Wednesday a delav of two months in starting the flight must result. Mr. Cash sided with Mr. Curtiss ami stated emphatically that Mr. Wanamaker would not favor making a start until every possible thing lo insure its ultimate success had been taken care of. Lieutenant Porte finally was won over to the side of the others and the postponement of the attempt until October 1 was announced to the press correspondents.

PRESENT ACTIVITY. Monday the work of taking apart the machine was begun. The hull. somewhat battered hy five weeVs of exposure and rough handling by man mid the elements, was taken to the Curtiss boat shop and will be thoroughly overhauled. The original bottom will be torn out and a new one fitted in its place. Some changes will be made in the form

AIR FLEETS OF THE POWERS.

Paris, August 4.— German army aeroplane reported to have dropped three bombs on the garrison town of Luneville, killing fifteen persons. Three German dirigibles reported maiieouveriiig over Prussels. Numerous aeroplanes from French aviation centers said to he flying over Paris in flotillas of twos, threes and fives toward Germany. German dirigible supposed to have dropped explosive on a French town, annihilating a patrol of troops.

Paris, August 3.—The famous aviator, Roland Garros, cable dispatches state, drove his aeroplane headfirst into a German airship, killing himself and the 25 men of the crew of the ship when the latter ignited and burned from the ramming. _

Prussels. August 6.—German aeroplane ami Zeppelin dirigible reported destroyed by Pelgians. A personal conflict is reported between a Pelgian and a German aviator who fired revolvers at each other and then planed to the earth.

All cabled stories of operations of aircraft in the present European war must be accepted v itb a grain of salt. Very little reliahle news of any kind is coming from the scene of conflict and wierd stories like that of the Garros incident must be discounted until verified. The possibility of an aeroplane being able to accomplish this without being hit hv the airship's guns is most remote, not to mention the unlikelihood of Garros's patriotism being carried to the extent of deliberate personal destruction. His value to his country is greater alive than dead, as an economic proposition.

A few aviators, whose names come to mind, might well be spared for such feats, hut as these are not the kind likely to enlist we will probably be spared the misery of hearing of their sacrifice.

There are no less than 105 airships, from the vedette tvpe to the monster Zeppelin, on hand or under construction by France, Germany,

Russia. England, Japan, Italy, Austria, r.razil, P.elgium, Spain, Pul-garia, Chile and Turkey. The powers now at war have 84 of these. Twenty-six powers have more than 2,048 "aeroplanes on hand. Russia alone has 336 more ordered. The powers now fighting in Europe have not less than 1,575 aeroplanes in service, with a minimum of 3,224 officers and enlisted men on aviation duty. This latter number is certainly far below actuality as no figures on men, non-pilots, attached to aviation are available for four out of these six countries. It is safe to estimate that this figure should he increased by at least 2.500, making 5,724 men on aviation duty. These figure^ do not include, either, men assigned to dirigibles, which would add another thousand to the air forces of the quarreling nations.

France has 22 airships, Germany 20 in service and 20 more to draw on; Russia has. with orders, 22; England 8: Austria 10; Pelgium 2.

The colossal sums invested in preparations for war in the air by the powers now involved in the titanic struggle totals the staggering sum of $1 17,645.000 expended in the six vears up to 1914 Of this, in round figures. Germany has al-readv spent S2S.000.000:' France, S22.000.000: Russia. $12,000,000; Ttalv, $8,000,000: Austria. $5,000,000. 3nd England. $3,000,000.

Public subscriptions. $7,100,000 in all, separate from the above, add $3,500,000 to Germany, $2,50(5,000 to France, $1,000,000 to Ttalv and $100,000 to Russia. Yet this is not all of the hoard being poured into death machines of the air. The appropriations of the governments for 1913 were: France, $7,400,000; Germany, $5,000,000; Russia. $5,000.000: England, $3,000,000: Ttaly, $2,100,000; Tapan, $1,000,000, and Mexico, $400,000, as against $125,000 hy the United States, making additional expenditures of $24,025,000 during the current year. Now that war is on it is probable that the overwhelming appropriation made by Germany of $37,000,000 to be expended during 1914-1S may be drawn upon.

of the bottom; it will be wider all over, a little longer, and considerably flatter at the step. Technically, it will have more flotation and a more efficient nlaning surface. The special C. M. O. propellers will have a new sheathing of metal, better fastened than the original metal cover. It was the tearing loose of the original copper cover, which broke its way through the upper plane, that was largely responsible for the postponement of the start. Two to three weeks will be consumed in the work of reconstructing and refurnishing the machine; then a few test flights wil be made to guarantee the rightness of everything and the machine will be shipped to New Foundland.

Whether or not Lieutenant Porte succeeds in piloting the America safelv across the Atlantic Ocean the development of the machine seems to have been well worth the work expended on it. A series of unique experiments were conducted by Mr. Curtiss working in conjunction with Lieutenant Porte, Captain Creagh Osho'-ne, Dr. A. F. Zahm, Lieutenant Towers and other men of high

standing in this field. The results of the different trials were carefully checked and tabulated, and w ill doubtless prove of great value to the future of hydroaviation.

TRANSATLANTIC FLYER MAY STOP AT FLEMISH CAP.

A transatlantic flight is a mere bagatelle, or ought to be. All the experts have figured it out and it is all verv simple. Take any one of the different advices and the thing is done. Only one little error was made in all the gratuitous offerings and that was the suggestion that stop be made at Flemish Cap, the eastern end of the Newfoundland P.anks. LTiifortunately this piece of "land," which is about 50 miles long hy 25 miles wide, is 58 fathoms under water at the least depth, according to the United States II ydrographic Office, which department, however, may be entirely wrong in its surmise, or perhaps the expert had in mind carrying a demountable submarine.

MEASURING HORSE-POWER IN THE AIR

To measure horsepower in the air, there is yet to be discovered a direct method other than a special rigging. If the propeller be mounted directly on the engine shaft, and the engine bed so mounted as to turn on an axis parallel to tbe engine shaft, the turning moment can then be measured during flight and the power computed from that and the r.p.m. 1 f the propellers are chain driven, idler spockets can be inserted in the chain and its tension measured during flight; or, this could, even be measured directly by having the propeller shafts especially supported, as in a machine like the Wright.

In most cases it would be sufficient to know the revolutions of the engine during^ flight and the power when standing just before a flight. Then by means of the power curve of the engine it would be simple to get a close approximation of the power during the flight. There-would always be the chance that differences of carburetion and cooling between standing and flying would make an error, but if the power curve of the engine had been determined originally with an artificial wind blowing onto the engine, if air cooled, or on the radiator, if water cooled, the error ought not to be so great.

Taking an example, suppose:

1. R.P.M. before flight = 1.150.

2. Par. = o, Therm. = b, just be-

for flight.

3. R.P.M. during flight = 1,300.

4. Bar. = o, Therm. = /), during

flight. 90

5. Tdock test power curve of motor

is as per diagram.

6. Propeller takes 75 II.P. for 1.200

R.P.M. when Bar. — m, and Thermometer — n.

First correcting for barometer difference a — »i. and thermometer differences b— n we find, let us say, that there is such a correction that it would take 78 II.P. to turn propeller 1,200 R.P.M. on the day of the flight.

Now engine actually turned propeller only 1,150 on day of flight.

Correcting for revolutions (1,200 -1,150) the power of the motor as indicated bv propeller revolutions on day of right is 6S H.P. at 1.150 R. P.M. Now, block test power curve shows 78 H.P. for 1,150 K. P.M. Therefore, engine is 10 II.P. weak on day of flight or about \2l/2 per cent, weak, as compared u ith its showing on the block. Revolution during flight was 1.300. 11.P. according to block test power curve is 84 at 1.300. Deduct l2}/2 per cent, and we have 73 II.P. during flight.

1 n this way a record of revolutions before the flight and during th<* flight, when taken in conjunction w ith the barometer and thermometer will give us the power if we know the characteristics of the motor and propeller made at some previous block test. But we must be sure that propeller has not u arped. This can best be checked hy seeing if standing thrust corresponds to the observed R.P.M. after thermometer and barometer corrections are made.

iooo 1c50

p20o izso

AT SAN DIEGO.

The return of six aviators and forty-two men from Galveston, Tex., on July 17, to North Island brings the United States Government force up to seventeen officers and ninety-four men at the cainp.

Flying done at S. C. Aviation School, San l)iego. Cab, week ending July 25, 1914: Flights, 58; time in the air, 15 hours 18 minutes; passengers carried, 30.

Summary, January 1 to Tuly 25, 1<M4: Flights, 1,296; time in the air, 349 hours 17 minutes; passengers carried, 635.

For the week ending July II, 1914: Flights. 34; time in the air, 8 'hours 22 minutes; passengers carried, 23

Summary, January 1 to July 11, 1914: Flights, 1.185; time in the air. 322 hours 27y2 minutes; passengers carried, 582.

chine whose speed has been reported as 2 '4 miles in two minutes flat. Certainly this is extraordinary speed for motor boats. Of the sea sled type, with surface propellers, Sturte-vant motors have been supplied. Vincent Astor is one purchaser and the United Stales Navy another. The Navy's sea sled will be used in connection with the air fleet at Pensacola.

AERO SCIENCE CLUB OF AMERICA BULLETIN.

At the recent flying boat contest held hy this club, at Dyker Heights, Brooklyn. N. Y., Mr. Charles V. Obst was the winner with a flight of 18 4/5 seconds, winning the bronze medal offered by Mr. Harry Schultz. As this was the first contest of this kind ever held it proved to be very interesting and was attended by a great number of spectators.

On the last Sunday of August a hydroaeroplane duration contest will be held at Union Course Pond, Woodhaven, L. 1. Mr. Edward Durant and Mr. George Bauer have kindly consented to act as judges to time the flights. No entry fee w ill be charged and all persons interested are cordially invited to attend and enter the contests. The contest will be held between the hours of 2 and 5 p. m.

In order that sufficient time be given to prospective contestants and all other interested persons the club has decided to name all contests two months ahead. Therefore the contest for the month of September will be for speed. The following are the rules adopted for this contest:

All models are to start at a certain line and the first model crossing a mark 800 feet from said line is the winner.

All models are to rise from the ground with the wind.

Models must be in full flight when crossing the finishing line.

This contest will be held on September 20. 1914, at Van Cort-landt Park, New York City.

This contest is expected to he of great help in the development of the model as regards streamlining and reduction of resistance.

This club meets every Saturday it the rooms of the Aeronautical Society, 29 West 3'uh Street, New-York City. All persons interested are invited to attend. For further :nformation address the secretary, Mr. Harry Schultz.

AERO MOTORS FOR SPEED BOATS.

Aeronautical motor manufacturers are finding a new field—purchasers of skimmers and sea sleds. A Gyro motor has been installed in a ma-

NEW PUBLICATIONS.

Report on European Aeronautical Laboratories, with 11 plates, by Albert F. Zalim. Ph. D., published by Smithsonian 1 nstitution from the Hodgkins Fund. The pamphlet reports the visit of Dr. Zahm and Assistant Naval Constructor Jerome C. Ilunsaker, U. S. N.. to the principal laboratories near London, Paris and Gottingen for the purpose of studying, in behalf of Smithsonian I nstitution, the latest developments in instalments, methods, resources used, etc., for the prosecution of aeronautical researches. Copies of this pamphlet may be had upon application from Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C

HE SIMPLY DOESN'T BELONG

Picking a balloonist for president of tbe aero club is a good deal like picking the propelling power of a jinrickshaw as president of the American Automobile Association.— X. Y. American.

FOR SALE, on account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. E. M., 1522 Norwood* ave., Toledo, l»hio.

BACK NUMBERS WANTED— December, 1910, and March, 1911, issues of AERONAUTICS (American) wanted. Fifty cents each. Address Secretary, Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, 11 Adam st., Adelphi, London, W. C.

NEW MAXIMOTUK

The advent of the flying boat, with its ever increasing popularity and safety's demand for larger and higher powered motors, has made it imperative that the Maximotor makers accede to this demand with the new improved Model "IV 100 h.p., 6 cylinder vertical type.

These improvements are the culmination of months of experimental work achieving toward the objective points. Pow ei. Reliability, and Durability.

In a three hour test, the company states, coupled to a hydro-dynamometer, this motor developed in excess of 111 actual brake h.p. at 1.350 r.p.m.. which is phenomenal for a 5 in. by 5!1> in. six cylinder engine. (The A. L. A. M. rating fur this size is 60 h.p.) I >uring

100 HORSEPOWER.

head. They are machined both inside and out, so as to allow for uniform expansion, and equal weight.

The connecting rods are drop forgings of chrome-nickel steel, double heat treated, and are very light in weight, as. in fact, are all the reciprocating parts.

Some very fine detailing is to be found in the crankshaft design. This is cut out of a solid billet, or slab, of heat-treated cronie-nickel steel imported from Germany. After the shaft is cut. it goes through a machining process which brings it down to within several thousandths of its finished size. The shaft and crankpins are then hollow bored and the v.hole ground and finished to size to within one one-thousandth of an inch.

PARLA TO TEACH CUBAN OFFICERS.

The well known Cuban aviator, August in Pari a, a Curtiss pupil, is to be given charge of instructing officers in the Cuban army in flying and aeronautics generally. Last year Sr. Parla, who at that time was the first and only Cuban aviator, became the hero of the Republic after his flight from Key West to Cnha in a Curtiss hydroaeroplane, and since then be has flown in most of the larger towns of the Island. 1 ] e made some remarkable flights above Santiago on M ay 20 last. Ilis recent book, written in Spanish, entitled "Augnstin Parla y Aviacion en Cuba," tell in a descriptive manner of some of his numerous exploits.

SCHMITT VARIABLE AN-1 GLE MACHINE MAY COME HERE.

It is not unlikely that in the near future a Paul Schmitt variable angle hi plane may be brought to this country. This idea is in contemplation by August Pelmont. who is interested in the machine. Readers are acquainted with the general characteristics of this machine as i puhlished in the April 15 number I and with the scores of new world I records made by Garaix as pilot.

this test the motor consumed 8 gallons of fuel and 7 pints of lubricating oil per hour and showed a throttle range, uitbout skipping, of 350 to 1.400 r.p.m. under load. The weight of the motor complete as it was mounted on the stand was 372 pounds.

Among the numerous improvements to he found on the new Model *'B'* 6 is the improved overhead valve system, with parts strengthened and hearing areas increased: a douhle set of large ball bearings, carrying the propeller end of crank shaft and mounted in a steel disc, housing, instead of aluminum, as heretofore; an arrangement for a double individual magneto ignition system; double force-feed oil pumps; wider wrist-pin hearings: and a strengthened crank case, especially the supporting arms which have heen just doubled in size. Also a compression release device is provided where desired.

The new Maximotors are built of the highest grade of imported English and German materials.

As will be seen from the accompanying cut, the cylinders are of the overhead valve type (all valves mechanically operated hy adjustable push rods), cast in pairs. This arrangement tends to produce a very compact construction, gives the cylinders greater strength for equal weight, and reduces the manifold joints and connections just about one-half in number. The material from which the cylinders are cast is a high grade vanadium composition, containing 30 per cent, steel. Strength and lasting qualities are claimed for the formula, as well as clean, smooth castings free from defect. Pistons, likewise, are cast from the same material as the cylinders and are heavily ribbed in the

Five imported annular ball bearings are employed to carry the crankshaft. The propeller end of the crankshaft is especially rigidly supported by two extra heavy combined radial and thrust ball sets. These heavy duty ball bearings are mounted in a vanadium steel housing which is in turn recessed and bolted to the crank case proper by six nickel steel stud holts.

Lightness is secured in the cam shaft member by utilizing nickel steel tubing of large diameter arid heavy wall. The cams are of special carbon steel tempered and ground and are held in place by taper pins. All the valves are operated by tubular push rods and nickel steel rocker arms from a single cam shaft.

An equalizing intake manifold of cast aluminum is bolted to the cylinder intake ports and a special manifold muffler (shown in the end view of the six cylinder motor illustration) can be fitted for silencing the exhaust.

Tn addition to the "B" 6 and the other stock models, the Maximotor makers are putting on the market as a standard a 125 h.p., eight cylinder, Y-type along general Maximotor lines, the first of which will appear in the very near future.

"SAFE AND SANE" MACHINES FOR ARMY AND NAVY.

The first Purgess-Dunne machine has heen shipped to the United States Navy from the Purgess works at Marhlehead and the one for the Army will be delivered within a few weeks. This Government will be the first to own one of these inherently stable machines and its undoubted success in the Army and the Navy will be watched with interest by all.

The Purgess-Dunne seaplane was recently converted into a land machine and a numher of flights made with it on the old Squantum field near Post on. Flight after flight was made hy Mr. Webster running over the field and leaving the ground , without any guidance whatsoever, the controls being locked. It climbs well over 300 feet per minute and j its balance in the air is finite as ' good as with the boat attachments which were transferred hack onto the machine in just an hour and forty minutes, when the machine was flown to Marhlehead, a distance of 18 miles, in ten minutes—naturally with a strong wind.

JANNUS MAKES GOOD FLIGHT.

Cleveland. July 23.—Tony Jan-iius carried Miss Lilly Trvine from Cedar Point to Euclid Peach, a distance of 60 miles, in his flying boat.

NILES LOOPS THE LOOP FOR CONEY.

Beginning July 2S, Charles F. Niles, in his Moisant monoplane, began a week's exhibition at Coney Island, looping the loop, flying upside down, and so forth, under the auspices of the merchants' association. On one day be dropped a dummy from (he air to the horror of thousands who watched his antics.

I enjoy reading your interesting and instructing paper every month from beginning to end, and look forward to its arrival each time with pleasure. I am very glad to see that you do not intend to have any fake rumors in it, but just the facts, so that all its readers can rely upon it implicitly. I shall always he glad to help you in anyway I can.

W. B. S., Worcester, Mass.

WHAT AMERICAN AVIATION NEEDS.

Support by tbe public.

Support by tbe Government,

Federal control of flying. (For years urged by AERONAUTICS.)

Endowed aeronautical laboratories.

Aeronautical engineering courses in technical colleges.

Scientific construction methods.

Improved motors.

lief ore the Committee on Military Affairs last fall Colonel Reber said:

"Congress has not appreciated the importance of or given adequate support to military aviation. On tbe other hand, the great nations of Europe have realized its importance and France has led the world in its utilization. Aviation has appealed more strongly to the imagination and esprit of the French people than to the rest of tbe world. This nation, seeing an opportunity of increasing its military strength over that of its neighbors, who have not been so prompt to realize the utility of aviation, raised large sums of money by popular subscription for the purchase of aviation material for the army and public opinion has forced the government to support and develop the fourth arm of tbe French army. The French and English governments have for the past two years given direct support and encouragement to manufacturers by money awards at military trials, and subsequent orders for the machines winning in the trials.

"Experience, experiment and application of engineering principles have advanced tbe construction of the aeroplane far beyond* the pioneer machines of our chief inventors. Judging, however, from the large mimher of freak machines that are to be seen in the hangars around our aerodromes, there is no general realization that the correct design of an aeroplane calls for a new branch of engineering—aeronautical engineering — which embraces physics, mechanical engineering, meteorology and even marine engineering and naval architecture. It is to be hoped that the day will soon come when the carpenter shop or hackyard will no longer serve as a factory nor the would-be constructor obtain his plans from an octavo volume on 'I low to Build an Aeroplane,' or from the pages of an aeronautical journal. The number of imitators of successful designs is great, but the really competent designer is a 'rara avis' in this country."

HALL-SCOTT OPTIMISTIC.

We are looking forward to the Government trials in San Diego, w hich are scheduled to be run on or ahout the 1st of October. If the Government does contemplate ordering forty machines from the winner, and prizes for the second and third contestants, we believe it will be a great stimulant to the American manufacturers in this line of business. At the present time we have two of the hest concerns in the United States building special planes for our 100 h.p. motors to enter thf«e tests, and frankly speaking, believe they will be record breakers. If you could have seen the

pile of junk we installed our 100 h.p. in w hich I'd ak ley flew from here to Bakersheld and made such a wonderful record, you would also have great confidence in the wonderful ability and lasting qualities of this large motor.

Most of the aviators have left town to fill dates, hut presume they will return within the month. Wel-don B. Cook is doing nicely in the exhibition business, and believe be will be in a position to purchase one of our large motors to install in his flying boat in which he expects to carry passengers across the Bay.

Glenn L. Martin has just taken delivery of one <>f our new 100 h.p. motors to install in his military hoat which will be tried out shortly in the South-

MAXIMUM PROPELLER SPEED.

On the question w hetber or not there is a known maximum speed or velocity beyond which a propeller blade should not move. Spencer Heath, the manufacturer of Paragon propellers, slates:

"I am convinced that there is such a point and 1 place the maximum velocity of the ends of the blades at something like 40,000 ft. per min. This would make about 2,000 r.p.m. the maximum turning speed for a 6 ft. propeller and it would he pos-sihle to use up advantageously a whole lot of power with a 6 ft. propeller at this speed. There is also a minimum blade lip velocity which I think is around 10,000 or 12,000 ft. per min., which means that a 6 ft. propeller would do poor work at less than 500 or 600 r.p.m."

SELENIUM CELL FOR AUTOMATIC STABILITY.

A recent lecturer on aeronautics, as quoted in your March 31 issue, having declared that "It is essential to the success of any automatic control that the forces called into play to make tbe corrections of trim should not react on the director of those forces, whether this is a pendulum or gyroscope or any other equivalent device."

I write to suggest a means of accomplishing this without any fric-tional contact whatever with the pendulum or gyroscope or combination of the two—namely, the use of selenium, with its wonderful property of being a very good electrical conductor in tbe light and a very poor one in the dark. On the pendulum or gyroscope would be arranged two arcs of about 90 degrees, opaque at their centers and also on opposite halves of each arc, and shaded gradually to transparent at the ends of the other halves, with two steady lights and two selenium cells, one of each on opposite sides of these arcs and in fixed position on the machine, so that when the machine is level (or otherwise balanced, as in proper banking) the lights and selenium cells will he in line with the opaque centers of tbe pendulum's arcs, and so that any variation from tin's balanced position would permit one light or the other to shine through a correspondingly translucent nart of its arc onto its selenium cell, thus regulating the strength of the current flowing through the cell and restoring balance by electrical means when that

side of the machine is too high. Instead of selenium, natural or absolutely pure antimonium sulphide 'antinionite) could he used, having the advantage of "no troublesome inertia." accord in*? lo ev peril" "*e described in a scientific journal of March 2. 1912.

Another method of using a pendulum or gyroscope for balancing a flying machine without disturbing the equilibrium of such a balancer, would be to simply enclose it in a transparent case in front of the aviator, or, rather, together with an upward extension of the pendulum, so that, by the aviator simply moving his lateral-balance lever alw avs in unison with the latter toward the too-high side, balancing might he successfully accomplished even by a novice, as in learning without an accompanying instructor, and this device might also aid aviators not having a well-developed balancing faculty, or "bird sense," or by tbe upper lever extension being made very long it could possibly be made r^ore sensitive to small or incipient disturbance of equilibrium than the best aviators. This would also have an advantage that everv automatic balancing device should possess— that of being instantly suspendable at tbe will of the aviator.

The writer has not patented either of these devices, hut secured a caveat on the first-described one some four years ago, and anyone is privileged to use them.

ELMER G. STILL. Livermore, Cal., July 13, 1914.

BRITISH LABORATORY REPORT

The technical report for 1912-3. the fourth of the series, of the lirit ish Advisory Committee on Aeronautics has just been published. The report summarizes the work undertaken, and detailed particulars are given. The investigations cover general questions in aerodynamics, experiments on wind channels, including description of the new 4*ft. wind channel at the National Physical Lahoratory; experiments on models of wings, bodies, etc.; models of complete aeroplanes; stability, efficiency of propellers, strength of construction; hydroaeroplanes and design of their floats; fabrics, researches on alloys, etc. The volume contains over 400 pp., with many plates, and is published by Wyman & Sons, Fetter Lane, London, E. C.; price, $2.43.

The Chilean Government has established an aviation school near Santiago. Chile, where army and navy officers are being trained with good results. There have been several serious accidents, but only two deaths. It is proposed to fly over the Amies to Argentina, which calls for a sustai ned flight for an hour or more at an altitude of ahout 15,000 feet. The longest flight yet made in Chile was from Concep-cion to Santiago, a distance of about 300 miles. No aeroplanes are manufactured in Chile, those imported practically all coming from Europe.

"SELF - RISING"

MODEL MONOPLANE A. B. C.

No. 62

The data and drawings of this model have been kindly furnished զlaquo;e by its designer and constructor, Mr. A. It. C, of a prominent London model aero club.

The model has been designed especially to withstand hard and continuous wear and is the result of five months* experimenting with various models capable of rising under their own power With a model similar to the on? described Mr. C- won the first "self-ris-

with the best gold size. This proofing is unaffected by weather conditions and is thoroughly air-tight and water-proof.

The elevator is 9 in. by 2y3 in. (max. chord > and is made from 1/30 in. spruce wafer. The tips of the elevator are upturned as shown on sketches 2 and 3. The elevator is mounted on piano wire attachment, which allows a very fine arl just men t of the elevation to be made (see sketch).

Self-Rising Model Aeroplane. ABC. 62.

ing" competition with a flight of 762 ft. The actual distance flown by path was over 1,000 ft. On a fairly calm day the model will attain a height of 80 ft. and finish its flight with a splendid volplane and land gracefully on its wheels.

The fuselage is triangular and is constructed of two pieces of H in. sq. by 32 in. long silver spruce, connected at the rear with a stream-line cross bar. The latter, also the cross-stay, situated midway along the fuselage, are firmly bound to the main members with '4 in. silk ribbon soaked in hot glue; this makes a joint that is almost unbreakable.

The bearings at the rear are composed of the usual *'L" pieces of stiff brass, bound with silk to the ends of the main longitudinals and drilled to take the propeller shafts. Rigidity is given to the fuselage by cross bracing with No. 30 (std. wire ga.) piano wire as shown in plan view. No wire strainers are used, hut tension is given to the trussing wires by curling the hooks to which the wires are fastened (see sketches 2 and 3).

The main plane is rectangular in shape, the span being 25 in. and the chord 5 in. The frame is constructed from birch. The spars are ■H in. by 1/16 in. and the ribs '4 hv 1/16 in. The ribs are hound to the spars with strong cotton and glued This frame is then covered with light Jap silk and is proofed

The main plane is attached to the fuselage with fine iron florist's wire, hut the elevator is fastened to its attachment with rubber bands.

At the apex of the fuselage a continuous piece of 18 s. w. g, piano wire is used for making the

and is made of bamboo. The main central skid is extended forward and upwards at the nose of the model so as to form a protecting skid. Two pairs of wheels are used: one pair 1 '4 in. diam. and the other 1 ^ in. These wheels are tin and come off a cheap toy motor and will be found quite strong enough and very much better and lighter than those of equal strength sold on the market at the present time.

The supporting struts of the chassis are about 5/16 in. by in. and are streamline. They fit into small tin lugs bound to the fuselage. The central skid is \% in. by 1 /16 in. thick and should extend about 5 in. to the rear of the main axles so as to prevent the propeller from touching the ground.

The propellers are carved from solid mahoganv and are 9 in. diam., pitch 20 in. These propellers somewhat resemble a scythe and revolve outwards from the top as viewed from the rear. This shape has proved a great deal more efficient than ordinary helical screws and considerably better than the bent wood screws.

' The power consists of 6 strands of M in. by 1/32 in. strip rubber to each propeller, and about 900 turns can be given to each when well lubricated.

The total weight complete is Al/i oz. The average distance flown is 350 yards, but flights of over J4 mile have been accomplished a number of times.

L. S. L., Jr.

MORANE-SAULNIER — Latest type. Set of detailed working drawings for sale at $200. Sale exclusive. Morane-Saulnier holds best records cross-country and speed flying. Owner of drawings can superintend construction. Address A. F., -ire AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

CG

rubber motor hooks. These are covered with cycle valve tubing. The hooks on the propeller shaft are similarly protected. Two collets are used on each propeller shaft to reduce friction at the bearings.

The landing chassis resembles that of the famous "Cody" biplane

JOHN WISE—"History and Practice of Aeronautics," by John Wise. We have just secured another copy of this famous, rare work. Cloth, 8vo, ill., 310 pp. steel engraving frontispiece. For sale at $10. AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th St., New York.

DENINE GLIDER

M. A. Denine, of Spokane, Wash., kindly sends us details of a novel glider, the publication of which he hopes will stimulate gliding sport among the young men.

We find the tail-Ies^ type easier to get off the ground and control than the tail types for the amateur glider-aviator. We have used hotli and find this type the eas;er to learn to control. The very flexible rear edge on the elevator and main planes take up tne shocks of sudden gusts of wind and help the longitudinal balance accordingly. We dc not recommend it as a power machine.

The material consists of two clear spruce planks 20 feet x 12 inches x 1 inch, ash ribs for ailerons, spruce ribs for main planes, one pine board V2 inch x 12 inches x 12 feet, one bicycle frame, wire, 3/j6-inch bolts, shingle nails, galvanized sheet iron, and a few extras will be needed. Cover with unbleached muslin. Use glue for sizing cloth.

Instructions: Rip beams for main planes from spruce planks, crosspieces for planes, outriggers, struts, etc., as per drawing. Make beams streamline except where strut sockets fit. Sockets can be cut from steel tubing as per drawing. Space sockets on beams 4 feet apart; next attach crosspicces. using galvanized iron strips to hold same in place. Ribs go on next; give them a cambre of 4)/> inches; attach each rib with three nails and a strip of galvanized iron, two nails for strip and one through rib. When both planes are made, insert struts in sockets and cross-wire each section with No. 16 piano wire, except center section, in which use heavier or double wire. Next, make outrigging. then elevator, and next skids. Use extra heavy wire in outrigging

above skids and for skid braces. It is better to have a little extra weight than a collapse when landing. It cost mc three weeks' work to learn to use extra heavy wire on the landing gear.

In attaching outrigging. be jure that when the top beams are level the nviin planes have an angle of incidence of 4 inches. Attach skids so that the main planes have the same angle 011 the ground, namely, 4 inches. The glider flies at its ground angle.

Make the extension for the top plane 5 feet x 6 feet 6 inches chord, leaving beams projecting 6 inches on the inside of extensions so that they can be attached to main planes Where ribs overlap rear beam give them a reverse cambre on a steaming board until they reach the position marked " \" in the side elevation drawing. When aitaching warp wires, which must be only attached to the top of the aileron, tighten them until the aileron reaches a point just above the line marked "horizontal line." Your warp wires will now have no slack in them and when one aileron is warped up the spring downward of the opposite one will still keep the warp wires taut. Attach extension with steel clamps. Balance glider with pilot in the seat so that when the glider balances over the center of pressure of the main planes there is a weight of 22 pounds on the point of c. of p. of the elevator.

Gliding: Take glider to a hill, with a gentle slope. Do not use a steep hill, as there is always an air hole at the bottom and the glider will fall to the ground .it that point of its flight. I fell through one of these pockets four times before discovering what caused the glider to suddenly sink. Take the glider up hill a couple of hundred feet, attach ropes at the ends of the lower plane and to the cross-

bar below elevator; have a boy Uke each rope and run down hill. The boy with the elevator rope must leave enough slack in his rope to allow the front end of the glider to rise, but as soon as the glider gets into the air must take up all slack, so as not to allow the head end to rise above the horizontal. Instruct the boys towing the glider to increase their speed as soon as it begins to descend. This is absolutely necessary, as, during the first trials the tendency of the operator is to raise his elevator too far and thus lower his speed, so that the glider begins to settle and unless the boys increase their speed, a heavy landing will result.

Now, as to the operating of the controls. In taking your seat see that all controls work smoothly and be sure to try them and look them over carefully, before each flight. Push the elevator column from you until the elevator is at a negative angle of about two degrees and tell the boys on the ropes to start. If the hill you are experimenting on is sandy or covered with grass the glider will have speed enough to rise with a 30- or 40-foot run. Now pull the control column quickly toward you a couple of inches and return it to its original position again; do this two or three times in as many seconds and then pull the column toward you until the elevator has a slight positive angle, and hold it there. The glider will leave the ground now. As soon as it does decrease the angle of the elevator slightly. This will put the machine at a gliding angle and increase the speed. Try to keep as close to the ground as possible. Under no condition must you hold the elevator in the same position as when leaving the ground ;r increase its angle during the first jump forward; if you do the glider will "stall" and either dive or drop as through an "air hole."

Just before landing bring the elevator control further toward you, and the glider will rise slightly and come down without any shock. After the first few flights vim will hardly know when you landed, the shock will be so slight. The lateral control is by the wheel. Turning it to the right raises the left side of the glider, and vice versa. Do not move the ailerons over 2 inches as they are very sensitive and an over-control will tip the glider further over on the opposite side than it was on the side you originally intended to raise. Let the boys on the ropes attend to your lateral balance until you have thoroughly mastered the elevator control. You will find that is about all you will be able to attend to during the first few flights.

Do not use the rudder unless absolutely necessary. After you have mastered all the controls and feel sure you can manage the machine, remove the rope on the elevator. Next try a flight with the ropes attached to the central uprights and last of all with a releasing gear on the ropes so that they can be dropped during flight.

In free flight a glider built with care, and according to the plans illustrated, flights of from two to four hundred yards can easily be made.

We have many of three hundred yards and one of four hundred, although the conditions that we experimented under were nowhere near the best. An aeroplane has never been

able to get up over 800 feet in Spokane, Wash., on account of the condition of the air there. We have gone u,p in the glider over 70 feet, and if that and our record of four hundred yards cannot be beaten in a lower altitude by some builder of the glider illustrated it will be because it is not built according to the plans.

We will be glad to hear from builders of this glider and will answer any question as to construction and operation of same.—Denine Bros, and Hemingway. 1110 East Indiana Ave., Spokane, Wash.

29 West 39th Street. New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN. Data Sheets.

The second series uf data sheets has been sent out to members, consisting of nearlv a hundred sheets.

All members in good standing ;tr»■ enntled to these.

These data sheets provide members with information which could be obtained only at great expense by subscribing to every aeronautical publication issued in the world, by buying every book published, by obtaining reports of every laboratory and testing plant, with the attendant expense of translation and time of abstracting.

The data sheets arc issued free to members as fast as they can be prepared.

Membership dues in The Aeronautical Society arc $10 a year, no initiation fee. Members receive data sheets, the magazine, AERONAUTICS, engraved certificate of membership, free monthly lectures. For further information address the Secretary.

Directors' meetings are being held every Thursday evening throughout the summer, as usual. Regular weekly members' meetings are held as~ usual. The monthly lectures have been suspended for the summer season.

Plans are in progress for the perpetuation of the race around New York as inaugurated last Fall, making it an annual event on a par with the great classics of the sporting world.

Notice to Delinquents.

Delinquents in payment of dues are earnestly requested to place themselves in good standing at the earliest possible moment in order that they may receive the official bulletin, AERONAUTICS, . semimonthly, the membership certificates and data sheets.

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics

by

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ERNEST L. JONES M. B. SELLERS, HARRY SCHULTZ, C. A. BE1ER,

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

AN AEROPLANE SPEEDOMETER.

An aeroplane "speedomoter" in wide use in Europe is the Morell "Anemo-Tacliometer," illustrated herewith. This shows, like any automobile speed indicator, the relative speed of the machine through the air in meters per second, or miles per hour, as preferred. This instrument sells for $68 in this country, duty paid, through Schuchardt & Schutte, 90 West street. New York.

This is a safety device which should go far towards preventing the many accidents due to "stalling," as it will immediately show loss of headway due to reduction in speed. For looping the loop and other "stunts" it will safeguard the pilot hy showing when he lias attained the desired high speed. With it he will determine the lowest speed at which lie can safely fly his machine, which may be necessary in reconnoitering, and thereafter the instrument will serve as a warning when the limit is reached, in gliding, the pilot can mark on the dial his safe l:mit and he guided in future hy tliis.

In throwing bombs, the aim depends principally on keeping a certain uniform speed between sighting tbe object of the aim and the throwing of the bomb, because this space of time has to he ascertained hy means of a stop watch. The Anemo-Tachonieter will allow to ascertain the necessary speed of the machine for this purpose.

In climbing, the speed of the aeroplane, although the revolutions of the propeller remains the same, is decreased according to the climbing angle. If this angle is too great, the speed of tbe machine will drop below the minimum limit, the aeroplane will not answer the rudder any more and drops back. The Anemo-Tacho-meter shows the falling of the speed exactly.

In descending there is added to the speed obtained by the pull of the propeller, the influence of the acceleration of masses. The Anemo-Tacbometer shows the increase'of the

speed occasioned thereby exactly and allows the same to be counteracted by necessary steering movements or shutting down of the motor.

The knowledge of this acceleration is extremely important for gliding. The acceleration of the masses increases according to the gliding angle and the length of glide. On the other hand, if the gliding angle is too flat, the speed of the machine becomes so small that the steering organs do not act any longer. As it is necessary to reduce the final speed of the machine by the corresponding position of the elevator so that a gentle landing on earth is possible, and inasmuch as the gliding angle and the gliding speeds are different for every machine, the constant control of the speed by means of the Anemo-Tachometer is of prime importance, because it will remove a certain insecurity wdiich is the more dangerous the less the pilot has learned through experience just how to manage the machine in such flights.

Not only for the purposes above described, but also for economy of flight, the Morell Tachometer is of importance. An increase in speed often is attained only by an unproportional consumption of gasoline, depending on the form of the propeller and the resistance of the entire aeroplane construction. The most economical speed can be ascertained and retained by means of the Anemo-Tachometer controlling at the same time the revolutions of the propeller by the aeroplane Tachometer "Phylax." It is recommended to also note this speed on the scale in a desirable manner.

Differences between the speed and capacity of the motor can also arise in agitated air when the direction of the flight is changed as compared to the direction of the wind (either with the wind or against it). These differences can become very disagreeable. They are also ascertained instantaneously by comparison of the reading of the motor Tachometer "Phylax" and the Aeroplane Anemo-Tachometer, and can be balanced by steering operations or regulation of the motor.

The Anemo-Tachometer is mounted on the aeroplane so that neither propeller wind or other wind set in motion by the aeroplane has any influence on the action of the Anemo-Tachomoter. Special conditions can always be met by special construction of the Anemo-Tachometer, always keeping the dial on the same level as the eyesight of the pilot.

As a means of conveyance the aeroplane is gaining on the automobile: there are more than two thousand certified aviators in Europe and America to-day and a hundred types of aeroplanes; stability of the flying machine is practically assured by recent patents on both sides of the Atlantic; and who shall say that in ten years more the world will not be flying and the automobile will not seem archaic?—N. Y. "Sun."

I cannot see that AERONAUTICS is in need of any improvements while you continue the drawing and technical talks.—H. L. IV., Charlotte, N. C.

We like your magazine and will surely continue reading same as long as it is as high grade as it is.—ՠF. B., Missouri.

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WALTER E. JOHNSON SCHOOL OF AVIATION

UP-TO-DATE METHODS

Summer Season at Lake Conesus, Livonia, N. Y. Winter Season in Florida

Superior Training on Dual Hydro ami Flying Boat by competent Pilots, under supervision of \V. K. Johnson, endurance record holder, formerly instructor of The Thomas Brothers School of Aviation. Thive years experience- as instructor. Thousands of flights without a hitch !

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for model aeroplanes, accessories and supplies Very complete catalog free on request

Wading RiverMfg. Co.

Wading River, N. Y.

MODELS

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OLMSTED PROPELLERS

OLMSTED PROPELLERS ARE NOW BEING MADE ON SPECIAL ORDERS BY THE C. M. O. PHYSICAL LABORATORY, INC.

The OLMSTED PROPELLERS were selected after competition for the transatlantic flyer "America."

When the "America " flew with ONE POWER PLANT ONLY she was equipped .with OLMSTED PROPELLERS.

When the "America " broke all her previous weight-carrying records and established a WORLD'S RECORD she was equipped with OLMSTED PROPELLERS.

In Miami, Witmer increased his speed and added two passengers to the carrying , capacity of his boat, allowing him to make two American records and a world's flying-boat record when he attached an OLMSTED PROPELLER.

Address: C. M. 0. PHYSICAL LABORATORY, Inc., Buffalo, N. Y.

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Correspondence Invited

OLMSTED PROPELLERS

Officers of the army qualifying as military aviators will receive in addition to a military aviator's certificate a military aviator's badge. This badge will be worn in the manner and on the occasions prescribed in General Orders. The military aviator's badge becomes the property of the person to whom it is issued.

There are in Germany more than a dozen aeroplane factories with an aggregate capital of about $350,000 (as compared with about 20 factories in France, 6 in England and 5 in Austria), as well as several special factories for aeronautical motors and three or four substantial plants for the manufacture of airships.

PATENTS

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Send sketch or mode] for FREE search of Patent Office record. Write for our Goide Books and What to Intent with valuable Liil of Inventions Winled sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. $600.000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in Aernosutics and have a special Aeroonnticil Deportment.

Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each

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SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION

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Sloane Aeroplane Co.

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The Thomas School

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OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES

Addreii. Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

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THAT PROTECT AND PAY rnrp BOOKS. ADVICE AND SEARCHES r IXHd

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624 F Street, N. W. Washington. D. C.

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No. 3, 1914, August

Property of E. W. ^ VSCHON

Some Competitive Trophies Won in 1913—With

CURTISS 0-X MOTORS

Except by Their Products, the Curtiss Companies were not Directly Represented in Any of These Events

No king ever enjoyed such sport as this. Four to five hundred miles without pause, at a speed of more than a mile a minute.

Five hundred thousand passenger miles without one serious accident. Used by six Governments and by private owners nearly everywhere.

THE MACKAY TROPHY, won by

Lieutenants J. E. Carberry and Fred Seydel, U. S. Army; flying 58 miles in 46 minutes.

TIMES AERIAL DERBY, won by

William S. Luckey, flying around Manhattan; 60 miles in 52 minutes.

TIMES AERIAL DERBY, second, Charles F. Niles.

AERO and HYDRO 1,000-mile Cruise Trophy, won by J. B. R. Verplanck and Beckwith Havens; Chicago to Detroit.

MICHIGAN AERO CLUB 1,000-mile Speed Trophy, won by Verplanck and Havens; Chicago to Detroit.

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Bosch Magnetos have proven their worth, not in any one case but in practically every well-known achievement that has made aeronautical history. You always can have the utmost confidence in Bosch Produces.

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201 West 46th Street : New York

LEONARDO DA VINCI—By Charles Beecher Bunnell

Up to the present moment, no ancient record of the problems of Aeronautics has been found, excepting the manuscripts of Leonardo da Vinci, one of the most honored men of liis time, who died in the arms of the King of France, in 1519. It's not definitely known just how many manuscripts lie produced. Most of these are drawings and specifications on scientific subjects. Among them is "A Treatise Upon the Flight of Birds" and the drawings attached look like the curious things that happen to our aviators when their machines balk. But to us, the most interesting drawings in the collection are the hundred or more pictures specifying his ideas on heavier than air flying machines.

Any one spending one hour with Leonardo's manuscripts is convinced he was the greatest mechanical genius of that time, and a supernatural master of art and poetry as well.

In 1502, Cardinal Borgia, the military leader, made Leonardo his engineer. (Cardinal Caesare Borgia was the brother of Lucretia Borgia, Duchess of Ferrara. the "toxicolo-gist.")

In artillery he constructed a 64-barrel field gun of the revolving type; he fired perforated bombshells; he suggested vertical-fire; he fired sharp pointed, iron stars that prevented cavalry horses from crossing the ground where they were scattered; he invented a turret fire that is ahead of the present method; he fired shrapnel, arrows, etc., etc., from breech loading guns; he also fired shot from a steam gun on the continuous performance principle and he built a catapult with a fifty-foot bow that threw1 a hundred pound arrow over a mile.

In optics he described the camera obscura; in acoustics, he said: "If a ship at sea heaves to, the putting of a tube into the water enables ships a long distance off to he heard"; in astronomy he had calculated the Penumbra; in hydraulics he built the finest kind of self-acting pumps; in canal building he used the most up to date methods of excavation.

The rotary snow plow will have to take a back seat (over a mile back); he invented a moving machine with revolving knives attached to two wheels in front of a span of horses.

and also revolving knives on two more wheels back of the horses, the hind wheels turned a shaft that went to the front of the machine (going between the horses and projecting over the front wheels which were armed with knives just like the rotary snow plow. But this machine was a war engine made to plow men.

Leonardo regarded himself a military engineer, and in the letter he wrote to Sforza (11 Moro) he enumerated 10 points wherein he excelled in war engine construction: in art he had one clause, part of which runs:—■

".....: also in painting

I can do as much as any other, he he who he may."

But it's to the drawings here reproduced, relating to Aeronautics that we will refer.

The idea of the parachute came from Leonardo, (see "P" in »,he illustration) which he describes in his own words:

"If a Man Carry a Domed Roof of Starched Linen, 18 Feet Wide and 18 Feet Long, He Will be Able to Throw Himself From any Great Height Without Fear of Danger."

His first wing drawings resemble, somewhat, the Bleriot wing.

In figure "T" of our illustration, the drawing is very suggestive of a spring powered toy. "B" shows the modern method of construction Leonardo used 400 years ago. "I" shows the inclination of flight. In "A" we have the flexing of the wing tip that is now a subject of litigation between two present day claimants. "S" shows a hand and foot power flying machine. "D" illustrates a dotible wing. "W" shows that a man has by the use of a fan brought his weight to zero—or is it a hint in aerodynamics which is being worked out by a great western genius who will soon print a little book giving out his new discoveries on engines and propellers? "A" and "a" shows another method of flexing the tips. In the "Condor motion" drawing you will note how the whole machine resembles a bird flying toward the ohserver. In the "foot power flying machine" the hands grasped the bar in the wings.

In the automatic flying machine of our illustration, we show the

power spring actuating cranks that flap the wings. The wings are copies of bird wings that Leonardo had dissected. He made his muscles, however, to pull through friction loops. He also made the wings have a third motion that was produced in the "shoulder blades" by a link, just as a bird or man moves his shoulder blades around his own back.

The action of air upon a propeller wheel was well known to Leonardo because he had designed a chimney wheel that turned a spit on which game was roasted.

Leonardo said: "The Man in the Flying Machine to be Free from the Waist Up. That He may be Able to Keep Himself in Equilibrium, as He does in a Boat, so That the Centre of His Gravity and That of His Instrument may set itself in Equilibrium and Change when Necessity Requires it to the Changing of the Centre of its Resistance."

Tt took Lilienthal and Chanute a great many years to find the above fact out, then they found Leonardo observed it 400 years before their time.

According to Cuperus, "Leonardo practiced flying successfully."

Sidney Colvin says: "He seems certainly the man whose genius has the best right to be called universal, of any that have ever lived."

Ilallam. the historian, said: "His knowledge was almost preternatural."

One most remarkable thing ahotit Leonardo's writings is. they are written from the right toward the left, they were also written by the left hand, so that to read them one must use a mirror. This was a precaution against theft of his ideas, against which he wished to guard. Of course, there are a few of his writings that are not reversed.

Leonardo's treatise on the flight of birds is most interesting. His investigations were exhaustive and treat on eddies, up currents and about everything that brings the modern aviator to sudden grief.

A mechanic who takes up Leonardo's drawings, immediately knows the whole problem without any instructions whatever. That conies from his method of drawing, which is superior to the very best practice of the present day.

THE HAGUE AND AIRCRAFT IN WAR

By Arthur K. Kuhn, A.M.

(From a paper read at the International Law Session of the American Political Science Association.)

Along with the subjects submitted for discussion by the First Hague Conference by the circular letter of Count Mouravieff, of January 11, 1899, was a proposal to restrict the use in military warfare of the formidable explosives already existing, and to prohibit the throwing of projectiles or explosives of any kind from balloons or by similar means. The proposal so far as it related to aerial craft was not called forth by any actual experience in modern warfare. Balloons were used by the French as early as the battle of Fleurus in 1794, by the Russians in 1812, by our Federal troops in Virginia, hy the French at the siege of Paris, and by the British in the Boer war. The propo-

sition was apparently an effort to anticipate the future progress of aerial science.

MouraviefT's proposal was referred to the committee which in turn submitted it to its military sub-committee. This sub-committee first voted a perpetual prohibition of the use of aircraft for throwing projectiles or explosives which, on motion of the American delegate. Captain Crozier, was limited, in full committee, to cover a period of five years. In this form, it was passed by the Conference and accepted by the Powers.

The action was for humanitarian reasons alone and was founded on the opinion that in the condition of the art as it then existed, persons

or property injured by this means might be entirely disconnected from the conflict and of no practical advantage to the belligerent. The period of five years was intended to allow complete liberty of action under such changed circumstances as might he produced by the progress of invention.

The prohibition expired by limitation on July 28, 1904, and the subject was therefore again brought up for consideration by the Second Hague Conference under a suggestion made by the Belgian delegation to renew the prohibition in exactly the same terms. In sub-committee two amendments were made, to he applicable in the event of a failure of the main proposal, one by

Russia the other by Italy. Russia proposed to limit forever attacks by these means upon undefended places. Italy proposed to add to the Russian proposition that no projectiles or explosives should he launched from balloons not dirigible and manned by a military force, and furthermore that the fame restrictions that rested upon land and naval warfare should apply to aerial warfare "wherever compatible with this new-method of combat."

The declaration as finally passed was in the same terms as that of the First Conference except that, at the suggestion of Great Britain, the renewal extends to the close of the Third Peace Conference. The declaration has been ratified among others by Great Britain, Austria and the United States, but though the period for ratification expired June 30, 1908, seventeen nations have failed to give assent, among them Germany, France, Japan, Italy, Mexico and Russia. On the principle that since the period of conventional regulation of the usages of war, e\erything may be done which is not expressly forbidden by treaty or customary practice, and as there is no precedent whatever governing the use of aircraft in advancing the cause of a belligerent, it would seem that in the absence of such a prohibition, it would constitute a legitimate operation of war. The launching of projectiles from balloons has been placed in the same class of undertakings as the subjection of coast cities to ransom at the demand of a powerful fleet. Neither has been seriously considered by a responsible belligerent, yet both constitute a sufficiently serious menace to humanity to warrant consideration by international con ference-

An objection which has been raised to the prohibition as framed is the fact that there is no reciprocal prohibition against firing upon aircraft. This would make them open to attack, yet deprived of their proper defense. The real opposition seems to lie in the technical position of the respective powers in regard to their present land and naval forces and the advancement which each has made in aerial war. A great naval power like Great Britain would naturally be interested in the prohibition by reason both of the menace to her military isolation and because the strongest naval vessel might not be proof against destructive agents thrown from above. It may yet be that a supposed advantage by reason of superior naval strength may he much reduced if not entirely eliminated by compensating advantages in aerial strength. That Germany has thus far abstained from ratifying the declaration might seem to be a result of her progress in the use of dirigible balloons and the great expenditures of 'T-onev being made for this account. Russia's change of attitude may he accounted for in a similar manner bv the loss of her navy since the First Hague Conference.

The proposal contained in the amendment advanced by the Russian delegation to render unfortified places immune from attack by aircraft was given effect in a much broader form than was then expected. The immunity of undefended places was discussed under the general regulation of land warfare and an absolute prohibition agiinst the bombardment of undefended towns, villages and dwellings "whatever he the means employed"

was agreed upon and is now a part of the convention on the laws and customs of war (Art. 25). This does not refer to bombardment from the sea. but there can be no douht of its application to aircraft. As an American authority has said, "When exposed to such an attack, no place can be said to be 'defended.' " It is strange that though the original declaration has failed of endorsement by many states, the amendment has been given broad conventional elfect through the action of a different committee.

The treatment to be accorded to the crew of captured aircraft in time of war has also constituted a serious problem in international law. During the war of 1S70, a strong inclination was shown on the part of Germany to treat them as spies. Sixty-four balloons were launched during the siege of Paris, and it will he remembered that Gambetta made his escape to the provinces in this way- Bismarck favored extreme measures, and in fact alt bal-loonists who passed over the German lines were severely dealt with when captured. This attitude has been severely criticized by writers upon international law as "neither secrecy, nor disguise, nor pretence" is possible for those who man air-era ft.

The dispute has now been definitely settled through Art. 29 of the Hague convention which provides that "individuals sent in balloons for the purpose of transmitting dispatches and the general keeping up of communications between the different parts of an army or territory" shall not be treated as spies, and the French official manual for the use of military officers specifically affirms their right to be treated as prisoners of war.

The obligation of a neutral state no doubt extends to the airspace over its territory as well as to its land surface and territorial waters. But the extent of that obligation has never been defined. An absolute duty to exclude the passage of belligerent craft through its airspace would indeed be onerous. Again with the increasing capacity of aircraft to carry articles of greater or less weight a law of contraband applicable to aircraft may in time be developed. I simply mention these questions in passing, however, as they are not yet of sufficient practical importance for useful discussion at this time.

The present jieriod is manifestly an introductory one in the development of a new medium of intercommunication and traffic. It is doubtful that the air will ever be as important commercially as the sea, yet science is the cause of many surprises. But even in its present development, the nations are now-united by a closer bond, for the air is medium in respect of which each nation, no matter bow small in area, or howsoever situated, is equally favored in harbor and coastline: Indeed, it has been denominated "the universal highway.**

On the other hand, while the advent of efficient aircraft will extend the plane of warfare to a third element, the ultimate result will tend to make for the maintenance of peace. Small parties may be able to pass over protective armies on expeditions aimed at the seat of government itself, where the body of particular individuals most re'-Fponsible for the war reside. This fact will tend for the first time to

subject responsible individuals to immediate and personal danger after the declaration of war, which heretofore has not been usually the case, and thus the development of aerial navigation will make for peace. Its advent, therefore, will be beneficial from both points of view. In peace, its development will depend upon sacrifices of the lesser for the greater guod. In war, its use should be restricted so as to extend to it a humanitarian control equal to that now exercised over the methods of warfare heretofore employed.

AIRCRAFT IN THE

EUROPEAN WAR

As far as any practical data ccn be gleaned from the heterogeneous cables from London, Paris and Brussels, the aeroplanes seem to be fulfilling the promises made for them by military experts.

What the Zeppelins will do remains to be seen as they have evidently been kept under cover thus far for some definite purpose. They would, doubtless, be most effective against the English fleet which, wiped nut of existence, would greatly enhance the possibility of bombarding English fortified ports and cutting off supplies and communication to her colonies. A recent naval critic has the view that the airships will be most effective in this direction.

A cabled report of the use of aircraft says:

"The remarkably definite way in which the positions and movements of the German troops have been located by the General Staffs of France and Belgium is due almost entirely to the success of aerial reconnoit-ering. The advent of the aeroplane already has revolutionized strategy and tactics. In this regard the superiority of French airmen and French aeroplanes has given the allies a decided advantage over the Germans. Reconnaissance in force by cavalry has been almost superfluous on the Franco-Belgian side, but the Germans, whose aerial scouting is inferior, have had to resort to it along the line.

"A scouting aeroplane carries two officers, one as pilot, the other as observer. The officer observer carries a photographic apparatus, and in many cases remarkably clear pictures of the enemy's positions have been secured from dangerously low altitudes. French aerial scouts have taken amazing risks in this respect, ՠriving well within the range of hostile rifles in order to insure accurate observations. Generally speaking. German officers engaged in similar work have flown at greater altitudes. Successful as the aeroplane has been for reconnoitering, its value as an instrument of destruction has proved practically nil. Judging from the experience of this campaign, the use of aeroplanes will be limited to scouting, and not be extended^ to actively offensive operations. This applies, at any rate, to the aeroplane in its present form. In many cases German military aviators have endeavored to disguise themselves as Frenchmen, sometimes by displaying a conspicuous tricolor of France on their machine."

Franco-German miscellaneous cables tell of the frontier being patrolled hy rival aeroplanes within 1 easy sight of each other, of a Zep-

pelin having zepped over Liege during the bombardment, pursued by a Belgian aviator who lost his life in destroying it, after which the Germans confining their activity here to aeroplanes for scouting, several being destroyed by shots from the forts; of a French aviator reconnoitering the Germans from Belfort and returning with valuable information, the machine riddled with holes; of a report from St. Petersburg telling of the destruction of a German Parseval non-rigid en-tailingthe loss of four; of a German dirigible sailing over Liege and uropping several bombs in the city, killing 17 civilians and firing several buildings, with two Belgian aviators in fruitless pursuit; of bombs dropped on the railway station at Nainur, Belgium and on a bridge, without great damage.

A Zeppelin dirigible is reported hit and destroyed by Belgian gunners, using an explosive shell.

Many German aeroplanes sighted along the border and French aviators flying across the line quickly pursued by overwhelming numbers of German 'planes and driven back. < )ne German aviator is reported to have flown over the Yosges mountains and dropped bombs in Vesoul, the capital of a department of France, returning safely. Two Belgian aeroplanes give chase to a German aeroplane scout who was flying above the Belgian fortified position on the Meuse, the result being hidden by the darkness. Two German aeroplanes follow a French aviator and shoot at him unsuccessfully.

Servians are said to be using aeroplanes to reconnoiter Austrian operations.

Two German aviators were fatally hit and the third seriously wounded, while their machines were wrecked. The German airmen were reconnoitering the Belgian trenches at Diest.

Small bombs dropped from aeroplanes seem to do little damage.

Many of these reports are printed again days later with changes. No authentic information is available.

France is reported to have acquired a German aeroplane factory by the capture of Mulhausen. French reports say a German aviator was brought down by hitting the motor and made a prisoner of the pilot and observer. Pistol duel in midair between French and German aviators with no results reported. German aviators drop bombs in the department of the Meuse but injure no one. A French family receives a letter telling of the destruction of a Zeppelin by bombs from a French aeroplane flying above it. Russians are reported to have brought down a German aeroplane with four aboard, all being killed. An airship, supposedly German, was seen over the North Sea f rom Amsterdam, 11 ol-land.

Two German aviators killed and one seriously wounded by Belgians is the report on the German reconnaissance of the Belgian lines.

"The guns that were especially designed to destroy aeroplanes have more than fulfilled their mission and the markmanship of the Belgians has been wonderful. On the other hand the Krupp aero guns used by the Germans have all but proved useless. Thev were used against the Belgians at Liege, but in nearly every instance it developed that their range was too limited for them to do any real damage.

"The Belgian aero corps is proving of inestimable value to the field forces. Every move of the invaders is anticipated and because of the excellent transport arrangements it is possible for the Belgian field commanders to meet the Germans more than half way in every attack."

AEROPLANES ARE

CONTRABAND

Great Britain's contraband of war proclamation places arms, ammunition and all distinctly military supplies on the list of "absolute" contraband.

"Aeroplanes, airships, balloons and aircraft of all kinds and their component parts, together with accessories and articles recognizable for use in connection with balloons and aircraft are among contraband material."

GOODYEAR BALLOON LANDS IN ONTARIO

The Goodyear balloon that left Akron August 1 at 10 p. m., in charge of Pilot R. A. D. Preston, who won the national balloon race, and carrying Williard Seiberling, son of F. A. Seiberling, president of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., and \V. D. Burns, landed east of Chatam, Ontario, early Sunday morning.

When a hydro-aeroplane fell into Swedish waters a submarine boat dived under it and brought it to shore uninjured.

Balloon (sic!) Flight Delayed. Lieutenant Porte Not to Attempt the Ocean Trip Until Fall.—From an Oshkosh (Wis.) newspaper, July, 1913.

TO FLY FROM

BUILDINGS

Edwin Maxwell writes he is installing a powerful motor in a small monoplane of but 6 ft. spread and will make flights from the tops of high buildings, landing in the street below. Biographical sketch and notice of funeral will be printed later.

HOCH DER ZEPPELIN

Who iss it sails der atmosphere As light as foam on stein of beer, Und has Chon Bull knockkneed mit fear ?

Meinself—Count Zep.

Who iss it alvays in a smash, Und in der trees iss going, crash! Und swears der German three em dash?

Meinself—Count Zep.

Who patches up his cloud machine Und buys more Chon D. gasolene, Und sails again, calm und serene? Meinself—Count Zep.

Who beats all sky men in a flight. All but dose Yankee Brothers Wright?

Who does admit dey're ausgesight ? Meinself—Count Zep,

—Denver Republican.

MR. BERLINER

AGAIN AT WORK

Mr. Emile Berliner, inventor of the Yictor talking machine, telephone transmitter, the Gyro motor, etc., who has been working for many years on a direct-lift machine, as has been duly recorded in AERONAUTICS, together with the results of his experiments, has renewed activity on this type of machine. The new apparatus will have one screw turning in a horiontal plane, with a small auxiliary vertical screw to oppose the torque of the lifting screw and prevent the turning of the apparatus about its vertical axis. Means will be provided to so adjust the vertical screw as to exactly compensate for this turning movement.

A NEW WORLD'S

HEIGHT RECORD

On July 14 the German pilot Oelerich created a new world's altitude record by attaining a height since estimated at 8,999 metres, or 26.200 ft., though it was previously reported to be only 7,550 metres, or 24,760 ft. In either event the world's record is well heat en, and is likely to stand at the present figure for a considerable time. The machine on which the feat was accomplished was a D.F.W. biplane of a new type —being of smaller span—driven by a British-built 120 h.p. Beardmore Austrian Daimler.

AERO MART

AERIAL SUPPLIES, MOTORS

AND EQUIPMENT. Bargains in the following material: Two Gibson propellers, 7 and 7J^ ft. diameter by 5 ft. pitch, $25, $30. One set of genuine Wright spread-bars, hangers, thrust bearings and propellers, complete, like new, of-ers. Eight-cylinder, Yee type, 50 h.p. motor, with propeller, tank and shipping crate, a sacrifice. $300. Get Complete catalog of high-grade aerial supplies. American Aviation Co., Chester, Pa.

FOR SALE, on account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. E. M.F 1522 Norwood ave., Toledo, Ohio.

QUICK SALE FOR CASH—Two Curtiss-type double-surface aeroplanes, each with 50-h.p. Roberts motor; both outfits in flying shape; can be seen at any time; everything complete; $600 for the two outfits for quick sale. P., care AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE — Hatton Tumor's "Astra Castra," the most famous and rarest of all Aviation works. Published in 1S65 at 10 dollars. Magnificently illustrated, large quarto, 527 pages, in splendid condition. Will be sent post-free for 24 dollars.

Remittance to be sent to "Astra," c/o The Editor, "Aeronautics," 170 Fleet St., London (England).

THE CONVERSE AUTOMATIC STABILIZER

In the 324-mile race April 20-22, from San Francisco to Bakersfield, aviator Arthur Rybitzki used an automatic stabilizer invented and patented by If. B. Converse, of Fresno, Calif.

A short circuit made it impossible for the aviator to cut out the stabilizer by the hand switch while in flight or at all, and the manner in which the short was covered with tape show every indication that same had not been touched since originally put on in San Francisco before the llight.

each outer end, these acting on rollers carried by a vertical bar having bearings in brackets which also support the cam shaft, the two bars have arms supporting Hi in. diameter pins (insulated from the arms). These pins depend into the vertical ends of a steel tube set transversely, the lower part of the tube, connecting the two vertical legs of same, is formed in the shape of a cusp (as a means for dampening the oscillation due to momentum).

A horizontal cross tube having a cup in its middle connects the

The aviator was fully dependent on the stabilizer at all time during the remarkable race, in which he finished with honor, a race, including cross flights and hack flights, amounting, it is claimed, to four hundred miles. ,

Within itself, when connected to the ailerons or warpable surfaces, the device is a complete operative unit, depending for operation on the aeroplane's forward motion through the air. The machine, which weighs 10 pounds, consists of a main magnalium frame, having on the forward end, a D. C. generator, 25 watts, 100 to T20 volts. It is driven by a 12 in. dia. 10 in pitch propeller, geared to rear end of generator shaft and operated thereby are a pair of electromagnet friction cone clutches, turning oppositely, the electro-magnets being of the common solenoid type, with stationary coils having a shaft on which is mounted the iron plug armature, within a brass tube, about which is the coil. The friction cones are on the rear end of the two clutch shafts; on the forward ends are the two gear wheels meshing with each other, providing opposite drive. The generator and the two clutch shafts and cones revolve constantly, 4 to 1 .ratio. The driven elements of the two clutches (the cone cups) are geared to a smgle drum, about which are two turns of each of the two aileron cables having their ends attached to lugs on the drum, the other ends passing through suitably located pulleys and being attached to the rear edge of the ailerons.

"The stabilizer has been used very successfully, when connected up using an equalizer means between the ailerons, thus acquiring equal head aileron resistance, and so avoiding turning, or any tendency to turn, about a vertical axis of the aeroplane."

On the rear shaft end of the drum is a worm meshing with a gear on a transverse shaft having a cam at

upper parts of the two vertical legs of the tube; the lower half of the composite tube contains pure mercury, the upper half and the cross tube and cup contain oil.

The pins are adjusted in a position slightly out of contact with the mercury (when level) requiring a tilting angle of about one-half degree to make electrical connection with the mercury (which remains level). From one pole of the generator connection is made to one end of each clutch coil, from the other end of each coil connection is made to the pin on the same side as the clutch connected to; from the steel mercury tube a wire leads to the other pole of the generator.

The function of the above mentioned cams is to lift the pins, withdraw ing same from the mercury, when the clutch is in operation.

The operation of the stabilizer is as follows: In straight ahead flight the mercury remains level. A gust of wind hits one side of the plane, causing the plane to start tilting. When it has tilted to the extent of one-half to one degree, but yet moving slowly (on account of the inertia of the machine) electrical contact is made with the pin on the low side of the plane, throwing in its clutch, operating the drum and cable which pulls down on the lower aileron and upon the other aileron and at the same time lifts the contact pin which is to avoid overdoing the righting effect and oscillation. But as the pin rises at mean velocity it follows that the plane is either tilting faster or slower (generally slower owing to the earliness of contact) than the pin is rising. If the former a long time of contact will result, hence greater aileron pull or angle resulting; but if slower, then the pin quickly lifts away from the mercury, releasing the clutch, which now backs up to neutral position by means of the air pressure against the aileron (or contact on the other pin operating the other clutch in the reverse direc-

tion). It is thus seen that the circuit is broken early enough to allow the ailerons to arrive in neutral position by the time, or before, the plane is level, thus avoiding overbalancing.

In circular flight, the mercury column does not remain level, because the direction of force acting thereon which is a resultant of vertical gravity and lateral centrifugal force is dependent on the ratio between the two. It follows that when the aviator moves the rudder, causing circular flight, the mercury rises in the side farthest from the turning center, causing electric contact, and therefore banking the plane, which will be at right angles to the resultant direction of force.

In flying during windy weather, the wind must be considered in banking for a turn, i. e., in flying into a head-on wind", to turn about to fly with same but a slight bank is proper, while having a v> ind with him and turning about into the w ind a much greater bank is required, to avoid side slipping.

The stahilizer takes care of all of this. The momentum acting on the mercury in turning (in the form of centrifugal force) increases in proportion to the square of the velocity. Of course whether the v ind is ahead or astern, affects the <peed of the aeroplane.

With this stabilizer in operation on a 'plane there is positively no side slip whatever, it is claimed, or overbalancing or over or under banking.

GERMAN COMMERCIAL AIRSHIP LINES LOSE MONEY

Notwithstanding the fact that the receipts amounted to close upon a million marks (about $200,000), the chairman announced at the recent annual meeting of the German Airship Traffic Co. that there was a loss during 1913 of 250,000 marks. This deficit was sufficiently disquieting, but it was trusted that the company would be able to tide over affairs untd the airship industry had developed to the extent anticipated. Passenger trips made by airship during the year had brought in a sum of 540.000 marks, while in the preceding year they had realized 490.000 marks. A sum of over 330,-marks was realized through subventions and profits upon the materials used.

The charge for admissions to the airship sheds, and various other things, brought in a sum of 81,000 marks. This, in itself, was all favorable enough, the chairman said, but the deficit was principally due to the great expenses in connection with maintaining the airships and to other matters. The continual endeavor to improve the ships, in case of war, was another tremendous expense. After prolonged discussion, a premium of 54,000 marks had been arranged with the insurance companies. While the expenses of the upkeep amounted, in 1912. to 416,000 marks, in T913 they were 476.000 marks. The chairman declared that a great improvement in the airship industry was to be expected within the near future, but that things would need to improve considerably before the company would be able to clear expenses.

NAVAL AEROPLANES AT SEA

An invention has been patented plane is launched and embarked in

in England which is designed to such a manner that oscillations ot

supersede present methods for the ship would not be so dangerous,

launching aeroplanes off ships at sea. It may he said by some that it is

There have been many methods desirable to launch hydro-aeroplanes

suggested for this purpose of launch" directly from the snip, when the

ing aeroplanes from ships, and for water is too rough to rise from,

embarking them while at sea. They Even if it is possible to launch them

are as follows: The aeroplane was directly (and this is not at all cer-

intended to alight upon a special tain), it is obvious that some such

platform on the ship, either a per- method as is here suggested will be

manent or temportary structure. It necessary in order to regain the

was also intended to depart there- ship.

from. The objections to this The illustrations show the floating method are many, and quite ob- pontoon with an aeroplane about to vious. (2) the aeroplane was to run be "beached." and then drawn up along a wire rope or be shot off a the bridge to the deck. This bridge rail, and either be picked out of or gangway is hinged both to the the sea by derrick, or to fly under ship and pontoon by detachable a wire rope and catch hold of it by hinges. The sketch shows what means of hooks. This latter is the would happen if the vessel is roll-feat of an acrobat, and is then only ing in a seaway, and provided the possihle if the ship were not oscil- period of roll were made fairly long, la ting, while the former is danger- there would be ample time to take ous and not desirable. (3) The advantage of the level phase to haul aeroplane to be lifted bodily on to the aeroplane on to the deck. The the surface of the water by derricks rollers 111 the way of the floats or the like, from which it would would facilitate hauling up and rise in the ordinary way. This launching with speed, method would be slow and clumsy The whole apparatus could be and would not be good for the aero- stowed away on board when not in plane, and in anything of a sea use. and would fold up and be lifted would be positively dangerous owing on board by derricks.

rfiiii 111:

to the oscillations of the ship. No In the case where the apparatus other method has been suggested yet. is fitted to the stern of a ship, the In the method here descrihed by amplitude of pitching in a sea from C. \Y. Tidcock. in British "Aero- which it is possible to launch aeronautics," the aeroplane or hydro- planes would be slight.

the pld 1 larvard aviation meets, and there, on the bank, the boat was taken off and the land equipment designed by Mr. Burgess put on. One will notice it is very much simpler than the English construction. The whole thing was a grand success from the very start. Webster made a number of flights on the first afternoon. On the following morning he left the ground repeatedly without touching his hands to the levers.

Contrary to the expectations of many, the machine was found to control perfectly on the ground, both arising and alighting. The exchange of land equipment for water equipment lightened the gross weight of the machine by ahout 175 pounds and cut down head resistance, increasing its climbing ability from 200 to over 300 ft. per minute and its speed from 60 to about 63 miles per hour.

After these flights had been completed, five men put on the old boat, and in a 35-mile wind Webster flew back to Marblehead, 17 miles, in nine minutes, which is "going some."

NEW BOOKS

FLIGHT WITHOUT FORMULAE, by Commandant Dnchene; translated from the French by J. H. Ledeboer, editor of British "Aeronautics." Svo. cloth, 211 pip.; illustrated with diagrams and charts. Published by Longmans, Green & Co. $2.25 net. May be supplied through AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th street. New York.

This book treats of the principles of flight and of the problems in the mechanics of the aeroplane in the simplest possible language, and does not contain a single mathematical formula. Here is a book which the great majority should have. There are very few people in this country who have anything like a smattering of technical knowledge, and Jhis book will lay the foundation for a better understanding.

NAVY GETS FIRST

BURGESS-DUNNE

Early in August the first Burgess-Dunne seaplane was delivered to the U. S. Navy on board the cruiser North Carolina, at Newport News. Manager F. H. Russell went dow n there to install it. and flights were made by the different aviators there, and all expressed themselves as enthusiastic over its inherent stability. A nuiuher of other Burgess- Dunnes are now being manufactured, among which might be mentioned one for the L". S. Army, to be powered with \20 h.p Salm-son motor.

The Burgess- Dunne No. 1 ma* chine is being flown daily in and around Marblehead. Thursday, August 6, Mr. Webster, accompanied by Ensign Edwards, U. S. N.. made a very pretty 20-mile flight to Boston harbor, and after encircling the new Navy aviation cruiser North Carolina. landed alongside and moored their craft while taking lunch with their fellow aviators in the service. After lunch they returned to Marblehead by the air route.

1 I

Mr. Webster is almost dailv making flights as far as 42 miles up and down the coast, with passengers, and some interest has been awakened in reconnoitering off shore in connection with movements of the foreign cruisers, which are searching for marine vessels outside the three mile limit.

On July 16 Webster flew the machine to Squantum, to the site of

110-h.p. MOTOR for sale. Specially built, 8 cylinder V, 4^ by 7, w ater cooled, built by Christie Machine Co. for C. K. Hamilton. Flown by him at Belmont and Sacramento. Cost $5,000. Perfect condition, ready to put in 'plane. Can be seen any day. Run not more than 4 hours total in flight. $1,000 cash only. Address Hamilton, c/o AERONAUTICS.

THE ACCESSIBLE CIRCLE

If a vessel starts from point O, in go from O to tn, lie will head in a

calm air, with a speed J', it will direction parallel to Om'T which is

arrive, in the lapse of one second, the apparent trajectory of the ves-

according to the direction taken, at sel, while O'm is its real path. Since

some point on the dotted circum- in a second vessel, under the above

ference (O center, ]' radius). Eut conditions, can only reach points

if the vessel encounters a regular wind of speed r, the circumference (full line) on which it will find itself after one second will be that of radius V drawn from the center O', such that OO' is equal in length (to scale) and direction to the speed v of the wind. If the pilot wishes to

inside the circle with the center O', it is called the accessible citclc. When the circumference of this circle includes the point O', that is P — *' *> Ot the vessel can move in all directions around O, and also to A, i.e., against the wind, it is actually dirigible.

FOX-PHILLIPS SKIMMER

One of the new So h.p. Gyros has hcen installed, with an air screw, on the Fox-Phillips skimpier. The boat is 20 ft. long by 37 in. wide, and has pontoons on either side to keep it from tipping over on making turns.

The skimmer just produced by F. Fox and D. B. Phillips, of Washington, is designed to produce a watercraft with the speed of an automohile. The Gyro So horsepower motor runs the craft at 60 miles per hour, at which speed it draws but an inch of water and the pontoons are well above the surface. The bow does not rise, as in the usual speed boat, the hottom remaining nearly parallel to the surface of the water. Only brief spurts have been made at this speed as yet as the pressure of the water invariably tears away or crushes some part of the sheathing. This is being remedied.

The weight is about 650 lbs., including motor. There is a main hull 20 ft. by 3 ft., with stabilizing pontoons, 6 ft. by 2 ft., one each side at the stern. These are connected with the main hull by wings of streamline section covered with thip spruce. The Gyro motor is mounted on the main bull between the pontoons and drives direct an S ft. 3 in. diam 5 ft- 2 in. pitch propeller at 1.250 r.p.m. For'ard of the motor is the cockpit containing seats for two persons, steering wheel, etc.

The most novel feature is a patented device for maintaining a cushion of air between the hull and the water, the object being to reduce skin friction. This is accom-

plished by the use of wide funnels facing in the direction the boat travels and connecting with large tubes which pass through the hull from top to bottom. At high speeds the great air pressure, aided by the suction of the water past the mouths of the tubes, causes a large volume of air to be discharged under the hull. This is prevented from escaping sideways by runners on each side, extending 2 in. below the bottom. In spite of these runners some air escapes on each side of the mouth of the forward air tube, which is close to the surface, at full speed. The blast of air and spray gives the appearance of a jet of steam escaping from the side of the hull.

AT LAST! WRIGHT, BURGESS, CURTIS, ETC., TAKE NOTICE.

San Francisco, Cal. 335 Leavenworth St., AERONAUTICS. 122 East 25th St., New York City.

Gentlemen: A flying machine, known as the "Helicopter Hydro-Airship," has been invented and patented by a mechanic of this city, by name II. Van Wie, which is a sucessful combination of parachute and planes, insuring safety, lifting power and speed. It is entirely different from present flying machines, and as far superior to all of them as the modern electric train is superior to the old stage coach. It is destined to revolutionize not only methods of flying, but all methods of transportation, and will have a radically revolutionary effect on everything.

You are most cordially invited to investigate.

1. It leaves the ground or water at once. 2. Alights straight down. 3- Has 400 per cent, lifting "and sustaining capacity. 4. Is absolutely non-collapsible. 5. Can remain stationary in the air, with the aid of the helicopter. 6. An average speed of 500 miles per hour is a conservative statement. 7. Passengers, aviators and engines are protected by enclosures. 8. Propeller lias twice the efficiency of the old; two revolve in opposite directions on one shaft; three twin screws provide more tban six times the power of the average aeroplane, with much less resistance. 9. Carries duplicate of everything, including engine. 10. Can be repaired while in flight. 11. has highest efficiency with lowest loss of energy. 12. Has no oscillation. 13. No noise from propellers. 14. No top suction. 15. Is in itself an automatic stabilizer. 16. Can be run by a 12-year-old boy with safety. 17. Can be built any size. 18. Is equipped with all modern conveniences. 19. Is made portable, but need not he shipped, as it can be flown anywhere.

Mr. Van Wie intends to build a 12-passenger. 2-aviator machine. It will take less than three months to build, and cost about $15,000. If you are interested financially, I shall be very glad to hear from you.

Yours truly. E. S. Nelson, Secretary.

Frank H. Burnside. the star Thomas flier, flew in Norristown, Pa.. August 12, 13. U and 15 with great success. lie made some spectacular flights.

George Newberry, who just grad-

uated from the Thomas School, has been flying at Alexandria Bay, N. Y., a hydro-aeroplane. His flights have been very successful and it looks as if he will become a good pilot.

DE LLOYD THOMPSON MAKES NEW ALTITUDE RECORD

De Lloyd Thompson, who has been looping the loop with his Day tractor for some months (illustrated herewith), has recently fitted one of the new Gyro 8o h.p- duplex valve motors, and on August 6 broke

from that time no other propeller has been used on the machine, except when the Paragon was laid up for repairs. The officers say they get about the same results with both propellers, but it is noticeable that the Paragon is the only one they use.

In 1911 we made for the Roberts Motor Co. two propellers, which were exactly alike in every particular,

the American one-man altitude record by reaching a height of 14.350 feet.

Thompson says he was climbing without loss of speed up to 12.000 feet, and from there be had a struggle, lie ran out of gasoline in 40^4 minutes, and was out of sight for 45 minutes.

A description of the new valve mechanism of the latest 80 h.p. Gyro motor was published in the June 15 issue. The Gyro factory is now running day and night, and has on hand enough orders to last the year out.

THE WIDTH OF BLADES

Speaking of the width of propeller blades, it may be of interest to know how narrow they have been made in some recent foreign designs. An 8 ft. 10 in. propeller, developed in the Royal aircraft factory of Great Britain for use on Renault motors, with heavy biplanes, has the following width: 4ft. diameter, 6 1 -8 in. ՠfc-tt fiia -eter, 6 3-16 in.; 8-ft. diameter 3 15-16 in. Two of these propellers were furnished with the Renault-driven navy boat D-2, and there was a great deal of favorable talk about them among the officers, as these propellers were supposed to embody the best results of very extensive experiments at the Royal aircraft factory, both in the laboratory and on the field. The two propellers are set at right angles to each other on the same shaft, so the combination approximates a four-bladed propeller. After this propeller was used a short time, we furnished an SJ^-ft. three-bladed Paragon, and

except that one had a blade about 50 per cent wider than the other. Upon test, they reported no practical difference in speed. The thrust was not taken.

The blade of a propeller must not be considered as an oar or paddle pushing hack ward against the air. 11 does not move broadside, but edgewise through the air, and its angle of attack is very fine. We must consider the air as flowing across the blade from leading to trailing edge, just as it flows across an aeroplane wing, except that the angle of incidence of the blade is very much less. The business of the blade is to so affect the air flowing over that the stream of air will leave the blade at a slight angle from the direction in which the air approaches the blade. The blade has to he wide enough to cause this change in the direction of the air flowing over it, without breaking (he air into turbulent eddies, whirlpools, etc., and without drag-ing any dead air along with the blade as it moves. If the blade is

amount of change in the flow of the air, except that there will be a very slight increase of skin friction, due to the added surface, but this is too small a matter to make any practical difference. It is probahle that nearly all propeller blades are wider than they need to be in order to produce the same amount of change in the direction of flow of the air as it leaves the blade. The average propeller could be cut down considerably in width without affecting appreciably the speed at which it turns; hut if the width is so far reduced that the air flowing over it cannot form in smooth, even lines, but surges around both edges of the blade, its efficiency will he enormously reduced and probably as much or even more power will be required to turn it at a given speed. The aim in propeller design is to secure ample width to insure a smooth flow of air over the face and back of the blade, under the expected condition of power, speed and slip. Any greater width than this may do no serious harm within reasonable limits, but encumbers the machine with unnecessary wood and a little more skin friction in the blade.

Spencer Heath.

JEFFERY GLUE IN

WANAMAKER BOAT

Uammondsport. N. V.,

August 12, '14.

1 W. Ferdinand & Co., Boston, Mass.

Gentlemen: We are pleased to state that your water-proof liquid glue has been used for securing the canvas to all of the Curtiss flying boats. It is also used on the Rodman Wanamaker trans-Atlantic flying boat, "America."

It is perhaps unnecessary to add that in the construction of these

wide enough to produce this change water-flying machines dependence is

of direction of flow, it can do no placed on nothing less than the very

more than this after it has been best materials the market affords, made wider; neither will it con- Yours very truly,

sume any more power for a given (Signed) The Curtiss Aeroplane Co.

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas coveriog of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will lant as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas betweeo veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Bo»ton, Mau. U, S. A.

JiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiimiiiiMMiiininiiiiniin;

Published lemi-monthly in the best interests of Aero* nautics

■v

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Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 1908, under the Act of March 3, 1879. $3.00 a year, 15 cents a Copy.

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Railroad tickets accepted for transportation on D. & C. Line Bteamers in either direction between Detroit and Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland.

Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet giving detailed description of various trips. Address L. G. Lewis, General f-assenger Agent, Detroit, Mich.

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That is why the Benoist Aircraft Co.,Edson Gallaudet, The Walter E. Johnson School of Aviation, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., L. H. DeRemer, A. D. Smith, Bud Cary, and dozens of others use MAXIMOTORS.

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VELOCITY OF RISE AND LIFTING POWER OF BALLOONS

In the case of rubber pilot bal- walls S in microns (first vertical

loons it is important to be able to column: i micron = o.ooi mm),

tell beforehand the velocity of rise TMe n givcs: Lifting power, in

and lifting power of a balloon of run r ռ/p>

given dimensions; or, conversely, *ra.ms;. of balloon of given weight

to design a balloon for specified an'- thickness of walls, when filled

velocity of rise and lifting power, with hydrogen or with coal gas

Table I gives the following in- (section IV). Tables III and V formation: Diameter of balloon of give: Velocity of ascent in met-rs weight G in grams (first horizontal per second, when filled with hydro-line) and thickness of material of gen or illuminating gas respectively.

S io Mikron

50 26

40 28

30 33

20 40

10 58

SO 40 30

Weight of Spherical Balloon Envelope in Grams 30 40 50 60 80 100 ISO 200

I.—Diameter in Centimeters. 45 5? §8 64 Ji 82

250 30..

70 82 102 ■ 44

81 95

164

92 107 130

100 114 130 160 240

118 130 150 186

260

■30 146 168 210

30 104

111.—

50 40 30

40 30

50 40 30

120

112 I46 190

40 50 58 64

47 58 66 74

58 70 82 92

82 too 118 132

II.—Lifting Power in Grams—Hydrogen.

9 25 42 64 94 155 220 460 740 1050

20 45 76 110 15s 245 355 690 1100 1570

42 86 138 195 270 420 600 1150 1800 2500

96 190 290 410 560 840 1200 2250 3500 4950

310 570 920 1270 1700 2520 3500 7250 9800

Velocity of Ascent in Meters Per Minute—Hydrogen.

120 125 150 165 j 85 200 230 250 270

145 160 175 190 200 225 250 280 290

149 170 190 200 215 235 250 280 310

182 200 220 240 250 270 290

230 260 280 300

IV,—Lifting Power in Grams—Coal Gas.

4 16 25 38 74 115 235 400 590

6 iS 36 54 76 132 195 370 620 910

20 44 76 no 150 240 355 680 1080 1330

55 106 180 25s 320 530 750 1370 2200 3050

192 310 560 810 1020 1640 2300 4200 6500 8950

—Velocity of Ascent in Meters Per Minute—Coal Gas.

82 93 105 127 140 167 188 202

91 112 123 133 151 165 188 210 225

102 125 140 151 162 178 195 220

138 156 175 188 195 212 230 ......

182 198 220 236

140 160 .85 230

1400

2100

285 310

780 1200 2000 3950

215

KILOGRAMS IN ENGLISH POUNDS (AVDP.) AND CWTS.

kg

lbs.

cwts.

kg

lbs.

cwts.

kg

lbs.

cwts.

kg

lbs.

cwts.

,

2,20

0,020

31

68,34

0,610

61

■34,48

1,201

91

200,62

■ ,79I

2

4,41 6,61

0,039

32

70,55

0,630

62

■36,69

1,220

92

202,82

1,811 1,831

3

0,059

33

72,75

0,650

63

138,89

1,240

93

205,03

4

8,82

0,079

34

74,96

0,669

64

141,09

1,260

94

207,23

1,850

5

11,02

0,098

35

77,16

0,689

65

143,30

1,280

95

209,44

1,870

6

13,23

0,Il8

36

79.37

0,709

66

145,51

1,299

96

211,64

1,890

7

■ 5,43

0,138

37

8l,57

0,728

67

■47,71

■,319

97

213.85

1,909

8

■7,64

0,158

38

83,78

0,748

68

■49,91

■,339

98

216,05

1,929

9

19,84

0,177

39

85,98

0,768

69

152,12

■,358

99

218,26

■,949

10

22.05

0.197

40

88,18

0,787

70

154,32

1,378

■ 00

220,46

1,968

11

24,25

0,217

41

90,39

0,807

7i

■56,53

■.398

101

222,67

1,988

12

26,45

0,236

42

92,59

0,827

72

■58,73

■,4i7

■ 02

224,87

2,008

13

28,66

0,256

43

94,80

0,846

73

160,94

■,437

■ 03

227,07

2,028

■4

30,86

0,276

44

97,00

0,866

74

163,14

■.457

104

229,28

2,047

15

33,07

0,295

45

99,21

o,8S6

75

■65,35

■ ,476

■05

231,48

2,067

16

35.27

0,3'5

46

101,41

0,906

76

167,55

1,496

106

233.69

2,087

>7

37,48

0,335

47

103,62

0.925

77

■69,75

1,516

107

235,89

2,106

18

39,68

0,354

48

105,82

0,945

78

171,96

■,535

108

238,19

2,126

'9

41,89

0,374

49

108,03

0,965

79

174,16

1,555

■99

240,30

2,146

20

44,09

0,394

50

110,23

0,984

80

■76,37

■ ,575

110

242,51

2,165

21

46,30

0,413

51

112,44

1,004

81

■78,57

■,594 1,614

in

244,71

2,185

22

48,50

0,433

52

114,64

1,024

82

180,78

112

246,92

2,205

23

50,71

0,453

53

116,84

■,043

83

182,98

1,634

■■3

249,12

2,224

24

52,91

0,472

54

119,05

1,063

84

■85,19

■,634

"4

251,32

2,244

25

55,'2

0,492

55

121,25

1,083

85

187,39

■,673

■■5

253,53

2,264

26

57,32

0,512

56

123.46

1,102

86

189,60

■ ,693

116

255,73

2,283

27

59,52

0,532

57

125,66

1,122

87

191,80

1,713

117

257,94

2", 303

28

6l,73

o,55l

58

127,87

1,142

88

194,01

1,732

118

260,14

2,323

29

63.93

0,571

59

130,07

1,161

89

196,21

1,752

119

262,35

2.342

30

66,14

o,59l

60

132,28

1,181

90

198,41

1,772

120

264,55

2,362

SIGNALING TO AEROPLANES.

In order to communicate signals from a battery to the aeroplanes, the following methods were used by the aitillery at Fort Riley, observers being carried by Lieuts. Milling and Arnold, in Model B Wrights, as reported by the Artillery Board:

"Two strips of canvas, each about two feet wide and fifteen feet long, were laid on the ground, both in rear of the battery, and with pins in each corner to bold them in place on the ground. If these two strips were laid, one in prolongation of the other, pointing toward the front of the battery, it indicated that the battery desired the observer in the aeroplane to reconnoiter for a target in that general direction, and, having found it, he indicated on a card the direction of these strips on the ground and the direction in which the target lay, or signaled the radio to move the strips to the right or left. lie also, when practicable, indicated an approximate estimate of the range. The strips were then laid one across the other in the form of a cross, which indicated to the observer that the battery was about to fire and wished him to observe and report. If it was desired to acknowledge receipt of a signal from the aeroplane, the strips were placed in the form of a letter "T." If it was desired to have a message repeated, the strips were placed in the form of a letter "\Y* If it was desired to recall the aeroplane in order to consult with the observer, the two strips were placed parallel to each other and two or three yards apart. These signals worked perfectly.

"Of the various systems of signals, the radio seems to promise the greatest rapidity. It is believed that this system should he adopted and supplemented by the use of cards in case anything happens which would prevent its operation. The long-hanging antenna seems to he objectionable to the aviator, and it is hoped that some means will be discovered whereby its use will not be necessary. The card system is quite satisfactory, and it is believed that it can always be used where time is not a very important element, as in general it will not be with the character of targets that will be fired at with these methods.

"The Board is of the opinion that the use of observers in aeroplanes in connection with artillery firing at hidden targets is entirely practicable and furnishes means for reaching targets which could not otherwise be touched."

I cwt. (Hundredweight) - 112 lbs.-- 50.89 kg.

According to the Tagliche Rund-schan of Berlin, the German Aeroplane Works at Leipzig have received a commission from the British War Office to deliver IS biplanes, which are to be equipped with Mercedes motors. This Leipzig firm recently won the first prize at a competition test of marine aeroplanes. The Albatross Works at Johanuisthal are at present building for the British Admiralty 12 water biplanes, which will also have 100-borsepower Mercedes motors and must attain a speed of 100 kilometers (62 miles) per hour. The Rundschau adds that Turkey regularly obtains its aeroplanes from the German Rumpler Works, to which the Swiss Government also recently gave a large order.

PATENTS

SECURED or FEE RETURNED

Send sketch or model for FKKK search of Patent Office record. Write for our Guide Bonks and What to Invent with valuable Lilt of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department.

Copies of Patents in Airships, 10cents each.

VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY M«-o«i«~= tz^n.^street^.w.

PATENTS

Frederick W. Barker

Attorney and Expert in

PATENTS, TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS

Cases i>rei>ared and prosecuted 28 Years in Practice with the greatest care and Direct Connections in all thoroughness, to ensure broad Foreign Conntries

scoi>e and validity 115 Broadway, New York

The

SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION

Sups rio r Train in g

MONOPLANES and FLYING-BOATS

"■ Address

Sloane Aeroplane Co.

1733 Broadway New York

The

Thomas School

OF AVIATION

OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES

AJdr«», Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY cdCC BOOKS, ADVICE AND SEARCHES r KLL Send sketch or model for search. Higheit References Best Results, Promptness Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

DON'T wrile us unless

VyJlv 1 you are inter. ested in a reliable, efficient anc1 economical power plant. 7 I-at is the only kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

The Wright Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

r i

4 Cyl., 60 11. P.. 225 lbs. 6 Cyl., 100 H.P......300 lbs.

Special feature is patented one piece copper water jacket. Moving to Larger Quarters.

SPECIAL PRICE FOR LIMITED TIME

4 Cyl., $ 900.00-reduced from $1,400.00 Quick 6 Cyl., 1,200.00—reduced from 2,000.00 Delivery

Herfurth Engine Co., Alexandria, Va.

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

The Wright Company

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Pine St.

EMERSON

.ENGINES

NEW TYPE OF MOTOR.

A new type of gasoline motor claiming 300 h.p. for a weight of 220 lbs. was exhibited at the Paris Salon. This is the Demont rotary motor with six cylinders; its chief peculiarity is that it is double acting, having a large diameter cylinder and a large tubular piston rod extending from both sides of the piston and sliding in tubes in both ends of the cylinder, the packing being metallic rings. The piston also is hollow, thus permitting a current of air to pass through the

machine from gusts of wind and changing regime. We do not possess any very exact information on the importance of the dynamical efforts imposed on the apparatus in full flight, and what is usually called the co-efficient of security is a coefficient of a purely static order.

On dirigibles, the knowledge of tensions during flight is not less interesting. It is interesting not only for the materials which compose the suspension and the car, but also the resistance of the material (covering) of the balloon to which the cables are directly suspended. Ac-

are provoked by sudden variations due to shocks.

It is composed of a bar provided with three wheels that are placed on the cable, like that indicated in the figure seen from the side. The central wheel presses through the medium of a stirrup, Dd, on a hydraulic capsule. This sliding stirrup slides on another fixed stirrup, Fd', mounted on the bar. The capsule is connected by a metallic tube to a registering manometer. When the tension of the cable varies, the pressure on the capsule varies equally, and these variations are recorded on the drum of the instrument. The initial position of the central wheel depends on the diameter of the cable, and is regulated at the outset by means of the screw, G, which displaces the vernier, V.

This apparatus, constructed by the Richard firm, is 50 cm. long, and it is a powerful model, capable of measuring a tension of 150 kg. to SU0 kg. It gives good results. The needle of the register instantly obeys the variations of the tension, and shows a variation of about 10 kg. 11 is necessary to fill the capsule well and it must be entirely free from bubbles of air. This is an essential condition.

NEW BOOKS.

FLYING, Some Practical Experiences, by Gustav Hame! and Charles C. Turner. Svo, cloth, 338 pp., handsomely illustrated, published by Longmans, Green & Co., New York, at $3.50 net, postage extra. This is pre eminently a practical book. One finds in it a vast amount of material of invaluable use to experienced fliers, as well as to amateurs and those about to take up flying or purchase machines. Practically a correspondence course is given in the first lessons. Accidents are discussed, their causes and prevention, with illustrations from those of recent history and the probable reasons therefor, and the possibility of tiieir having been avoided. Crosscountry flying is taken up and everything relating to aerial touring considered. Entrants for long-distance contests will find notes for t of

tube and piston for cooling Tne cording to the distribution of the tube is sufficiently large to allow the efforts between these last, the cover-connecting rod, which extends up ing can be subjected to local efforts

rodsV°T^ VCry VarIa-ble; ,capab,.e not on]y of their use which are the produc, w

2p nr. inn 13 t the same compromising the resistance of the the years of extraordinary experience

aTexct" Silify'. eVCn itS ^ °f-'he aUth°r' Hame.. ywhoP is too

the end; each fork is of different r, ;= ;„ PO„„^;all„ „r ,v,:.

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XI

MEASURING THE experimented with equally on aero- Flying, High Flying, Oversea Fly-

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THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

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Washington, D. C.

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t

A REVIEW OF AERONAUTICAL PROGRESS*

By JOHN J. LONG

In these days of startling prog pounds and capable of five horse- captne machine of lai»- The rc^s in the aeronautical world, we power. In 1S52 he built a dirigible machine had a total iTl'tiii" sniface aie prone to think that the develop- in which was installed a three- of 6,0UU square feet and° weighed merit of aeronautics is of entirely horsepower engine of this tvpe, S.000 pounds It was driven' bv recent date. The problem of lui- with a three-liladed propeller mak- two specially des "ned steam eii man flight, however, has occupied ing 11 n revolutions per iniiinte. The gines, each ' weighing oil) pounds the mind of man for centuries, and airship was spindle shaped, 1-14 feet and capable of developing ISO horse-many and divers have been the so- long, -10 feet in diameter at mid- power. A lifting effect "of \ OIJIJ to lulions offered even before the section, and of 90,0011 cubic feet 4.000 lbs. was obtained and'on one dawu of the nineteenth century. capacity. This dirigible, on at least trial the machine broke away from

That famous artist and engineer, one occasion, attained an independ- its upper guide rails.

Leonardo da Vinci ( 1452-1519), ent velocity of about five miles per

was the first to give a technical 1'Our. 1 rofessor S. 1 . Langley, cele-

suggestion for artificial flight. His Passing over intervening attempts, m"'"' '"S,n\fSe"chlS fV1:n"

design consisted essentially of many of which brought forth m- I 1J5 ,"' 'i^ ,„snn no P T r.'T

wings, which were to be attached provements of the Giffard design, * ^ K° 11 J„?i ' '"

to the body of a man and operated we come to the work of Captains eVfn"a ?.°^urtl1 ?',," ٦quot;<

bv his arms and legs. This scheme Kenard and Krebs of the French ?»1,ricall> *u kedout by him, and

never passed beyond the paper army. They consV^ted a d S for ^fs" otn* ^le"^ iV^wlT"?

stage, but Fauste Yeranzio in 1617 i„ 1SS4. in" shape something like a accon olisl, L, nianv ffi ft;

made a descent from a tower in fish, with the master-section at a dis- ^od" T'lien ndrritl ,1,/ټ/p>

Venice in a crude form of para- ,a„Ce from the nose of about a m^cti'„ "f fmin enrrvb^ m£hin

chute, made of canvas, and be was quarter length. The airship was S 1 Lv

prohably the first actual expen- driven by a nine-horsepower electric jV|a" he evolve 1 a machine which

inenter. .Many other schemes, motor, actuated by current from a ?.l „ia' ',1 t,, 1-^ ,H, f,nm\ l,,,s

some utterly impractical followed specially designed "battery of chrom- boa^ on the I otomac Defects in

\ eranz.o's attempt, notable among jum chloride cells. This motor drove , ° lc ' A\, °' '"1' „'„",];'

which was that of the .Marquis de a l.lrge wooden propeller set for- , launching a pa.atus proved d s-

nacqueville, who. in 1742. made a ward: at a rate if 50 r « The »eTit an,? dSr'tened W the

somewhat successful glide, from the rudder, fixed aft. was a solid body "die le of 1 e\,re^

window of bis Pans mansion across made of two four-sided pyramids, 1 J |lc „, ٠ IV I t°

the gardens of the Tnileries, final- fixed together at their bases. The anv further ^nenTne,

ly landing in the Seine. car was fixed rigidly to the net of any £urtl,er "peiimeiit.

The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph the balloon by a diagonal rope sus- Contempiraneons with Langley.

and Jacques, invented the' hot-air pension, and was provided with a Otto Lilienthal (1S4S-1S9o) had

balloon in 1783, and in the fall of sliding counterweight capable of been carrying on exhaustive experi-

that year Pilat're de Rozier, in a movement fore and aft to balance ments with iiiaii-carrying gliders in

balloon of this type, made tlie first any displacement of the center of Germany. After developing his

human ascent in a free balloon gravity. This halloou, the ' La glider until it was capable of glides

(November 21, 1783). It is inter- France," left its hangar in Septem- of over 300 yards from a height of

esting to note that this pioneer ',er, 1SS5, performed evolutions over 30 yards or more, he planned a

aeionaut was also the first to give Paris, and returned to the starting double-decked aeroplane, equipped

up his life in the effort to conquer point—the first flight on record with a motor. While testing a new

the air Hydrogen gas had been where a balloon started from a steering arrangement, the machine

discovered in 1776 and the cele- definite point and returned under lost its equilibrium and Lilienthal

brated physicist Chasles suggested iIS ovvn power. The maximum ve- was killed by a fall of about sixty

its use in a bal'loon. DeRozler im- 'ocity was about 15 miles per hour. feet.

mediately constructed a balloon in The modern types of dirigibles Octave Chanute. a bridge engi-which he attempted to combine the have added little in fundamental neer, introduced Lilienthal's ide'as advantages of the hydrogen and the principle to the work of Renard to tnjs country, and. in conjunction fire balloons, joining together two and Krebs. The "rigid" tvpe. as wjtj, Herring, developed a biplane separate envelopes, the upper filled exemplified by the Zeppelin, has g]jc]er wdiich was capable of several with hydrogen and the lower filled been developed in Germany with hundred satisfactory flights. The with heated air—an extremely dan- marked success, while in France the Wright brothers, Wilbur and Or-gerous combination. After sailing "semi-rigid" type has been exclu- vi]]Ci encouraged' by what they had f <r half an hour, the balloon sud- sively exploited, dating from the learned of Lilienthal's success,"made ilenly burst into flames and the first Lebaudy dirigible in 1902. a number of successful gliding ex-aeronaut was dashed 3,000 feet to Turning now to the development periments, which led to the" con-his death. of the "heavier-than-air" machine, struclion of a motor-driven aero-These balloons were, of course. Sir George Cayley, in a paper pub- plane. This resulted in a successful incapable of accurate direction, and lished in Nicholson's Journal for flight of 59 seconds on the 17th of efforts were made to design a bal- 1S09-10, enunciated some of the December, 1903—undoubtedly the loon which would be dirigible. Gen- principles and ideas of mechanical first man flight in a motor-driven eral Meusnier, in 17S4, anticipated flight, and even made a rough cal- aeroplane.

in his design many of the excellent eolation of an engine which might Santos-Dumont won the Arch-features of our modern dirigible, be used as motive power, incidentally cieacon ,>rjze on October 23, 1906. Among these may be mentioned the dropping the hint that a mixture of for a n;„i,t nf ?5 metres, the first elongated form, the girth fastening, gas and air, when exploded under a fl-]sht ;n Europe*," and in' Tanuary, the triangular suspension, the air piston, might give very satisfactory jqqs Farman covered a triangular balloonet, the screw propeller, even results. Cayley analyzed the forces collrse 0f one kilometer, thereby indicating the place where the pro- acting on the wings of a bird, and wjnn;ng t|,e Archdeaco'n-Dcntsch peller should be installed. The showed experiments which he had prize_ Farman established yet an-death of Meusnier at the siege of performed to illustrate the relations other reCord by making the first Mayence, a few years later, un- between resistance and velocity in cr05s.c0nntry flight from Chalons doubtedly prevented the practical a surface moving through a medium. to Rheims, a distance of 17 miles, development of this design. In a paper on "Aerial Locomo- and Bleriot made the first closed The great difficulty in the way tinn," read at the first meeting of trip across country from Toury to of the practical dirigible was a suit- the Aeronautical Society of Great Artenay, a distance of 19 miles able power plant, which should com- Britain, in 1866. F. If. Wenham One July 25, 1909. Bleriot crossed bine light weight with efficiency, enunciated the important principle the English ^ Channel, and in the Giffard, well known as the inventor that the supporting force on an in- same year Glenn Cnrtiss won the of the steam boiler injector, en- clined surface being driven through first international contest for gaged himself in an attempt to the air is limited to a inrrow portion America at Rheims. solve this difficulty, and ohtained a near the front edge. This fact, of jjle moticrn history of aeronau-working steam engine weighing 100 course, suggested a large "aspect . . encompassed in a remarkably __ ratio. He also pointed out the sl)nrt nf y(,ars The ,„cccss.

deS'iabllltV OI Superposing the cup- - , ,■ . :i , r ,1 F,-,>,irli irmv

֐aper presented at the spring p„,-ting surfaces to obtain great , ^ , ^ r^-^v.'nn.l

rneeing of the New Haven -Section |,f,,ng power. the development of the many types

of the American Society of Me- In 1S90 Sir 11 nam Maxim carried 1 ' "

chanical Engineers. on a series of experiments on a (ConUnited on Papt'tiZ)

AERODYNAMICAL LABORATORIES

The specialization of aviation as electric propeller tester, apparatus spects. material for containing same an aid to warfare and its minimi- for measuring distribution of air varnishes, etc. All instruments of zation as a sport has led directly pressure over the surface of models, value are at hand, and workshops to the enlargement of or institution instruments for finding center of furnish test wings and parts and rein European countries of great ex- pressure, etc. The work of the pair facilities. The electric railway perimental plants and laboratories laboratory is all indoors, and is con- enables full-sized aeroplanes to be devoted to academic and engineer- fined t0 wind tunnel measurements tested in a condition of flight, so ing investigations. Whatever studies principally. Seven skilled men are that lift, drift and moment or center will promote the art of aircraft con- employed. Reports on work are is- of pressure can be determined at struclion and navigation are prose- slied occasionally in book form by once as it travels across the field, cuted by these laboratories. The [\r Eiffel, as is well known to all The institute puhlishes yearly bul-laboratories of London, St. Cyr and readers. letins of its work.

Johannisthal are practically unlimit- T]le Brltish "Advisorv Commit- The laboratory at Gottingen is ed in the scope oi their researches. ,ee.. primarily js occupied with gov- near the university, and is not so A note on some of these has been ernmental work, hut does under- very extensive, heing composed ot written by Dr. Zahn and published ,ake ,csts and researclies for indi. but one 5rnall building, housing a by the Smithsonian Institute viduals. The work includes whirl- wind tunnel, with numerous instrn-

There is the tiff el Aerodynamic ing ,ab|e an(1 w!nd tunne) meas,ire- ments. The results of experiments Laboratory, near I aris, supported ments> ,esting of e„gi„es, propellers, here have been puhlished in various bv t',.?„r'riviltf uuurse of the famous metalSi fabrics, cab]es, varnishes, German technical periodicals. Of G. LirTel. who has contributed a bydr0mechanic studies, meteorolngi- particular interest are the determina-number of volumes to the art, which ca, observations, mathematical in- tions of pressure distribution on are considered basic as to their vestjgatiolls in flmd ,iynamics. the models of airship hulls and meas-data. . , . . , - , theory of gyroscopes, aeroplane and urements of the resultant wind

France aiso has the Aerotcchnical ()irigib]c design. and so forth. The force on oblique hulls and wing Institute of the University of I aris, Committee was formed of tweIve forms. The work of this lahoratorv at St. Lyr under M. Mauram expeTt cjvjiiallSt un(ler the presi- has chiefly been devoted to wind-founded by Baron Deutsche de la dency of Lord Ra lei appointed tunnel experiments. Meurth, who furnished $100,000 for ,)y the rHme Minister tn work out The p]ant at Toha 11 nistUal. the the original plant, ? J.000 a year theoretjcaI and experimental prob- largest except the British, adjoins for maintenance during his 1 fetime ]ems for t,ie army and _ 0ne ,he grea( fl ; fidd a]]d numeJ

and was presented to the University lnnIdin is provided for the 60-foot aircraft factories, aeroplane sheds, of Paris; and the . military estab- whirling tahle {or „le tes„- of etc. I1r. E p Bendemann is iishment at ( lialais-Meudon, re- mode]s and moM propellers; an- director, with ten assistants. Both sembling the British Aircraft lac nt]ier for a ]arKe expalir]ed.tvpe indoor and outdoor researches are tory; and the Conservatoire Na- wind lunnei. wIlicll is some 80 feet conducted, and it is liberally sup-tionale des Arts et Metiers cor- , bv 7 feet ,quarCi wllich, with ported in its work, which has uiV responding to our uureau 01 siana- ,he w-nd ba|ance makes an outlay limited scope. There is one main arrls- . , of $16,500 for the building and building, with a 100-foot tower for

Germany has the Gottingen Aero- equipment. A small wind tunnel wind observations in which to test dynamical Laboratory, under the di- bo„Se, with a tunnel half the above aeroplanes of full size; a building rection of Prof. Prandtl of the Urn- size cost;ng $20,000; a small water used for construction work, and five versity of Gottingen, begun with cbannel for testing stream-line flow smaller buildings, each containing money supplied by the Motor Air- about models; two wind towers for an engine-testing outfit. It is in-ship Study Company and supported testing flow and pressure of free air tended to fly full-size aeroplanes by financial aid of the government; on )arge sca]e models; large marine with measuring instruments mounted and the Deutsche Versudianstalt mode] ,ank wond and meta] work. on a car on a railway, in a similar fur Luftfahrt zu Adlershof, at the ing B|,opSi stores, etc.. are other manner to the method at St. Cyr. Johannisthal flying field, near Her- f,cii;,jes The Roya) Aircraft Wings are tested for stress and 'ln- , . Factorv is adjacent tn the military strain, a device is being used to

In England, the British govern- cr0unds at Farnhorough. and is con- measure the force employed in ment established at Teddington the cerned with the scientific improve- operating controls, motors are tested National Physical Laboratory, under ment of aircraft construction, in the usual manner of engineers, the directorship of Dr. R. T. Glaze- though it frequently manufactures and the equipment generally is nat-brook, chairman of the Advisory on a large scale aeroplanes, airships urally such as would likely be seen Committee for Aeronautics, and the and propellers. Both the above in- in such an institution. Royal Aircraft Factory at Fain- stitutions have a whirling tahle and Other German laboratories are the borough. Both are under this Ad- engine testing plant. The Lahora- testing department of the Zeppelin visory Committee, which also con- ,ory investigates models particular- Airship Company, which is not open ducts work at private concerns, such ]v and ,he Factorv full-scale craft, to visitors: the aerodynamical lab-as Vickers Sons and Maxim, and narts and appurtenances. The Fac- oratory of Prof. Reissner, nf the are supported by the government. tory spends around half a million a Technical High School at Aachen; The Northampton Polytechnic In- vear and emnlovs 700 men. and with Major Parseval's laboratory in the stitutej London, and the East Lon- ;t5 n,amiT,oth plant, covering manv high school at Berlin, and an ex-don College also have aeronautical acres and comprising half a dozen perimental plant of Dr. Fr. Ahl-laboratories. large buildings, it can produce one born at Ilamhurg.

In Russia there is the Aero- aeroplane a day. The equipment of fhe Aerody-

technical Institute of Koutcluno at The St. Cvr ;ns,,itute conducts namic Laboratory of the Massachu-tiat city, under the direction of Rl. ]arge qcale exneriments in the field setts Institute of Technology con-Kiabouchinsky. Italy has an 1111- as wel, as irido0r work, and makes sists of a wind tunnel 16 square portant plant. These two will be investigations fnr the eeneral public feet in section, through which air dealt with in a subsequent article. nr a]]oi(/s ;vate indiv!dnais ,0 „se is drawn bv a seven-foot four-

1 he Factory has disclosed defects (he laboratorv. The director has Waded propeller. The steadiness of in leading types of machines, indi- thrP(, nr foMr assistants a, work. the current has been carefullv studied cated means of betterment, and has and „le aid of a )arge advisorv with the result that tlie wind improved efficiency, stability, factor colincil of P111inent engineers, scien- can be kept uniform in velocity of safety and range of speed in the ,ists am, officers. A special feature within one per cent. The variation machines studied there. It has pro- is ,he %.mjje track-. with electric of velocity across a section is also duced a stable, efficient and safe bi- cars fnr ,csts on large pr„pellers within one per cent. Anv speed J,v'th-, 3 ranfe °f SAPe. j"! and full-size aeroplanes. The site from 4 to 40 miles per hour can 41 to 80 miles an hour A standard covers Slw ]8 acreSi and com ises be maintained.

control is being worked out, and a centra] ba]] grounded on three The wind tunnel and the aerody-op.nion favors the Deperdussm. sidps by wori;s!,npS, 5tores. labora- namic balance are made from the The Advisory Committee publishes tories and power 1]m|Se Equ!p. p]ans Qf the National Physical Lab-annual reports, which can be ob- ment includes wind tunnel, balance, oratory equipment. Teddington, Eng-ta.ned by any one through the pub- fan_ arrange>ncnt for measuring land, by whose director. Dr. R. T. ڲS'r-<r, r զnbsp;friction of air on surfaces at all Glazebrook, F.R.S.. the complete

The Eiffel Laboratory consists of v*>i"^:ti^e. ~w*.-:/> H>Miimometer for plans were generously presented, a single building, housing a wind „r„c„r;,w fixed nr«n.|]sr torque, The balance is a duplicate of the tunnel designed and patented hy ,„„,r,|.., for study)"٠ helicopters. English balance, and shares with the Eiffel, experiment rooms and test- ^r,mne tester, chemin] laboratorv

ing devices, such as wind balances, Ior studying light gases in all re- (Continued on Page 61)

SOARING FLIGHT

Written for AERONAUTICS by O. Chanute.

[The following article, written by ward against the wind and subse- These observations disclosed sev-

Slr. Chanute ill 1908, still holds good quently rising higher than his start- eral facts:

in a general way, though the figures ing point, must either time his , . T. ,,.:nj„ Kim.;n„ c ,, might be modified in the light of ascent, . and descents exactly with rni.e^ier hour freque^Ld rising more recent work. However, we the variations in wind velocities, or ,rends of 10" to 15° aid hat ,,, on do not yet know .the coefficients must occasion/ v.hen "there "emed'tHe for a buzzard's wing, or for a on a horizontal axis and come o absolutely no wind there was often, whole buzzard, except the experi- a poise on its crest thus availing nevertheless, a local rising of the ments of Dr. Zahm here . cited, of an ascending trend. air estimated at a rate of 4 to 8 which show a very small horizontal Hut the observations failed to miles or more per hour. This was resistance for the whole bird.— demonstrate that the variations of ascertained by watching thistle down Editor.] the wind gusts and the movements and rising fogs alongside of trees or There is a wonderful perform- °,f tlle blrd "ere absolutely syn- hills of known height. Every one ance daily exhibited in Southern cliroiiuiis, and it was conjectured will readily realize that when walk-climes and occasionally seen in !na< the peculiar shape of the soar- ,„g at the rate of 4 to 8 miles an Northerly latitudes in Summer, '."8 «ing ot certain birds, as dif- hour m a dead calm the "relative St. never been thoroughly 'erentiated irom the. flapping wing, wind" is quite inappreciable to the xilained the Soaring or m'Sht' wllen experimented upon, senses and that such a rising air Sailing flight of certain varfeties ^[f"" a«ou'« f°r <"e «ould not be noticed, of large birds who transport them- ' . 2nd. That the buzzard sailing in selves on rigid unflapping wings , 1 lu'se computations, however satis- an apparently dead horizontal calm in any desired direction; who, in factory they were for the speed of progressed at speeds of 15 to 18 winds of 6 to 20 miles per hour, ;v,"ds observed, failed to account miles per hour, as measured by his -irele rise, advance, return and for lhe observed spiral soaring of shadow on the ground. It was emain aloft for hours without a ""^^ds in very light winds and thought that the air was then pos-teat of wing, save for getting un- w.r.''er was- "mpe led to con- silily rising 8.8 feet per second, or 6 ler way or convenience in various f«s- 'Now, this spiral soaring in miles per hour.

naneuvers. They appear to ob. .steady breezes of 5 to 10 miles per 3, That when soaring in very

tain from the wind alone all the »٠«. »«' ?"JffiX^ K?H5ui Winds the anS,e of incidence

necessary energy, even to advanc- '„,^ , f ra s»e f o l7?0 !>f *he bl'"ards was negative to the

ing dead against that wind. Tins ^ ,'^a ^ur/fs ?he mys,ery°t„ be "",7 "J." C°m-

fea is so much opposed to our gen- lai„ed u',s not acCoV1nted fur, '« <°s the eye the af crnoon

eral ideas of physics that those who qua,ltitatively, by any of the theories J h 'ta, ' ^ u °f

have not seen ,t sometimes deny its ; h h > advanced, and it is Z case 1 »H Vh an le |d HaVe r"1}

actuality and those who have only „ie nne performance which has led ]!L< the hJlc,„8 md'ned

occasionally witnessed it subse- some observers to claim that it was a00'' "^horizon,

quently doubt the evidence of their done through 'aspiration'; i. e., that 4tn- Tllat the sailing performance

iwn eyes. Others who have seen a bird acted upon bv a current, on'y occurred after the bird had ac-

die exceptional performances specu- actually drew forward into that cur- Quired an initial velocity of at least

late on various explanations, but ,ent against its exact direction of J5 or ?8 miles per hour, either by

the majority give it up as a sort motion." industrious flapping or by descending

of "negative gravity." A stil, greater mystery was pro- from a Perch-

The writer of this paper pub- pounded by the few observers who 5th. That the whole resistance of

lished in the "Aeronautical An- asserted that they had seen buz- a stuffed buzzard, at a negative angle

nual" for 1896 and 1897 an arti- znrds soaring in a dead calm, main- of 3° in a current of air of 15.52

cle upon the sailing flight of birds, laining their elevation and their miles per hour was 0.27 pounds. This

m which he gave a list of the speed. -Among these observers was test was kindly made for the writer

authors who had described such Mr. E. C. Iluffaker, at one time by Professor A. F. Zahm in the

flight or had advanced theories for assistant experimenter for Professor "wind tunnel" of the Catholic Uni-

its explanation and lie passed these Langley. '1 he writer believed and versity at Washington. D. C, who

in review. lie also described his said then that he must in some way moreover stated that the resistance

own observations and submitted have been mistaken, yet, to satisfy of a live bird might be less, as the

some computations to account for himself lie paid several visits to dried plumage could not be made to

the observed facts. These compu- -Mr. Huffaker in eastern Tennessee lie smooth.

tations were correct as far as thev and took along his anemometer, lie This particular buzzard weighed

went but they were scanty, it was saw quite a number of buzzards sail- j„ ijfe 4.25 pounds, the area of his

for instance shown convincingly by ],,g at a height of 75 to 100 feet 111 w-ings and body was 4.57 square feet,

analysis that a gull weighing 2.1 SS breezes measuring 5 or 6 miles an the maximum cross section of his

pounds, with a total supporting sur- hour at the surface of the ground hodv was 0.110 square feet and

face of 2.015 square feel, a maxi- a,'d once he saw one buzzard soar- that of his wing edges when fully

mum body cross-section of 0.126 '"8 apparently in a dead calm. extended was 0.244 square feet,

square feet and a maximum cross- The writer vvas fairly baffled. The w- , , d became sur-

section of wing edges of 0.098 bird was not simply gliding utilizing >Xڞ,,/'easy To compute tTe pe-

square feet, patrolling on rigid gravity or acquired momentum, he \orm*Je Uie ^emciVnts of

yinirs (soaring on the weather was actus y circling horizontally 111 };'',. ; cmcients 01

side of a steamer and ma utai ing an defiance of physics and mathematics. L.'''cn'hal ,for various angles of 1.1-

siue 01 a steamer anu maintaining ail ,„,'„'. ,nd ,„i,ni,. K„r;P, cidence and to demonstrate how this

upward angle or attitude of 5° to.7° It took two >ears and a whole seres hujrard ^M 5oar , ; „ in

above the horizon, ,n a wind blowing of further -°»""f"ons '° . bw^g a dead horizontal calm provided'that

12./8 miles an hour which was de- "se two sciences into accord with ;t wM not a vcrtica, ca|m and ha|

fleeted upward 10" to 20° by lhe '''e facts. thc ajr was rW a( th ^ f

side of the steamer (these all being Curiously enough the key to the 4 or 6 miles per hour, the lowest

carefully observed facts), was per- performance of circling 111 a light observed, and quite inappreciable

fectly sustained at its own "relative wind or a dead calm was not found wjthout actual measuring

speed" of 17.8S miles per hour and through the usual way of gathering ' s'

extracted from the upward trend of human knowledge, i. e., through ob- Hie most difficult case is pur-

the wind sufficient energy to over- servations and experiment. These posely selected. For if we assume

come all the resistances, this energy had failed because I did not know that the bird has previously ac-

amounting to 6 44 foot-pound per what to look for. The mystery was, qniied an initial minimum speed

second. It was shown that the same in fact, solved by an eclectic process of 17 miles an hour (24.93 feet per

bird ill flapping flight in calm air, of conjecture and compulation, but second, nearly the lowest measured),

with an attitude or incidence of 3° once these computations indicated and that the air was rising vertically

to 5° above the horizon and a speed what observations should be made 6 miles an hour (8.80 feet per

of 20.4 miles an hour was well sus- the resnlfs gave at once the reasons second), then we have as the trend

tained and expended 5.88 foot-pounds for the circling of the birds, for his of the "relative wind" encountered:

per second, this being at the rate then observed attitude and for the 6

of 204 pounds sustained per horse- necessity of an independent initial = 0.353 or the tangent of 19° 26'

power. It was stated also that a sustained speed before soaring he- 17.

gull in its observed maneuvers, ris- gau. P.otll Mr. Huffaker and my- which brings the case into the cate-

ing up from a pile head on tin self verified the data many times gory of rising wind effects. But

flapping wings, then plunging for- and I made the computations. the bird was observed to have a

negative angle lo the horizon of about 3° as near as could be guessed, so that his angle of incidence to the "lelalive wind" was reduced to lb" 26'.

The relative speed of his soaring « as there fore :

Velocity - V I'2 + 62 ~ 18.03 iniltii per hour.

At this Sjieed, using the Langley cn-t (iicient recently, practically con-lirmed by the accurate experiments (it Air. * Liftel, the air pressure would be—

18.03- x 0.00327 = 1.063 pounds per square fool.

If we apply Lilienthal's co-el-ticients fur an angle of lb0 26', we have for the force in action:

Normal: 4.57 x 1.063 x 0.912 = 4 42 pounds

Tangential: 4.57 x 1.063 x —0.074 - — n.359 pounds which latter, being negative, is a propelling force.

Thus we have a bird weighing 4.25 pounds not only thoroughly supported, but impelled forward by a torce of U.359 pounds, at 17 miles per hour, w hile the experiments of Professor A. F. Zahm showed that the resistance at 15.52 miles per hour w as only 0.27 pounds, or 17=

0.27 x----- = 0.324 pounds at 17

15.522 miles an hour.

These are astonishing results from the data obtained and they lead to the inquiry whether the energy ot the rising air is sufficient to make up the losses which occur by reason ot the resistance and friction of the bird's body and wings, which being rounded do not encounter air pressures in proportion to their maximum cruss-section.

We have no accurate data upon the co-efficients to apply and estimates made by myself proved to be much smaller than the 0.27 pounds resistance measured by Professor Zahm, so that wc will figure with the latter as modified. As the speed is 17 miles per hour, or 24.93 feet per second, we have for the work:

Work done: 0.324 x 24.93 - 8.07 foot-pounds per second.

Corresponding energy of rising air is not sufficient at 4 miles per hour. This amounts to but 2.10 foot-pounds per second, but if we assume that the air was rising at the rate of 7 miles per hour ( 10.26 feet per second), at which the pressure with the Langley cu-efficient would be 0.16 puunds per square foot, we have on 4.57 square feet, for energy of rising air: 4.57 x 0.16 x 10.26 = 7.511 foot-pounds per second, which is seen to be still a little too small, but well within the limits of error, in view of the hollow shape of the bird's w ings, w Inch receive greater pressure than the ilat planes experimented upon by Langley.

These computations were chiefly made in January, 1899, and were communicated to a few friends, who found no fallacy in them, but thought that few aviators would understand them if published. They were then submitted to Professor C. F. Marvin, of the Weather P.ureau, who is well known as a skilful physicist and mathematician. He wrote that they were, theoretically, entirely sound and quantitatively probably as accurate as the present state of the magnitude of wind pressures permitted. The writer determined, however, to withhold pub-

lication until the feat of soaring flight had been performed by man, partly because he believed mat, to ensure satety, it would be necessary that the machine should be equipped witn a motor in order to supplement any deficiency in wind force.

'1 he feat would have been attempted in 19U2 by Wright brothers if tlie local circumstances had been more favorable. Ihey were experimenting on "Kill-jJcvil Hill," near Kitty Hawk, IS. C. This sand lull, about 100 teet high, is bordered by a smooth beach on the side whence come the sea breezes, but has marshy ground at the back. Wright Urol hers were apprehensive that it Ihey rose on the ascending current of air at the front and began to circle 1 ike the birds, they might be carried by the descending current past the back of the hill and land m the marsh. '1 heir gliding machine offered no greater head resistance in proportion than the buzzard and their gliding angles of descent are practically as favorable, but the birds performed higher up in the air than they.

Professor Langley said in concluding his paper upon "The internal ַork of the wind":

"The final application of these principles to the art of aerodromics seems then to be, that while it is not likely that the perfected aerodrome will ever he able to dispense altogether with the ability to rely at intervals on some internal source of power, it will not be indispensable that this aerodrome of the future shall, in order to go any distance— even to circumnavigate the globe without alighting—need to carry a weight of luel which would enable it to perform this journey under conditions analogous to those of a steamship, but that the fuel and weight need only be such as to enable it to. take care of itself in exceptional moments of calm."

Now that dynamic flying machines have been evolved and are being brought under control it seems to be worth wdiile to make these computations and the succeeding explanations known, so that some bold man will attempt the feat of soaring like a bird. The theory underlying the performance in a rising wind is not new, it has been suggested by Penaud and others, but it has attiacted little attention because the exact data and the maneuvers required were not known and the feat had not yet been performed by a man. The puzzle has always been to account for the observed act in very light winds and it is hoped that by the present selection of the most difficult case to explain, i. e., the soaring in a dead horizontal calm, somebody will attempt the exploit.

The following are deemed to be the requisites and man ueu vers to master the secrets of soaring flight:

1st- Develop a dynamic flying machine weighing about 1 pounds per square foot of area, with stable equilibrium and under perfect control, capable of gliding by gravity at angle of one in ten (S%°) in still air.

2nd. Select locations where soaring birds abound and occasions where rising trends of gentle winds arc frequent and to be relied on.

3rd. Obtain an initial velocity of at least 25 feet per second before attempting to soar.

4th. So locate the centre of gravity that the apparatus shall assume

a negative angle, fore and aft, of about 3°. Calculations show, however, that sufficient propelling force may still exist at 0°, but disappears entirely at ~*~ 4°.

5th. Circle like the bird. Simultaneously with the steering incline the apparatus to the side towards which it is desired to torn, so thai the centrifugal force shall be balanced by the centripetal force. The amount of the required inclination depends upon the speed and on the radius of the circle swept over.

6th. Rise spirally like the bird. Steer with the horizontal rudder, so as to descend slightly when going with the wind and to ascend when going against the wind. The bird circles over one spot because the rising trends of wind are generally confined to small areas or local chimneys as pointed out by Sir H. Maxim and others.

7th. Once altitude is gained progress may be made in any direction by gliding downward by gravity.

The bird's flying apparatus and skill arc as yet infinitely superior to those of man, but there are indications that within a few years the latter may evolve more accurately proportioned apparatus and obtain absolute control over it.

It is hoped therefore that, if there be found no radical error in the above computations, they will carry the conviction that soaring flight is not inaccessible to man, as it promises great economies of motive power _ in favorable localities of rising winds.

The writer will be grateful to experts who may point out any mistake committed in data or calculations and will furnish additional information to any aviator who may wish to attempt the feat of soaring.

An American consul in Oceania reports that a person in his district desires to purchase an aeroplane, lie has been deferring purchase awaiting further perfection in the construction of such machines. .Ma mi facturcrs should lay special stress in the literature upon all improved safety features of their air craft. The inquirer is understood to favor the monoplane type. Prices sh nld hi (jnott d cash f. o. b. San Francisco or c. i. f. a certain port in Oceania.

"1 enjoy AERONAUTICS very much, and when my subscription is up my money will be on deck for a renewal."—\V. J. Savannah, Ca.

3Jn fflrmnrtam

377 letters which have been sent to 377 subscribers asking for payment of 377 subscrip-

Aeroplanes, from the scattered and mostly-to-be-doubted reports which percolate through the censors, after being manhandled, pruned, manicured and otherwise treated by the newspaper boards of strategy, seem to be meeting with all the success claimed for them as instruments of reconnaissance. In addition they seem to be able to act in offense and defense upon occasion, when opposing aircraft are to be taken care of.

Of course, machines have been brought down by gunfire, some bombs have been dropped therefrom, pilots or observers have been killed in flight or made prisoners upon descent being forced by arms or by troubles peculiar to aeroplanes in war as well as peace.

One wonders to what purpose the Zeppelins and other airships are being put at the present time, or to \< hich they will be put, as no authentic information is available as to their activities. Some half dozen are said to have been captured or destroyed. The same number is said not to have been captured or destroyed hy the enemy. One may believe whichever story most pleases his imagination.

After it is all over, there will undoubtedly be accurate information made public in so far as its publication will not tend to destroy the value of aircraft in future wars which are still a possibility, judging from past centuries of human nature.

The military aeroplane, according to "Steve" MacGordon, one of the best known of American aviators, says the Sun, lias proved its worth and the European powers are doing their utmost to keep their stock of machines replenished. MacGordon Ins just arrived from a tour of the Continental countries, after being reported as enlisting in the French air fleet. William Thaw was also said to have joined the French air force.

"Information as to just what the aeroplanes were doing in the war w as hard to get in France," said MacGordon. "hut 1 talked with Roland Garros and several military aviators who had been at the front with the French and British armies, and learned enough of what was going on to be sure that the "fourth arm" has not proved a failure. All of them agree that for scouting and range finding the aeroplane is invaluable."

"The Germans are at a disadvantage so far as their aeroplanes are concerned. Most of their machines are of the 'D. F. W.' and 'Taube' types. They are heautiful machines and wonder fullly well built, but speed has been sacrificed for stability and, from the reports that came to me, this has been disastrous.

"The French machines are speedy and can cut circles around the clumsy German planes. If a German machine is seen in the air by the French no attention is paid to it until the officers have decided that the enemy has learned too much. Then two or three fast machines nre =ent out to 'get' the unwelcome visitor, and, although little news has leaked out through official channels, T am certain that they have been 'getting' them.

"To my mind the best machines of all are those huilt in England. Sopwith and Vickers machines have

been shipped to the Continent and are being used by the allied torces. i ne aopwith tabioid type can make lio miics an hour, and the Vickers gun 'uus, armoreu and carrying a gaiiing gun, can fly at US nines. i uu can see what an advantage tins gives ihem over the German marlines, which travel at about 5j nines an hour.

" 1 he reason that so many machines have been struck by bullets, according to tlie French and English army hicrs, is that the pilot has taKcii too many chances."

J ohn Lansing Lallan, w ho went to the Azores last July to await the arrival ot Lieutenant i'orte with the '"America," has arrived from England.

Lallan confirmed the rumor that the "America" had been purchased by the British Admiralty, and from his statements it was apparent that more machines of the same type will be delivered to Great Britain. According to Lallan, it was through the representations of Lieutenant forte that the purchase was determined upon.

Editorially the New York Sun

says:

"Every nation which still believes that something of humanity should be maintained in the usages of warfare should raise its voice against this archdeed of pitiless savagery; against the repetition of such senseless and unforgivable blind massacre" as the dropping of bombs from a Zeppelin upon Antwerp.

In reply to this, the Army and Xavy Journal says, "Captain Boy-Ed, Naval Attache of the German Embassy, defends the attack upon Antwerp by a Zeppelin. Antwerp, he says, is a fortress and must he prepared for bombardment, whether from land or sea or air. The second Hague peace convention has in no way prohibited the use of projectiles from the air. The effect of a bomb from an airship can hardly be worse than that of a shell from a large siege gun, and we must get used to the new idea of carrying war into the air. The non-military population was just as much at liberty to evacuate Antwerp as the population was who left Tsing-tau before Japan bombarded it. While the action of the Zeppelin cruiser in no way was forbidden by the international law. he adds, a French aviator, before uar had been declared, sinned against the Hague peace convention. He threw from his aeroplane bombs into the unfortified and unsuspecting city of Nuernberg. In conclusion he says: 'I believe that the excitement of our enemies over the alleged use of our airship is to be traced to their disappointment for not being able to make war in this most modern way for lack of similarly efficient airship*.'

In a news despatch to the Sun from Amiens, France. Duncan Mc-Diarmid tells of a wounded Scotch private who. in describing the fighting ''somewhere around Mons,'* said: "The German artillery was remarkably precise in its shooting. Zeppelins and aeroplanes were over us all the time, giving the gunners the range, so that the shells werr bursting within two or three feet of where we were in the trenches. Nearly all our wounded were struck by shrapnel."

Other British wounded from the fighting around Mons arrived at

Rouen. There Hamilton Pyfe records one of them as saying: "The German artillery over a range twe or three miles off soon opened on us. Fortunately most of the shells burst behind us and did no harm. Some burst backward and got among us. They kept it up as hard as ever when it was dark. In the daytime they had aeroplanes *o tell them where to drop the shells. They were flying about all the time. Ore came a bit too near. Our gunners a long way behind waited and let him come. Two thousand feet up, he was, I dare say. All of a sudden the gunners let fly. We could see the thing stagger and then goodbye, Mr. Flying Man! He dropped like a stone, all crumpled up."

An Englishman who arrived at London from Belgium and who saw a Zeppelin in action, is reported as saying that for the purpose of dropping bombs the airship ascends to a height which protects it from the range of gunfire and then lowers a steel cage by a cable a distance of 2,000 or 3,000 feet below the dirigible. The soldier whose duty it is to drop the bombs is stationed in this cage, which is strong enough to resist rifle fire and is a difficult mark for artillery because of its small size and because by means of the cable suspending it, it is kept in constant motion.

On September 15 there came the story that Russian artillery put out of commission a Zeppelin which came low over the ground, causing the white flag to be hoisted; after \\ hich, it is claimed, the crew dropped bombs from the surrendered airship and killed 23 persons and caused the wreck of the airship as well before they reached the earth and were captured by the Russians.

On September 14 the press bureau in London issued some new s from Marshal French, commander of the British forces, complimenting British aviators on the precision, exactitude and regularity of the news brought in.

"During a period of twenty days, up to the 10th of September, a daily average of more than nine reconnaissance flights of over 100 miles each has been maintained.

"The constant object of our aviators has been to effect an accurate lucation of the enemy's forces and. incidentally, since the operations cover so large an area, of our own units.

"The tactics adopted for dealing with hostile air craft are to follow them constantly with one or more British machines. This has been so far successful that in five cases German pilots or observers have been shot while in the air and their machines brought to ground. As a consequence the British flying corps has succeeded in establishing an individual ascendancy which is as serviceable to us as it is damaging to the enemy.

"Something in the direction of the mastery of the air already has been gained in pursuance of the principle that the main object of military aviators is the collection of information.

"Bomh dropping has not been indulged in to any great extent. On one occasion a petrol bomb was successfully exploded in a German bivouac at night. whil<* from a diary found on a dead German cavalry

(Continued on Page 6i)

AIRCRAFT IN THE WAR

TRANSMISSION GEAR coupling any kind of motors or en

twines together, and winch assures FOR AEROPLANES means of being able to have reserve power and a cool motor for long A. G. Watkins, of 27 X. Cones- flights, there is another very im-toga street, Philadelphia, has de- portant fact to be considered and vised a plan for using twin motors which should not be overlooked, singly or coupled. The best expert and structural en-

"As I promised, I am sending you blueprints of multiple motor gear. Fig. 1 is a view of same looking down upon it. Fig. 2 shows a side view of double-acting lever that just throws intermediate gear in place and afterward the clutch. Danger of stripping gears in throwing either motor in action while other is running is eliminated, as gears run loose until clutch is put in operation. Gears can also be changed so as to drive the propeller either slowei or faster than the motors run.

"Another thing in favor of such couplings is entire elimination of bevel gears and very little loss of power by friction. In addition to the advantages of this means of

gineers have recognized that a machine built with motors side by side, as in this means, enables the machine to be built with a great deal more stability than as at present, as it distributes the weight that is now placed directly in the center of planes. The right kind of propeller that should be used on machines equipped with this improvement should be one covered with a deposit of copper, and reversible blades for adjusting the different pitches. This improvement for motor boats and hydros, engineers say, is of vast importance, in that by this means they can now use a larger propeller, which does away with slippage and almost doubles speed with practically no vibration."

UNITED STATES BOMB TESTS FINISHED

The bomb aiming and dropping tests which have been going on for many weeks past at the Signal Corps aviation school at San Diego, with the assistance of Riley E. Scott, the winner of the Michelin hornh-dropping prize and inventor of the most successful apparatus in use for the aiming of. hombs from aircraft and the: measuring'of speed over the eartl^^le^iy^Tli^glitj are" now completed. The results of these trials are'Virfg* fc^&tVet.

HAMMONDSPORT NOTES.

Contrary to precedent the Curtiss Training Camp here was closed September 1, and the equipment, instructors, et al. have moved to winter quarters on North Island, near San Diego, Cal. Activity at San Diego this winter will be unprecedented. The United States Army aeroplane competition will be held on North Island, near the Curtiss camp, beginning October 20, This will afford unusual opportunity to see the latest developments in military aeroplanes and in military flying, and partly on account of it the date of the opening of the fall class at the Curtiss camp has been

advanced from November 15 to October 15. A little later in the winter San Diego expects to witness sume of the flying scheduled in connection with the opening oi the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Some of the students now enrolled have expressed the intention of visiting San Francisco for the opening of the exposition. Among those now at the San Diego camp are Glenn H. Curtiss, Raymond V. Morris and Francis Wild-man. Mr. Curtiss expects to give personal supervision to the work at the camp this winter.

Ilammondsport is not entirely bereft of fliers. Baxter II. Adams made a very pretty cross-country flight a few days ago under unusual conditions. Mr. Adams has promised to do some flying in the vicinity of Ithaca, the seat of Cornell University. He elected to fly the 50 miles across the hills and "Finger" lakes, rather than ship around by rail, and proposed to make the trip on Monday. Sunday, however, saw the weather fixing for a week of thunder showers, which developed on Monday into good imitations of cloud bursts. A series of violent thunder storms filled Tuesday morning, but Adams telephoned Ithaca that "rain, shine or cyclone" he would leave Hammondsport at 2 o'clock. At that hour no rain was falling, but the sky was piled high with heavy black clouds and thunder rumbled threateningly not far away. Adams was determined to make the trip, and promptly on the hour he set out. The country he had to fly over was akin to mountainous; all hills, ranging about 2,000 feet in altitude, wooded, and split with rocky gorges. To add variety he had four lakes to cross. Not too good an outlook for a man's first cross-country experience. He had it well planned though. Leaving the Curtiss training camp he flew about 3 miles up the valley and in five minutes was back over the camp, having reached an altitude of about 3,000 feet. The last seen of him here was a tiny speck entering a canon between two cloud mountains. Thirty-five minutes later he "checked in" on the fair grounds at Ithaca all safe and sound. lie had been somewhat confused and flown several miles out of his way just after leaving Lake Keuka, but through rifts in the clouds had recognized Lake YVa-neta below him and altered his course accordingly, lie passed over Lakes Waneta, Lamoka, Seneca and Cayuga on his trip. Adams flies a dinky Curtiss Model D with a 24 foot spread and a Model O-X Curtiss motor. It is practically a duplicate of the machine with which Lincoln Beachey made his first loops.

Yestei day's English mail brought some interesting news regarding Lieut. John C. Forte, who was to have piloted the Rodman Wana-maker transatlantic flying boat. It seems that Ilendon's famous flying field is to be taken over by the navy and The Aeroplane reports on "fairly reliable authority" that Lieutenant Porte, now an officer of the Royal Naval Air Service, will be in command there, assisted by Mr. Richard T. Gates and our old friend .Mr. Claude CrahameAVhite. It also reports that the big Curtiss flying boat huilt hy Saunders for the Circuit of Britain race has passed the official tests very well and has been taken over by the Admiralty,

NEW COMPANIES.

The Omaha Overland Company, Omaha, Neb., is a new corporation filing with the Secretary of State with a capital stock of $10,0U0. The company will do a general business in the manufacture and handling of automobiles, flying machines and similar machines. The incorporators are James Janison and Helen Comp-ton.

THE IDEAL MACHINE AT LAST!

Sept. 1st, 1914. To the Editor, AERONAUTICS, 250 \V. 54th St.,

New York, N. Y. Dear Sir:

I have been looking for t a thoroughly practical flying machine ever since I read of the Wright Brothers' first Dayton flights. Cut I have always felt that there was something lacking in the machines offered for sale. I find in your August 15 issue (p. 41) that my machine lias indicated its possible arrival.

The claims made for this machine are so attractive that 1 am impelled to write to you an open letter on the subject and hope you will put me right if I am wrong.

Claim 1 asserts that the machine leaves the ground or water "at once." This appeals to me very strongly. When I leave the ground, I always like to leave at once. It avoids this feeling of doubt.

Claim 2 also appeals strongly. It says that the machine "alights straight down." I have always favored straightforward practice in all things, and a flying machine which alights straight down is distinctly to my liking, provided, of course, that it does not alight "at once," as is the case when leaving the ground.

Another claim which must appeal to everybody is the fact that this machine is equipped "with all modern conveniences." It also is claimed that everything is "non-collapsible.'* I take it that this non-collapsible feature also applies to the modern conveniences. There are certain of these modern conveniences which it would be distinctly unpleasant to have collapse at the wrong moment.

Another attractive feature is that the machine can he run by twelve > ear old children, and therefore does not need necessarily to be shipped. This is good economy because frequently it happens that a twelve year old child can escape the conductor's attention and get through on a half fare. Thus we would be able to send one of the children for the machine at a reasonable price and he could bring it home as he would a quart of milk.

Another desirable team re is the *peed. Five hundred miles an hour is claimed. This would mean, of course, that it would take an entire hour to go from New York to Buffalo, but on Sunday afternoon this would not be irksome. It would preclude the possibility of running out to Denver for afternoon tea and be back in time for 7 o'clock dinner, unless, of course, we hurried, which is not always pleasant. Still, I think-that considering the other very desirable features, this this speed of 500 miles per hour might be put up with.

very truly, Dowe Ttng Thomas. Hartford, Conn.

PARCELS POST AEROPLANE STAMP.

Has any one noticed the 20 cent parcels post stain])? It hears a Wright aeroplane as a design, with the inscription, "Aeroplane Carrying M ail."

C. M. O. PROPELLERS AND THE "AMERICA."

C. M. O. PHYSICAL LABORATORY, INC. Buffalo, New York. C. M. Olmsted, Ph. D.

President, and

Director of Laboratory,

August 25, 1914. The Editor of AERONAUTICS:

Dear Sir—In an article explaining the postponement of the flight of the "America," in the July 31 AERONAUTICS, the following statement appears: "The special C. M. O. propeller will have a new sheathing of metal better fastened than the original metal cover. It was the tearing loose of the original copper cover, which broke its way through the upper plane, that was largely responsible for the postponement of the start."

While it is complimentary to the efficiency of the Olmsted propellers that they are necessary attachments for the getaway of the "America," it is not entirely fair to the manufacturer to employ the word "original" in describing the copper sheathing which by tearing loose during a trial flight caused a delay. When similar statements appeared in the daily papers at the time of the accident, the writer paid no attention to them, but when appearing in a journal like AERONAUTICS it would seem proper to state that the original metallic sheathings which cover the concave faces of the blades, are still in Al condition and do not show the slightest evidence of weakness or unfitness for the work. The copper sheathing which came loose during a flight was one placed on the back of a blade by the Curtiss Company after purchasing the propellers, anl the work had not been inspected or O. K.'d by anybody connected witil the C. M. O. Physical Laboratory, Inc.

According to agreement, on account of the great rush, the Olmsted propellers were shipped to 11 ammondsport for a trial of the new principle he fore they were finished—that is to say, before they were put into a weather-proof condition by filler, varnish, etc., a process which cannot be rushed. The idea was to utilize for finishing the propellers that time which would he necessary for overhauling and packing the "America," and during which the propellers would otherwise be lying idle.

As everybody who has followed the tests of the "America" knows, the hydroplaning bottom was changed a great many times, and many more trials made than had been originally intended. Consequently the Olmsted propellers, with only "a lick and a promise" for varnish, were put through the tests during which the tips of the blades were sometimes ripping through sheets of water thrown up by the mal-adi listed hydroplaning board. Naturally, the semi-varnished surfaces of the hlades began to weather. Rather than lose time by shipping the propellers to Buffalo

for finishing, the Curtiss Company elected to put on copper sheathings themselves. It was one of these extra piece* of sheathing which broke loose and caused a delay. \ ery truly yours.

Chas. M. Olmsted.

UPSON COVERS 180 MILES.

Ralph H. Upson and party had a rather unusual balloon trip the last week in August. They ascended Sunday morning in a practical calm, but the speed steadily increased to over 50 miles per hour, which took them to a point 12 miles east of Olean, N. Y., a distance of 180 miles in the six hours they were in the air. R. 11. Upson, of the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, was the pilot.

VICTOR VERNON FLIES 150 MILES.

Victor Vernon, owner of a new Curtiss flying boat, and Harvey R. Sidney flew from Bar Harbor, Me., to Kennebunkport Beach, about 150 miles, in 2 hours 2° minutes on Sept. 3, in order to be on hand for the Labor Day celebration. Many passengers w ere carried at both places. Flights were later made at Cornell, Ithaca.

TO BALLOON ACROSS THE CONTINENT.

Albert Carter and J. M. O'Con-nell expect to start October 1 on an attempt to cross the continent, using one large and ten smaller balloons attached together, using the gas from the smaller balloon as needed and cutting them up for ballast.

"By previous experiments," Carter writes. "I am satisfied that at an altitude of 13.000 to 15,000 feet there is practically always a drift to the east or northeast and it is our intention to rise gradually until we reach this current and stay in it as long as possible.

"By using a number of smaller balloons to replenish the gas and make additional ballast we hope to remain in the air four or five days.

"The main hnlloon holds 60,000 cubic feet. Five hold 10,000 each, ami four hold 2,500 each.

"A silk pilot balloon is arranged so that it can be sent up 1 mile above to search out currents going in the right direction and a small rope with occasional streamers can be tct down below same distance, giving us a method of finding out the direction of air currents for a mile above or below without sacrificing gas or ballast, as would be nec-essarv in a single halloon.

"Weather conditions being favov-nble we will start at 2 p. m., and if successful in reaching the eastern current will cross the Sierras somewhere north of Mt. Whitney that afternoon and the Nevada desert the first night.

"Our object is to prove that at Iii ch altitudes there is practically always a current flowing eastward and that to cross the continent in a single flight it is only necessary to reach the proper altitude and stay there four or five days."

Who should have been the first man in the Bible to be connected with aeronautics?

Aaron ought.

—Walter Levick.

29 West 39th Street, New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN.

FIRST GENERAL MEETING.

The hrst general meeting of the society for the winter season will take place on Thursday evening, October 1st. A program in sympathy with the world topic, "The Present War," will introduce a number of specialists who will deliver brief but pointed addresses which have been combined under the general head: "Aerial Offense and Defense in War." In view of the active part aircraft are now taking in actual warfare, these addresses and tlie general discussion which will be allowed to follow them, should evoke very unusual interest. The enter tain men t committee has set itself to secure the attendance of the most instructive and interesting talkers on this subject. The meeting gives every promise of becoming one of the most notable in the history of the society.

AERIAL DERBY.

The society is actively engaged in an effort to perpetuate tlie "Aerial Derby" as an annual classic. This is assured if negotiations betu een the Wright Company and the society come to a successful issue. Aside from this activity, the new special committees on research laboratory, meteorology, aviators' certificates and an important convocation of scientists are busily at work. Tlie present year promises the most successful effort shown since the foundation of tlie Aeronautical Society of America.

THE 1914 YEARBOOK.

The Year Hook of The Aeronautical Society of America has just been issued and will prove of great interest and value to the growing membership of the leading aeronautical organization in America and will doubtless prove a surprise to the press and to tlie general public who have, until now, known tou lit tie of the many and varied accomplishments uf this hard-working organization, the achievements of which will compare most favorably with the activities of other aeronautical organizations in Europe,

The "year hook" is presented in a pocket edition of 43 pages, upon the cuver of which appears a reproduction of the Engineering Societies Building at 29 West 39th St., New York, the headquarters of the Society. The first twelve pages are given up to a list of the Society's officers and directors, illustrations showing the membership certificate, flag, badge of the Society, the va-

rious aviation grounds, club houses and hangars of the Society at Morris Park 1908-9, Mineola 1910-12, Oakwood Heights 1912-14. Important flying meets held by the Society on October 12, 1912; November 4, 1912; May 30, 1913, and October 13. 1913, are referred to and particular attention directed to the Times Aerial Derby, October 13, 1913, in commemoration of tlie first flight by the Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk, December 17, 1903. on which flight five aviators started and completed the course around Manhattan Island without an accident in a 43-mile wind.

Then follows a terse statement of the aims and objects of the Society, a flashlight photograph showing the Societv's first great banquet, held at tlie Hotel Astor, April 27, 1911, which constituted tlie largest and most important gathering ever held of eminent men interested in the science of aerial locomotion. Over 800 members and guests were present, including President Taft and many other most distinguished men in America.

Following this is a reference to AERONAUTICS, the official bulletin of the Society, and it is stated that on February 19, 1914, the Society voted that this representative magazine should be made the official bulletin and organ of the Society and sent free to every member in good standing as one af the benefits of membership in the Society.

< )ther pages present the titles of the various lectures, addresses and debates delivered under the Society's auspices from July, I90S, to July. 1914, and this list, while not complete, shows a record of accomplishments of which any society might well be proud.

Reference is made to the special meeting on December 18, 1913, in commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the first flight by man in a power aeroplane. A copy of the engrossed resolutions presented to Orville Wright, the surviving brother, is shown, as well as a cut of the bronze statue presented to Mr. Wright upon the occasion by the Society. The booklet also includes the constitution and by-laws, reference to the technical board and the data sheets sent to all mom hers in good standing, list of all members, application form and a statement that this pamphlet is issued with a view to assisting the active campaign for new members and all members are requested to send in at once the names of prospective members that they may be included in a new and enlarged edition. There is at present no initiation fee and the dues are ten dollars a year. Copies will be mailed upon request.

AERO SCIENCE CLUB OF AMERICA BULLETIN.

On the 30th day of July, 1914, a hydro contest was held at the Union Course pond, Woodhaven, L, I. The winners were C. V. Obst with a flight of 28 seconds, and D. Cris-cnoli, 26 seconds. Messrs. Obst and Ness gave exhibitions of their "skimmers." Mr, Obst figures that the speed of his skimmer was approximately 35 miles per hour. The judges were M essrs. Durant and Bauer.

About fifteen entries have heen received for the speed contest to be held at Van Cortlandt Park on Sunday afternoon, September 20th. The course over which the speed of the models will be determined is 600 feet. The first prize will be in cash, the second will be an up-to-date publication. The chief judge will be Mr. Edward Durant, Director of the Club, who will be assisted by a starter. Many new and novel model speed machines are now in the course of construction and the contest promises to be a great success. The entry fee for non-members of this club will be 25 cents.

This club desires to acknowledge with thanks the six copies of the aeronautical books donated by Harper & Brothers to be offered as prizes.

Mr. C. 11. Heitman has kindly offered several prizes and in the next bulletin notice of the contest in which these prizes will be given will be stated.

This club meets every Saturday evening at the rooms of the Aeronautical Society, 20 West 39th St., New York City. All persons interested are invited to attend these meetings.

For further information, address the Secretary, Mr. Harry Scbultz.

Lieut. Col. F. II. Sykes, commandant of the British Royal Flying Corps, in bis annual address at the Royal United Service Institution. London, reviewed the progress made in military aviation during the past year and summarized the information gained through experience. Principally he dealt with the factors of safety under the conditions of present aerial flight, and suggested changes in construction of advantage to military aviators. lie advocated the abandonment of flexible wings and the universal addition of flaps or ailerons; the use of more substantial landing gear; increased strength and simplicity in design and construction; experimental work on better means of

communication between aeroplane and aeroplane, and aeroplane and the ground; the standarization of minor parts; the development of a larger type of machine. On the subject of flexible wings Colonel Sykes said: "One cannot consider airworthiness without touching on the question of wing-warping as opposed to flaps. There is no doubt that the continual flicking about of the control lever during a long flight, caused by the self-warping of wings in a wind, has a very tiring effect on the pilot, and further, the warping wing requires more keeping in true than one fitted with flaps. The dismantling and general handling of wings fitted with flaps is, besides, easier, quicker, and less liable to mistake,"

THE OBST FLYING BOAT MODEL

By Harry Schultz, Model Editor

Some few weeks ago the Aero Science Club held the first model flying boat contest. A contest of this kind has been recommended for some time, and this contest was held at the suggestion of Charles Y. Dbst. who won the contest with a flight of IS 4/5 seconds.

The boat is 20 inches long, 1j inches deep, 2'1> inches wide and has two strps. The sides are of 1 /32 inch poplar and cross braces nf birch forming eight com parr ■ ments. It is connected by bamboo strips running up to the main stick and secured thereto by rubber

II is model, which is shown in the accompanying drawing, is of the biplane type.

The main stick is balsa wood, 40 inches long and J-* inch square at the center, tapering towards the tnds. The rear brace or propeller bar is SJ^ inches long and is of bamboo. It is braced by two strips of bamboo running diagonally and the space thus formed is filled in with fabric, thus forming a tail plane.

The upper main plane has a span of 29 inches with a cord of 4 inches and a dihedral angle of 165 degrees. The ribs, entering and trailing edges are of bamboo and the main beam is of spruce. The lower plane is constructed in the same manner except that it is rectangular in shape, and the balancing pontoons are formed on the ends of the plane, as shown. The span of this plane, including the pontoons, is IS inches with a chord of 4 inches. The balancing pontoons are 1V4 inches deep. The planes are separated by a box-like structure of bamboo strips, as shown, and are simply held thereon by rubber bands, so that either plane may be removed at will, without disturbing the position 01 the other.

Situated under the tail plane is a small fin, constructed of bamboo strips and covered with fabric.

bands which take up the shock of landing on the ground or water and prevents damage to the boat.

The boat, planes and fin are covered with silk fibre paper and treated with ambroid, which draws the same taut and makes it waterproof.

The propellers are S inches in diameter, are fitted with bearings of tubing and are driven by fourteen strands of inch flat rubber.

The model rises from the water after a run of about 10 feel and is a very stable flyer.

istics of the model are the peculiarly shaped main plane and tail, the very delicately constructed fuselage and method of bracing the same. The propellers are very fast and effective, raising the model from the water with a run of only 2 or 3 feet. Mr. llerzog's latest model is equipped with propellers of this type and rises to great heights and loops the loop after rising, an almost unbelievable feat for a model to perform.

No. 2. The Mann Monoplane. Perhaps no other model in the world is as well known as the Mann monoplane. The model is the design of K. 1\ Mann, of London, England, and is credited with having performed many remarkable distance and duration flights. At one time it was supposed to have made a flight of 4.300 feet, but upon the rumor being investigated it appeared to have been more or less of a "fairy tale." While the machine is an excellent flyer, any ot the American models of today are vastly superior to it. The chief characteristics of the model are the main plane, which is constructed of piano wire, has only three ribs and is covered in a peculiar manner, and the elevator which is of birch bent to a peculiar "bird-wing" shape. The propellers are of twisted wood 1 birch) and are rather heavy when mm pared with the propellers in universal use today.

(To be continued.)

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

.Tune imports, parts only, totalled, 'planes and parts. $32.26').

Exports for June, 'planes and parts, were $27,590: for 12 months ending June 3D. $226.149.

Exports of foreign built aircraft and parts, for June, $5,156.

Aircraft and parts in warehouse June 31), $5,069.

THE WORLD'S WELL-KNOWN FLYING MODELS.

Xo. 1. Th. 11 erzog Tractor Hydro. This model was constructed by Harry Ilerzog, of New York Citv. a well known model flyer and a former member of the New York Model Aero Club. At the Oak-wood Heights meet, where it litst made its appearance, it pro\ed i's superiority over the other tractor models by winning first prize with a flight of 2S 4/5 seconds, tliis being a world's record for models of this type. The chief character-

Charles Cabanne Crn lie and F. Kay 1-eimkueliler have established an ex jie ri mental station at 5587 ['age Roulevard, St. Louis. Mo. consisting partly of a wind tunnel through which air speeds of 90 miles per hour are planned. Stream lines about surfaces tested will be accurately photographed with the aid of smoke streams introduced into the current. Models of all recognized and useful shapes will be photographed in the various positions and speeds of common practice. Constructors are requested to send accurate diagrams of standard wing section, standard strut, etc.. for test. Special surfaces will he tested free if they fall within the scope of regular work, otherwise a charge will be made covering costs of special test.

Or can our watery walls keep dangers out that fly aloft?—Jasper Fisher, the True Trojans, 1630.

From this quotation it will be seen that it is scarcely correct to describe the seaplane as a new weapon.

[LYING

ll

By HAMEL and TURNER

Large 8vo., cloth, 338 pp.

$3.50 postpaid

The one best practical non-technical book of the year. Recommended to pilots, students, amateurs, prospective purchasers and the casually interested.

AERONAUTICS - 250 W. S4th St.. New York

WE ARE HEADQUARTERS

for model aeroplanes, accessories and supplies Very complete catalog free on request

Wading River Mfg. Co.

Wading River, N. Y.

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WALTER E. JOHNSON SCHOOL OF AVIATION

UP-TO-DATE METHODS

Summer Season at Lake Conesus, Livonia, N. Y. Winter Season in Florida

Superior Traioiog on Dual Hydro and Flying Boat by competent Pilots, under supervision of W. E. Johnson, endurance record holder, formerly instructor of The Thomas Brothers School of Aviation. Three years experieoce as instructor. Thousaods of nights without a hitch!

Write Quickly for reservation in Summer-class to

The Walter E. Johnson School of Aviation

LIVINGSTON INN, LIVONIA, N. Y.

cylERO MART

JOHN WISE—"History and Practice of Aeronautics," by John Wise. We have just secured another copy of this famous, rare work. Cloth, Svo, ill., 310 pp. steel engraving frontispiece. For sale at $10. AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th St.,

MORANE-SAULNIER .— Latest type. Set of detailed working drawings for sale at $200. Sale exclusive. Morane-Saulnier holds best records cross-country and speed flying. Owner of drawings can superintend construction. Address A. F., care AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

BARGAIN IN BOOKS—Will sell following books: Aerial Navigation (Salverda) $1.50; Navigating the Air (Aero Club of America) $.50; Aeronautical Annual, 1895-6-7 (James Means) $5; Travels in Space (Valentine & Thompson) $ .50; Art of Aviation (Brewer) $1.50; Airships Past and Present (Hildebrand) $3; Proceedings Int. Congress Aerial Navigation, Chicago, 1893, $5; various other books

thrown in to purchaser of the lot. L. E. Dare, 216 West 104th St., New York.

FOR SALE—On account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. E. M., 1522 Norwood ave., Toledo, Ohio.

QUICK SALE FOR CASH—Two Curtiss-type double-surface aeroplanes, each with 50-h.p. Roberts motor; both outfits in flying shape; can be seen at any time; everything complete; $600 for the two outfits for quick sale. B., care AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE —Ilatton Tumor's "Astra Castra," the most famous and rarest of all Aviation works. Published in 1865 at 10 dollars. Magnificently illustrated, large quarto, 527 pages, in splendid condition. Will be sent post-free for 24 dollars.

Remittance to be sent to "Astra," care The Editor, "Aeronautics," 170 Fleet st., London (England).

J. C. MARS—Mail held for him can not be delivered on account of removal without leaving forwarding address. Kindly advise AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th st., New York.

AERONAUTICS would be pleased to hear from A. S. Le Vino, Robert Edelstein, Henry W. Walden, Hon. C. O. Browse, Wm. H. Kuhl, American Aeroplane Supply House, Charles XV. Foley, Walter E. Watts, Detroit Aeroplane Co., J. R. Haw-ley News Co., Mose Jacobs, Fred Shneider, A. C. Triaca, Welles & Adams, Harriman Motor Works, T. Brauner, Charles B. Kirkham.

GAS BALLOON for sale; new 35,000 cubic foot balloon; sewed in blocks; varnished; net, valve, appendix, loop, basket, sand bags, $250. E. Jorgensen, 1831 Belmont ave., Chicago, III.

LONG ISLAND AGAIN SEES FLYING

The first of the Fall season ol Week-End Aerial Meets, given under the auspices of local flyers and manufacturers, began with promise. Fully $80,000 was represented in the aeroplanes assembled on the Hempstead Plains aviation field on September 5.

The program opened with a three-circuit flight of the field's course, the total distance being 9.3 miles. The time recorded in this race is to be the handicap rating for the same machine in future events. The Schmitt monoplane, winner of the first prize in the 4th of July race from Governors Island to Spuyten Duyvil and return, was again piloted by Harold Kantner, who, flying at the rate of more than a mile a minute, covered the course in 9 minutes exactly. Albert Ileinrich, who won second prize in the 4th of July race, made the circuit in 11 minutes and 30 seconds. Peter Millman, the "Texan." in a Moisant monoplane, in 12 minutes and 50 seconds; Sid-ne> F. Beckwith, in the Beckwith-Crahtree military tractor, in 13 minutes. A time allowance will he given this machine, it being a biplane; the other contesting machines all monoplanes.

On Labor Day, regardless of a thirty-mile gale that blew across the field. J. Guy Gilpatric, in a Sloane

monoplane, gave a wonderful exhibition of flying under unfavorable conditions. Carl T. Kuhl, in a Kuhl-Baysdorfer biplane, also made a flight in this wind. Harold Kantner made an altitude flight of 3,500 feet in 9 minutes, and Sidney F. Beckwith carried off the "bomb." dropping honors. The Beckwith-Crabtree machine met with a slight accident at the close of the meet, but will be in the contests Saturday.

The first of the "Free Admission" Sundays (which will continue each Sunday during September and Octo-her) brought out 3,000 people to the field.

Five aviators, in five different types of aeroplanes, displayed good accuracy in dropping bombs from an altitude of from 1,500 feet to 3,500 feet, before a large assemblage of people on the Hempstead Plains aviation field. Garden City, Saturday, September 12th.

Carl T. Kuhl. in the Kuhl-Baysdorfer biplane, although a novice at bomb dropping, came within 39 feet of the mark. Harold Kantner, in the famous Schmitt monoplane dropped two bombs, one within 40 feet and the other 42 feet of the mark. This showed a decided improvement over last week, as the homhs dropped on Monday averaged 50 feet of the mark. At present the

target is a large piece of wdiite canvas 20 feet square spread on the ground, but later on the target will represent a small ship, which will be easier for the aviators to see.

Next on the program following the bomb dropping, was the altitude tests. The first aeroplane to make this flight was the Kuhl-Baysdorfer biplane, piloted by Carl T. Kuhl. Me rose to an altitude of 1.S00 feet. Peter C. Millman rose to 2,900 feet and Harold Kantner in the Schmitt monoplane, to 3,400 feet. Millman's Moisant is tlie same type monoplane that the Moisant Intermtional Aviators built for the Mexican Constitu-tinmD. Chas. F. Niles, the loop-the-loop and upside-down flier, is in Mexico at present demonstrating these machines He is expected back at the field in two or three weeks.

Cecil Peoli, in a new type of aeroplane, made the hest landing. From an altitude of 500 feet he shut off his motor and volplaned to within a few feet of the mark. Peoli, who is only 20 years old, a graduate of Captain Baldwin, calls his aeroplane a semi-monoplane, which is really a cross between a biplane and monoplane. It is equipped with a 75-h.p. Rassenher-eer motor.

D. B. Wright.

THE AERONAUTICAL BOOKSHELF

Epitome of the Aeronautical

Annual By James means

In one volume is contained the principal articles from the tbree annuals of 1895, 1896 and 1897, published by Mr. Means. Contains the theories and experiments (if Cayley Wenham, Lilienthal. Maxim, Langley and others, written by themselves. Fundamental facts are given. One of the absolutely necessary volumes. III., 224 pp., $1.12

The Problem of Flight

By HERBERT CHATLEY

A strictly technical book for the engineer.

III., 119 pp., $3.50

The Conquest of the Air

By the Late Prof. A. LAWRENCE ROTCH

A popular but authoritative book on the Ocean of Air, History of Aero-itation. Dirigible Billoon, Flying: Machine, The Future of Aerial Navigation. 111., $1.10

Aerial Navigation

By DR. ALBERT F. ZAHM

In popular terms Dr. Zahm portrays the progress of aeronautics.leavingout unproductiveexpenments. The pilots of today know little of the history of tbe machine they use daily. The percentage of those who are familiar with progress is small. Dr. Zahm writes an absorbing volume which must take its place on every bookshelf.

111., 486 pp., $3.00

Art of Aviation

By ROBERT W. A. BREWER

One of the b*st handbooks on aviation. Semi-technical. A really valuable book for the amateur, experimentor and pilot. 111., 266 pp., $3.50

Langley Memoir on Mechanical

Bird-flight as the Basis of

Aviation By GUSTAV LILIENTHAL

Covers the gliding work of <).

ind G. Lilienthal.

III., 166 pp.. $2.50

The Aeroplane in War

By C. GRAHAME WHITE and H. HARPER

A hook with prophecies of the future. 111., $3.00

Experiments in Aerodynamics By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY

This with the other Langley book forms the keystone of the aeronautical library. Purely technical. Details of the experimental machines of Professor Langl«*y. The

indispensable book.

III. $1.50

Indispensable Books

Langley's Langley's '

'MEMOIR" EXPERIMENTS"

Maxim's "ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL FLIGHT"

Loening's "MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES"

Means' "EPITOME"

Brewer's "ART OF AVIATION"

Hay ward's "PRACTICAL" AERONAUTICS

Flight

By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY and CHARLES M. MANLY

In this ponderous volume is found additions to Professor Langley's previous work and contains wonderful photo- graphs and scale drawings of all of the models and the engine* constructed and tested by Langley and his assistant, Mr. Manly. The mathematician will delight in the formulae and the practical man will find a vast amount of data. One of the scant dozen "best books."

Handsomely ill., 4to, 320 pp., $2.50

Curtiss Aviation Book

By GLENN H. CURTISS and AUGUSTUS POST

A popular book. Describes Curtiss' flights, his early life, how he planned and worked out his machine—close view of the man. Other chapters by Lt. Paul Beck. Lt. Ellyson and Hugh Robinson. 111., 307 pp., $1.49

Artificial and Natural Flight

By SIR HIRAM MAXIM

Concise history of development of flying machines and Maxim's own experimental work. There are but few worth-while technical hooks on aviation. This is one. Ills., 172 pp., $1.76

Monoplanes and

By GROVER

anes c. loening

Covers design, construction and operation. The author has taken the work of the best known ex peri men tors and analyzed the results, comparing them and averaging. Another necessary book. III., 345 pp.. $2.50

How to Build an Aeroplane

By ROBERT PETIT

A handbook for the young man in school, or beginning building for amusement. A semi-technical book, simply written. 111., 131 pp., $1.50

Building and Flying an Aeroplane »y chas. b. hayward

A practical handbook, covering construction of models, gliders and power machines. III., 160 pp., $1.00

Practical Aeronautics

By CHAS. B. HAYWARD

Treatise on Dirigibles, Aeroplanes, Motors, Propellers, Practice, Future, etc. III., 800 pp.. $3.50

AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

AIRCRAFT IN THE WAR (Continued from Page 55)

soldier it has been discovered that a high explosive bomb, thrown at a cavalry column from one of our aeroplanes, struck an ammunition wagon, resulting in an explosion which killed fifteen of the enemy."

The Sun records a dispatch stating that on September 8 the French, in retreating, left behind 30 aero-plants for the (iermans.

Rifle hullets penetrating the surfaces of reconnoitering aeroplanes seem to produce but a faint quivering of the machine and affect its flying not a whit. F.ullets have been reported as having disabled motors and the pilots have heen able, when not too far from the home camp, io glide to safety.

Apparently bombs have as much ilifficultv in achieving results as does AERONAUTICS in collecting accounts. I'.ombs were dropped on Paris on two occasions, but little damage has Ix en reported. French aviators pursuing were unable to overtake the Herman machine. On one occasion, it is claimed, one machine was brought down and the aviators killed. Another story is that one machine was found on the outskirts, but the aviator was missing.

There are many reports of aviators having been killed by shots from the ground. The consensus of opinion on bombs seems to be that little damage is done.

A scheme for "mining the air" at night with kites and small balloons, with bombs attached, is suggested in daily papers by a "mem-

ber of the General Staff of the U. S. Army."

A third ascent uver Antwerp by a Zeppelin is said to have been frustrated by Belgian marksmen whose bullets "made a picket fence of steel almost a mile high." A few days before bombs had been dropped, which damaged several houses and "slightly wounded" ten or twelve persons.

None of the < ierman aeroplanes which has been flying nver Paris has heen brought down directly over the city by the French marksmen, it is cabled.

This fact may be due to the fact that aemplanes are armored, but expert? say that it more probably is due to the fault of the marksmen in aiming straight for the object, which is mnving from 20 to 30 \ards a second. It is calculated that it takes a missile from three tn five seconds to reach an aeroplane at the height of from one to two thousand yards, hy which time the object would have moved a lum-drtd and fifty yards.

The experts advise, therefore, firing salves in advance of the line of flight under orders of men understanding hnllistic science.

A ['nitcd Press correspondent writes from Tier! in of an interview he had with a German soldier wounded In the storming of Liege:

" The world has yet to learn of the fighting power of our Zeppelins. I saw one at work at Liege. It was the dropping of explosives on the

forts there that started their downfall."

"If you ask Dame Frochard," says the Sun correspondent at Antwerp, "what she thinks of the success of aeroplanes or dirigibles in warfare, she says:

" 'Well, they are very noisy, but 1 don't think they'll kill many people. I never heard such a noise in my life when our roof blew off, but the bomb seemed to explode upward. I wonder that it didn't blow back and hit the balloon.'

"It happened on the night of August 24. Dame Frochard and the children lia\"c rooms on the second floor of a nam.w three-story building right in the centre of town. Half a h 1 o c k away is Antwerp's Wall Street and Stock Exchange. IJne block in another direction is the palice of King Alhert.

"One bomb was for the palace, where the King and Queen are sleeping. It hit within a block of the building. Their hotnh hit the roof where 1 lame Frochard slept.

"The explosion aroused the city. Four more followed in different parts of the town in quick succession. Evidently the Zeppelin was circling over the town. The Belgian* told me that ten persons were killed in four different sections of town that night."

(hi Septemher 2 it was reported a new Zeppelin had been finished to take the place of one said to have been captured bv the French. The same day a denial was issued from Berlin stating that no dirigibles had heen shot down or otherwise lost.

AERODYNAMICAL LABORATORIES (Continued from Page 52)

original the distinction of bemg the only apparatus in the world upon which can be measured the three forces and three couples exerted on a mode] when placed oblique to the wind in any attitude. The investigation of the rolling, pitching and jawing movements for an aeroplane when side slipping is of especial interest in considering stability. The European laboratories, with the single exception of the English and possibly that of the Vienna Hoch Schule, confine their work to experiments with the wind in the axis nf the model.

The laboratory is ;n charge of Assistant Naval Constructor J. C. 1 Innsaker, V. S. Navy, detailed for 'his dutv bv the Secretary of the Navv. with [>. YY. Douglas, S.B., as assistant.

Research is conducted by students in aeronautical engineering and naval ai chitecture. At present Assistant Naval Constructors II. E. Rossel and C. L. Brand, U. S. Navy, are temporarily attached to the staff of the laboratory for the purpose of conducting a research in aeroplane stability,

The laboratory is supported out of the general funds of the Institute of Technology, and consequently is to be used primarily for teaching the principles of aerodynamics and to afford data for students for use in design problems.

The laboratory is also available for use by private constructors and inventors, who are invited to submit prnhlems for investigation. It is hoped by charging a moderate fee to defray in part the expenses

of general research for the benefit of the art.

Aside from wind-tunnel investigations, question of stability will be studied by large models self-propelled in the open air. For this no special equipment is required, beyond the facilities of the very complete wood-working and machine shops of the Institute. One large model is now under construction bv students. No research on gasoline motors is under way at the present time, but facilities for making tests on economy and efficiency of motors will be provided when funds are available.

Lieut. II. C. Richardson is in charge of the LT. S. Government w iml tunnel at the Washington Navy Yard.

A REVIEW OF AERONAUTICAL PROGRESS

(Continued from Page 51)

of aeroplanes in this country by the Wrights and Curtiss, and abroad by Bleriot, Far man and others almost equally well know n, are all matters of recent journalistic accounts. When the trans-Atlantic flight, which is now being planned, has become an accomplished fact, mankind will have witnessed the conquest of the last of the three elements—land, water and air which has so long defied his utmost endeavor, and the possibilities nf this conquest are almost beyond de-

scription. The rapid development of the past few years has heen but the beginning of a greater progress w Inch the future hulds for aeronautic*.

THE AEROPLANE HAZARD.

The Compensation Inspection Rating Board has computed the aviation hazard of employes of aeroplane manufacturers and fixed the

rate at 48.06 per cent of the payroll, with a minimum of $1 000 per employe. The board's bulletin contains the following:

"New Classification: To be inserted in manual:

"Aeroplane Manufacturers—Operation and demonstration, 4S.60 per cent. Minimum premium $1,000 for ea"ch employe engaged in operation and demonstration."

This is the highest rate in the compensation rate manual.

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics

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.IER0X.IUT1CS, Sept. 15. 1914. Paijc b7 STABILITY OF AEROPLANES*

By ORVILLE WRIGHT, B.S., LL.D., Member of The Franklin Institute

The subject of "Stability of Aero- as soon as the machine begins to acting in the opposite direction tu

planes" is too broad to permit of a move forward, the center of pres- that of the center of resistance, a

discussion of all of its phases in one sure, instead of remaining at the variation in the quantity of any one,

evening. I shall, therefore, confine center of the surfaces, as was the or of all, of these forces will not in

myself more particularly to a few case when descending vertically, itself have a disturbing effect on the

phases of the fore-and-aft or longi- moves toward that edge of the sur- equilibrium about the lateral hori-

tudinal equilibrium. In learning to face which is in advance. The cen- zonta] axis. But these forces in the

fly. the beginner finds most difficulty ter of gravity being located at the ordinary flying machine do not act

iii mastering the lateral control; it center of the surface and the center in the same line. Usually the center

is his lack of knowledge of certain of pressure in advance of the center of thrust is high in order to give

features of the fore-and-aft equilib- of the surface, a turning moment is proper clearance between the pro-

riuni that leads to most of the seri- created which tends to lift the front pellers and the ground; the center

ous accidents. These accidents are of the machine, thus exposing the of gravity is low to enable the ma-

tlie more difficult to avoid because surfaces at a larger angle of inci- chine to land without danger of be-

they are due to subtle causes which dence and at the same time to a ing overturned; and the center of

the flyer does not at the time per- greater resistance to forward move- resistance is usually between the

ceive. ment. The momentum of the ma- centers of thrust and gravity. When

. , chine, acting through its center of a flying machine is traveling at uni-

A flying machine must be balanced gravjtv below the center of forward form speed the propelling forces ex-in three directions: about an axis re5j5tancej combines with the for- actly equal the resisting forces. In fore and aft in its line of motion; ward center 0f pressure in causing case' the thrust of the propellers is about an axis extending in a lateral t]]e surface t0 be rotated about its diminished by throttling the motor, direction from tip to tip of the iaterai axjs_ The machine will take the momentum of the machine act-wings, and about a vertical axis. an upv,ard course until it finally ing below the center of resistance The balance about the lateral axis is comes to a standstill. The rear edge carries the lower part of the ma-referred to as fore-and-aft or longi- 0f ,he surfaCe will now be below chine along faster than the upper tudinal equilibrium; that about the t])at of the from edge and t])e ma_ part| and the surfaces thus will be fore-and-aft axis as lateral equilib- chine w;n begin t0 sii(ie backward, turned upward, producing a greater num, and that about the vertical The cenler 0f pressure immediately angle and a greater resistance. The axis is generally referred to as steer- reverses an(] travels towards the same effect is produced if the ma-mg, although its most important rear e(]ge ot t|le surface| which now chine be suddenly struck bv a gust function is that of lateral equilib- ;n ,be backward movement has be- of wind of higher velocity from in num. come the front edge. The center of front. The thrust of its propellers

re .i,» „ i „,„„„„ „f gravity again being back of the cen- will be temporarily slightly de-

If the center of support of an * 0f pressure, the advancing edge creased, the resistance due to the

aeroplane surface would remain lixed o{ 'surface wil] be lifted as be- greater wind pressure will be in-

at one point, as is practically be ^ dulunI effect of the creased, and the momentum of the

case in marine, vessels and in bal- v repeated. A fly- machine (the center of gravity being

loons and airships equilibrium ^ I of low) will in this case also turn th?

«..uld be a simple matter. ,ut the | . surfaces upward to a larger angle,

location of the center of pressure » ■> to maimain „5 equilibrium> While these variations in the forces

on an aeroplane surface changes oscjiia,e back and forth in this acting in the horizontal line have of

with every change in the angle at man))er j, ; fi „ f „ he themselves a certain amount of dis-

wnch the air sti ikes the surface. nd turbing effect, yet it is from the

At an angle of 90 deg. it is located s changes of incidence which they in-

approximately at the center of the It will |]ave been observed from troduce that one encounters the

surface. As the angle becomes less, the foregoing that the equilibrium greatest difficulty in maintaining

the center of pressure moves for- in ,he horizontal plane was disturbed equilibrium, ward. On plane surfaces it con- by two turning moments acting about

tinues to move forward as the angle tbe lateral horizontal axis of the The two principal methods used in

decreases until it finally reaches the machine; one produced by the force preserving fore-and-aft equilibrium

front edge. But on cambered sur- 0f gravity and the lift of the surface have been, first, the shifting of

faces the movement it imt i-nnt,n- - . >■ ~ . , ..

r-,,.*,*. ,i. m„ , . wl giimy aim uic uii 01 me suriace ""vt uccu, nisi, wie smiling or

faces the movement is not contin- acting ;„ different vertical lines, and "eight so as to keep the center of

uous. After a certain critical ang e the other by the center of momen- gravity in line with the changing

He end 'S.t," ^ V ]' ang r tum and the cemer °f resistance center of lift; and, second, the utili-

, .- —-° - luni dim me ccnier 01 resistance s-cmci ui int. aim, seconu, tne utlll-depends upon the particular form of acting in different horizontal lines. zation of auxiliary surfaces, known the surface the center of pressure . , , as elevators, to preserve the position moves backward with further de- It is evident that a low center of 0f the center of pressure in line with crease in angle until it arrives very gravity is a disturbing instead of a a fixed center of gravity The first close to the rear edge. At angles correcting agent. The ideal form nleti,0j has been found impracticable ordinarily used in flying, angles of of flying machine would be one in on account of the impossibility of .1 deg. to 12 deg., the travel of the which the center of gravity lies in shifting large weights quickly enough-center of pressure is in this retro- the line of the center of resistance fhe second method is that used in grade movement and is located, ac- to forward movement and in the nlost "0f the flying machines of to-cording to the angle of incidence, at line of thrust. In practice this is day points between 30 per cent, and SO not always feasible. Flying ma-

per cent, back of the front edge of chines must be built to land safely Flying machines of this latter type

the surface. The location of the as well as to fly. A high center of should have their auxiliary surfaces

center of pressure on any given gravity tends to cause a machine to located as far as possible from the

surface is definitely fi.xed by the an- roll over in landing. A compromise main bearing planes, because the

gle of incidence at which' the sur- is therefore adopted. The center of greater the distance the greater is

face is exposed to the air. gravity is kept high enough to be the leverage, and consequently the

but a slight disturbing factor in smaller the amount of surface re-the placing of the center of grav- flight and at the sarne time not so quired. The auxiliary surfaces are lty of the machine below its center ]ligh as to interfere in making safe usually placed either in front or in of support appears, at first glance, landings. the rear of the main supporting sur-to he a solution of the problem of faces, since they act with greater ef-equilibrium. This is the method The three forces acting on an ncjency in these positions than when used in maintaining equilibrium in aeroplane in the direction of its line placed* above or below, marine vessels and in balloons and of motion are the thrust of the pro-airships, but in flying machines it pellers. the momentum or inertia of With a view to high efficiency, no has the opposite of the desired ef- its weight, and the resistance of the part of either the main surfaces or feet. If a flving machine consisting machine to forward travel. If trav- the auxiliary surfaces should be e.x-of a supporting surface, without eling in any other than a horizontal posed on their upper sides in a way elevator or other means of balancing, course, a component of gravity in to create downward pressures. One were descending vertically as a the line of motion will have to be pound of air pressure exerted down-parachute, the center of gravity ver- reckoned with. When these forces uard costs as much in propelling ticallv beneath the center of support are exerted in the same line, with power as two pounds of downward would maintain its equilibrium. But the centers of thrust and momentum pressure produced by actual weight

* Presented at the stated meeting of the Franklin Institute held Wednesday, May 20, 1914, when Dr. IVright received the Institute Elliott Cresson Medal in recognition of the epoch-making -ork accomplished by him in establishing on a practical basis the science and arf of aviat\q\\.

carried. This is due to the fact that the total pressure on an aeroplane is not vertical, but approximately normal to the plane of the surface. This pressure may be resolved into two forces, one acting in a line parallel with the direction of travel, and the other at right angles to the line of travel. One is termed *iift' and the other "drift." With a given aeroplane surface, the drift and lift for any given angle of incidence always bear a definite ratio to one another. This ratio varies from 1 to 12 to 1 to 1, according to the angle of incidence and the shape of the surface. On an average it is about 1 to 6. so that the thrust required of the propeller in the ordinary flying machine is approximately one-sixth of the weight carried. When traveling on a horizontal course the lift is vertical and is exactly equal to the total weight of the machine and load-This load may be real weight, or it may be partly real weight and partly downward pressures exerted on parts of the surfaces. For every pound of weight carried, a thrust of approximately one-sixth pound is required. If, however, instead of real weight a downward air pressure is exerted on some part of the machine, this downward pressure must be overcome by an equal upward pressure on some other part of the machine, to prevent the machine from descending. In this case the horizontal component of the one pound downward pressure will be about one-sixth pound, and the horizontal component of the compensating upward pressure also will be about one-sixth pound, making a total of one-third pound required in thrust from the propellers, as compared with one-sixth pound thrust required by one pound actual weight carried. It is, therefore, evident that the use of downward air pressures in maintaining equilibrium is exceedingly wasteful, and, as far as possible, should be avoided. In other words, when the equilbrium of an aeroplane has been disturbed, instead of using a downward air pressure to depress the elevated side, an upward pressure should be utilized to elevate the low side. The cost in power is twice as great in one case as in the other.

The dynamically less efficient system of downward air pressures is used to some extent, however, on account of its adaptability in producing more or less inherently stable aeroplanes. An inherently stable aeroplane may be described as one in which equilibrium is maintained by an arrangement of surfaces, so that when a current of air strikes one part of the machine, creating a pressure that would tend to disturb the equilibrium, the same current striking another part creates a balancing pressure in the opposite direction. This compensating or correcting pressure is secured without the mechanical movement of any part of the machine.

The first to propose the use of this system for the fore-and-aft control of aeroplanes was Penaud, a young French student, who did much experimenting with model aeroplanes in the 70's of the last century. His system is used only to a slight extent in the motor-driven aeroplanes of to-day, on account of its wastefulness of power and on account of its restriction of the manoeuvring qualities of the machine.

Penaud's system consists of a main bearing surface and a horizontal auxiliary surface in the rear fixed at a negative angle in relation to the main surface. The center of gravity is placed in front

of the center of the main surface. This produces a tendency to incline the machine downward in front, and to cause it to descend. In descending, the aeroplane gains speed. The fixed surface in the rear, set at a negative angle, receives an increased pressure on its upper side as the speed increases. This downward pressure causes the rear of the machine to be depressed till the machine takes an upward course. The speed is lost in the upward course, the downward pressure on the tail is relie\ed, and the forward center of gravity turns the course again downward. While the inherently stable system will control a machine to some extent, it depends so much on variation in course and speed as to render it inadequate to meet fully the demands of a practical flying machine.

In order to secure greater dynamic efficiency and greater manoeuvring ability, auxiliary surfaces mechanically operable are used in present flying machines instead of the practically fixed surfaces of the inherently stable type. These machines possess the means of quickly recovering balance without changing the direction of travel and of manoeuvring with greater dexterity when required. On the other hand, they depend to a greater extent upon the skill of the operator in keeping the equilibrium. It may be taken as a rule that the greater the dynamic efficiency of the machine and the greater its possibilities in manoeuvring, the greater the knowledge and skill required of the operator.

If the operator of a flying machine were able to "feel" exactly the angle at which his aeroplane meets the air, 90 per cent, at least r*f all aeroplane accidents would be eliminated. It has been the lack of this ability that has resulted in so large a toll of human lives. Instruments have been produced which indicate closely the angle of incidence at which the machine is flying, but they are not in general use. Nor does the average flyer realize how exceedingly dangerous it is to be ignorant of tbis angle. Most of the flyers are aware that "stalling" is dangerous, but do not know when they really are "stalling."

A flying machine is in great danger when it is flying at its angle of maximum lift. A change either to a smaller or a larger angle results in a lesser lift. There is this important difference, however, whether the angle be increased or decreased. While a smaller angle gives less lift, it also has less drift resistance, so that the machine is permitted to gain speed. On the other hand, the larger angle gives not only less lift but encounters a greater resistance, which causes the speed of the machine to be rapidly checked, so that there is a double loss of lift—that due to angle and that due to a lesser speed.

The maximum lift is obtained in most flying machines at some angle between 15 deg. and 20 deg. If the machine be gliding from a height with the power of the motor throttled or entirely turned off, and the operator attempt to turn it to a level course, the speed of the machine will soon be reduced to the lowest at which it can support its load. If now this level course be held for even only a second or two, the speed and the lift will be so diminished that the machine will begin to fall rapidly.

The center of pressure on a cambered aeroplane surface at angles greater than 12 deg. to IS deg.

travels backward with increase of angle of incidence, so that wben a machine approaches the "stalled angles, the main hearing surfaces are generally carrying practically all of the weight and the elevator practically none at all. Under these conditions the main surfaces fall more rapidly than does the rear elevator. The machine noses downward and plunges at an exceedingly steep angle toward the earth. This plunge would tend to bring the machine back to normal speed quickly were the machine flying at its usual angle of incidence. But at the large angles of incidence the drift is a large part of the total pressure on the surfaces, so that, although plunging steeply downward, speed is recovered but slowly. The more the operator tries to check the downward plunge by turning the elevator, the greater becomes the angle of incidence, and the greater the forward resistance. At ordinary stalled angles the machine must descend at an angle of about 25 deg. with reference to the horizontal in order to maintain its speed. If the speed be already below that necessary for support, a steeper angle of descent will be required, and considerable time may be consumed before supporting speed can be recovered. During all this time the machine is plunging downward. If the plunge begins at a height of less than 200 or 300 ft., the machine is likely to strike the ground before the speed necessary to recover control is acquired.

The danger from "stalling" comes in the operator attempting to check the machine's downward plunge by turning the main bearing surfaces to still larger angles of incidence, instead of pointing the machine downward, at a smaller angle of incidence, so that the speed can be recovered more quickly. It is safe to say that fully 90 per cent, of the fatal accidents in flying are due to this cause. Most of the serious ones occur when, after long glides from considerable heights, with the power of the motor reduced, an attempt is made to bring the machine to a more level course several hundred feet in the air. The machine quick ly loses its speed and becomes "stalled." All of us who have seen the novice make a "pancake" landing have seen the beginning of a case of "stalling" which might have been fatal had it taken place at a height of 100 or 200 ft.

The greatest danger in flying comes from misjudging the angle of incidence. If a uniform angle of incidence were maintained, there would be no difficulty in fore-and-aft equilibrium. As has already been stated, for any given surface and any given angle of incidence, the position of the center of pressure is fixed. Under these conditions, if the center of gravity were located to coincide with the center of pressure and a uniform angle of incidence maintained, the machine would always be in equilibrium.

It is in accordance with this principle that experiments the past year have brought about a considerable advance in the development of automatic stability. A small horizontal wind vane is so mounted on the machine as to ride edge-wise to the wind when the machine is flying at the desired angle of incidence. In case the machine varies from the desired angle, the air will strike the vane on either its upper or lower side. The slightest movement of the vane in either direction brings into {Continued on page 78)

CURTISS MODEL "J" TRACTOR BIPLANE

The Curtiss Model "J" and Model "J-2" tractor biplanes have been developed to meet the 1914 specifications of the United States Army, and several of the Model "J" have already been adopted and are in use by the Signal Corps at San Diego, after demonstrations by Raymund V. if orris.

These models can be furnished as land machines or as hydroaeroplanes.

section is crosswired in three directions. The third and fourth vertical struts are placed so as to act as wing struts, and they have extensions running to the upper surface.

The streamline effect is preserved throughout by enclosing the front of the fuselage, with motor and mountings, in a cowl of Duralumin, slotted to admit air to the motor. Streamline cowls protect the cockpits and

sengers, 2; fuel capacity, 4 hours; speed range, loaded, 45-75 m.p.h.; climbing speed, 400 ft. p.m.: price f. o. b. Hammondsport, $7.500; hydroplane equipment, extra. $500.

Model "J-2"—Span—Lower plane, 30 ft.; upper, 24 ft.; chord, 60 in.; ailerons (4), 7x2 ft.; length over all, 24 ft.; rudder area, 16 sq. ft.; flippers, 16 sq. ft.; area fixed tail surfaces. 30 sq. ft.; number passen-

 

r73

-■sr.

&&&&&

MODEL '"J," RECONNAISSANCE TYPE.

Model **.(" tractor is arranged for pilot and observer, seated in tandem, and is equipped with double controls, so that either man may take charge. With Curtiss Model O-X 90-100 h.p. motor, it has an extreme flying range of from 40 to 90 miles per hour, carrying two men and four hours' fuel. Flying light. Lieut. Goodier climbed 1,000 ft. in 1 minute; fully loaded, its guaranteed climbing speed ie 2,000 ft. in 6 minutes.

MODEL '֊-2.*' FAST SCOUT TYPE.

Model "J-2" Curtiss tractor is a single-seated speed scout, as fast a biplane of its horse power as ever has been produced, hut still substantial enough to stand up well under the stress of hard service. With Model O-X Curtiss motor, the "J-2" tractor lias more of a range.

The wings of both these models are of latest approved section, one-piece type. Wing frames are built up carefully of ash and spruce, with beams shaped and grooved by hand, important joints copper strapped, the whole securely stayed with piano wire. Covers are of unbleached linen, thoroughly coated with our own water and oil-proof preparation. Model "J" wings have a spread of 40 ft. 2 in. for the upper surfaces, and 30 ft. for the lower surfaces; the area of lifting surface is approximately 350 sq. ft. Model "J-2" wings have a span of 24 ft., upper and lower alike, and an approximate area of 240 sq. ft.

The fuselage is of rectangular section, 26 in. wide by 35 in. high at the cockpit, tapering to nothing at the rudder. The longerons are ash strips, 1J4 in- in diameter, tapering to 1 in. The fuselage is corner braced with nine sets of struts, which are joined with corner clamps without piercing the longerons. Each

deflect the wind from the pilots, as well as shield from the weather the dashboards on which the instruments are mounted. Behind the cockpits the fuselage is covered with waterproofed linen.

The Curtiss Model O-X motor is mounted on engine beds of laminated ash and spruce 2 in. x 3 in. in diameter. It is fastened in front to a plate of 3-32 in. steel, which joins the longerons, and also carries the radiator. The rear ends of the engine beds are mounted on a hardwood cross member framed into the second pair of vertical struts of extra size.

The fuselage is supported by an undercarriage consisting of three supporting struts on each side, borne on two streamlined wire wheels. The tires are 26 in. x 5 in. Wheels are attached with rubber band shock absorbers. Protection from an upset in case of an unusually hard landing is afforded by two white oak skids, 6 ft. long, turned tip in front; they also help shield the propeller. The tail skid is of white oak and sprung on with rubber bands.

Turn-up ailerons 10 ft. in length by 2 ft. wide are attached to the trailing edge of the upper surface on Model "J" tractor. Model "J-2" has turn-up ailerons on both upper and lower surfaces. These are 7 ft. long by 2 ft. wide. The vertical rudder has an area of 30 in. x 36 in., is well secured to the stern post, and is double wired. Horizontal rudders, or flippers, have an area of 16 sq. ft. Either the Curtiss system of control, consisting of shoulder yoke and steering wheel, or the Deperdusshi system, with foot bar, can be provided with these models.

General dimensions are:

Model "J"—Span, lower plane, 30 ft.; upper, 40 ft. 2 in.; chord, 60 in.; ailerons (2), 10 x 2 ft.; length over all, 26 ft. 4 in.; rudder area, 16 sq. ft.; flippers, 16 sq. ft.; area fixed tail surfaces, 30 sq. ft.; number pas-

gers, 1; fuel capacity, 3 hours; speed range, loaded, 45-80 m.p.h.; climbing speed, 500 ft. p.m.; price f. o. b. Ilammondsport, $7,500; hydroplane equipment, extra, $500.

JACQUITH MAKES GOOD FLIGHT.

On Sept. 21 the Curtiss flyer Jac-quith, with passenger, K. F." Patterson, flew from Seaside Park to Atlantic City, about 62 miles, in 1 hr. 3 min., in a Curtiss flying boat.

MOISANT MOVES.

The Moisaut International Aviators have moved their office from 1790 Broadway to the factory at Thompson and Fiske avenues, Win-field, Long Island, N. Y.

It is of interest to note that a wonderful exhibition of looping-the-loop and upside down flying by Niles at the Trenton fair failed to attract, as one-third of the people were watching a vaudeville performance on the ground the same time Niles was performing in the air.

La Liberte, according to a Paris despatch, declares that cage birds, especially canaries, never fail to signal the presence of an airship or aeroplane "by giving a cry of surprise." The paper suggests that they should be used as watch birds.

It is suggested that British sportsmen should make up parties for aircraft fighting and for just one season ieave the duck and the woodcock alone.—Army and Navy Journal.

Harry Bingham Brown was married on October 7th. No more flying for H. B. B.

THE "STECO" AEROPLANE

The "Steco" aeroplane, designed liy James S. Stephens, was built ill the spring of 1911 from drawings prepared in the latter part of 1910. These drawings were submitted to and approved by the late Octave Chan ute.

"At the time no biplane had been built without a front elevator or w it h a tractor propeller; that the wing section is practically the same as one of the most efficient forms evolved by the Ei ffel experiments during the past few months, and that the machine embodies in its design and construction all of the features that have been developed during the past four year& which tend to make the dying machines more efficient and stable."

The supporting surfaces of this machine are arranged so that it is naturally stable, both longitudinally

up, turning it to the right or left for steering horizontally, as with a bicycle.

The attachment of a single controlling surface and its movement in performing the functions of steering are such that it acts to automatically compensate the tilting of the machine when turning, accomplishing the same result as the reverse movement of a vertical rudder, as covered by the Wright patent, claims over which there has been so much controversy. My a tilting motion of the handle bar, the steering plane may be rocked in either direction and used as an auxiliary balancing device manually controlled, this tilting motion aiding more or less or counteracting the effect of the steering of the machine upon its normal balance. ' This single surface is supported on a bearing located near its center,

swing freely out toward the outer end of the planes, but not inwardly further than to be in line with the forward motion of the machine when flying straight ahead.

These balancing planes co-operating with the form of the outer ends of the wings, maintain the proper angle of the machine when turning, so that it will not skid outwardly for want of sufficient banking, or slide inwardly and downwardly from over-banking, their operation being somewhat similar to a check valve on each end of the wings of the machine.

If the machine in turning starts tu skid outward, the balancing plane on that end of the wings acts as a check to the motion of the machine in that direction and in conjunction with the form of the wings and their relative dihedral angles, creat-

and transversely; this is accomplished by an adaptation of the principal of the Zanonia leaf, a form that has also been taken advantage of in the design of the "Dunne," a liritish development, and the "Et-rich" aeroplane of Germany. Additional features aiding in the natural stability of this machine are the staggering of the wings, the upper plane being located forward of the lower, and also having a slightly increasing angle of incidence, a combination of these features in conjunction with the transverse form of the planes, giving the maximum of natural stability when flying.

All of the supporting surfaces of this machine are fixed, thus permit-ling permanent construction and bracing not affected by warping or twisting while the machine is in action. The single tail surface, which carries a portion of the load, is the only controllable surface used in steering the machine in any desired direction.

The operation of this surface for both elevator and rudder effect is performed by direct connection, without pulleys or levers, to a steering post and handle bar, similar to the handle bar of a bicycle, the motion required being of such a simple nature that a novice will instinctively make the proper movements, viz., shaving the handle bar forward to go down and drawing it back to go

having a universal movement, so that any movement of the handle bar in the hands of the operator will cause a similar directional movement of the tail steering plane.

This tail steering plane is connected to the machine by a simple method which allows of its adjustment, so that normally the machine when in action w ill fly straight ahead, and is so located and adjusted, relative to the main supporting surfaces, as to cause the machine to automatically assume the minimum gliding angle downward when the power is shut off.

The controlling mechanism always automatically assuming its normal relative position for straight ahead flying, should the operator for any reason or intentionally remove his hands from the controlling lever; this important function is accomplished by a simple method of supporting the steering member without any actuating device other than the pressure of the air upon the tail of the machine, which provides for certain action obtained from the motion ot the machine itself through tbe air.

As an auxiliary to the special form and arrangement of the main supporting planes designed to maintain transverse stability, the machine is fitted with two balancing planes, one on each side, placed vertically between the second set of struts in from the outer end and hinged to

ing an additional lift on that side of the machine, tending to maintain the machine at the proper angle sideways for turning, the balancing plane on the opposite end of the planes being neutral, swinging free in line with the angle of drift of the machine.

Should the machine overbank and tend to slide down and inwardly, the inner balancing plane on that end of the wings will immediately become active, reversing the operation, as previously explained.

The advantages claimed in the construction of this machine are natural inherent stability obtained by the form of the planes and simple movable parts operated positively by the pressure of the air upon the machine when in action without any mechanical or electrical contrivances.

Simplification of Parts—This machine having but one movable controllable part, which for steering in either a horizontal or verticle. plane, is connected to the steering lever in the hand of the operator by direct connections without intermediary levers or pulleys.

The design of this machine provides for instinctive control by simple mechanism, tending toward greater safety, strength in construction by the reduction of movable parts, and simplification of control by the elimination of vertical rud ders, ailerons and wing warping.

CAREY STABILITY SYSTEM.

Edwin K. Carey, of Pueblo, Colo., suggests the alleged non-infringing lateral stability system shown in the drawing herewith, after having tried it out. He offers the idea to others. The drawing is after the original sketch made by Mr. Carev in April, 1910.

The inventor states: "That others have, in a measure, considered similar devices, look at the joint elevator of the Cody 1909-11 type. Reverse the design of his machine, leave off his tail and use the dimensions herewith and there is quite a similarity. However. I knew nothing of his device at the time. Dunne uses ailerons

sions and universal 'cloche' to assist in rising by positive incidence to help elevator, and by rearward side-wise motion made them function to restore balance, but to my knowledge this is the only one to use the elevators as such to control balance. Dunne uses ailerons as elevators. We use elevators as ailerons, only they function as feathers on an arrow by impingement behind center of thrust, center of pressure, weight and inertia, and can be worked in conjunction, separately, with or without rudders."

The w arping elevators are operated in both directions, independent-

TRANS-ATLANTIC MODEL GOES ABROAD.

Contradicting the criticism that the "America" was a freak or specially-built machine for stunt purposes, is the sale abroad of practically a duplicate which was shipped September SV to England. According to published reports, the machine is said to have been acquired for the British Admiralty on the recommendation of Lieut. John C. Porte, who. as prospective pilot for the transatlantic project, was entirely familiar with the "America" and her possibilities.

The only statement made by the Curtiss Aeroplane Co. was that when war was declared and it became evident the transatlantic flight could not be attempted this year, the "Ames -ica" was dismantled, and a stu- Y type uf machine along simile ■ ./ was developed from it and piu-,. the market. A new arrai^gemeiu made with Mr. Rodman Wanjima_ whereby Mr. Curtiss is to-design <. new and larger mach:n^ jf0r next year's transatlantic at*ei11 f'JK

Of the "Transatlant,c"^fc-, as it is now catalogued J>' JM^Curtiss Aeroplane Co., it ,s **"u several have been ordered '.°r delivery jri America, though tht impression prevails that eventual!* these will rind their way to Eurog-*' J he new machines differ frou. *ne "*^rner'ca" onlv in details. ,f"ere 15 greater planing surface,*^- 5*en ;" lower, the tail is'*" Curtiss OX 90-h. . ^ used.

A detailed descr*. - „.i of the type will be puhlished in an early issue.

for steering and elevating. Richard Harte did in 1870; so did the 'JMap-son* flown by Schreck at Juvisy; Mouillard also, as well as Du Temple in his models. Small models of my device are filling requirements with rudder as a vane, or left off entirely. Cody and Martin have used ailerons in conjunction with elevators to restore balance. In 1910-11 Goupy used ailerons on wing exten-

ly or simultaneously, to restore lateral balance. Another arrangement would be to have a vertical rudder at each one of these tails instead of one rudder as shown in the original sketch. The main planes are rigid in the design, and the entire control is as shown in the tail. A foot bar operates the rudder, and right and left hand levers the twin elevators. A machine of this pattern was built and flown in 1911, Mr. Carey says.

SLOANE CO. CHANGES NAME.

A new organization known as the Aircraft Co., Inc., has been formed to build the well-known Sloane Aeroplanes and to conduct the business carried on by the Sloane Aeroplane Co. The office of the Company will remain at 1737 Broadway and the manufacturing will be carried on at Bound Brook, N. J., and Long Island City, N. V.

This Company is in a position to turn out the various standard types of aeroplanes in large numbers. There is a very well equipped machine plant operating in connection with them under the name of Sloane-Daniel Motor Co. In this - plant a specialty is made of light weight, high speed gas engines suitable for aeroplanes. These aeronautical motors will be sold by the Aircraft Co., Inc.

John E. Sloane. formerly president of the Sloane Aeroplane Co., is president of the new concern; M. R. Hutchinson, E. E., vice-president and Daniel L. Meenan, Jr., secretary and treasurer. Mr. M. R. De Miege is also associated with the company in an executive capaciiy,

Charles II. Day, the well-known builder of "Day Tractors," who built De Lloyd Thompson's record breaking machine and who previously was connected with Glenn L. Martin Co., is now associated with the Aircraft Co., Inc., and will be in direct charge of the construction of the Sloane Aeroplanes which will be built exclusively by this company.

Mr Stevens is making a strenuous effort to revive ballooning, and the race at Pittsfield on October 8 ought to do a lot to help along.

KEMP EIGHT-CYLINDER AIR-COOLED.

The Kemp Mach ine Works, of Muncie, Ind., has just put on the market a new and enlarged edition in its J-S, 75-h.p.. S-cyl. V., air-cooled motor, equipped with a blower to insure positive circulation of air around all the cylinders evenly, the only air-cooled American motor with stationary cylinders.

A blower mounted on the forward end of motor drives a current of air through its two outlet pipes to manifolds on each group of four cylinders. The manifolds distribute an equal quantity of air to each cylinder, where it is forced around under an aluminum jacket and between the regular cooling flanges to an outlet diametrically opposite its point of entry". Thus each cylinder gets ex-ae.-y as much air as any other, and aii jwts of The c\lmder are cooltil uniformly. Blower Tan, casing, manifolds and jackets are all of aluminum, amply strong for the pmjose, and the weight of the entire outfit is but 31 lbs. "Compare this with the weight of a 75-h.p. radiator, empty," says Mr. Kemp!

The maker guarantees absolute freedom from the dangers of overheating and all the resulting consequences, and "for the user the most trying prohlem and the greatest

weakness of all other motors—the cooling problem—simply ceases to exist."

The cylinders, 4J4 i»- x m->

are of the valve-in-head type, ac-

knowledged the best for maximum efficiency, with both valves, of rich tungsten steel, mechanically operated. The cooling flanges, as on all Kemp motors, are turned from the solid semi-steel stock. Pistons are of the same material, very light, with two concentric Wasson rings and three oil grooves.

The connecting rods are of the same aluminum bronze alloy used satisfactorily in the past, with a "strength equal to that of steel and no liability to crystallization and fracture." They are of a new section, with a third rib down the center, much stronger than the usual H set lion.

Crank shaft is cut from a solid billet of special vanadium steel, heat treated, and bored throughout. It is supported on five bearings of hard, high speed, nickel motor babbit, and equipped with ball thrust bearings tor either pushing or pulling. It projects sufficiently at the rear end for attachment of gear to connect with hand or electric starter.

The crank case is of an aluminum alloy of high strength, thoroughly webbed and ribbed.

Oil sump in base has a capacity of 4 gals. A gear pump takes the oil from this compartment and keeps a constant stream flowing over cam shaft and crank shaft bearings, whence it splashes to cylinders. The lubricating system is simple, sufficient and certain.

"We have endeavored to make the motor a lightweight power plant, as all aeronautical motors should be. At the same time, we have not left off an ounce of material where it could do any good. Dependability and freedom from breakage has been otir chief aim, and the motor is remarkably solid and substantial as compared with most lightweight aero motors. To further insure dependability and durability, we have designed it to give its rated power at very moderate speed."

Ignition is by the Mea BUS magneto.

Two Zenith carburetors are used, one serving each group of four cylinders. A Paragon propeller is furnished with each engine, as the Kemp works have concluded, after the tests with these propellers, that they are the most suitable. Each propeller furnished is designed to suit the particular machine on which it is to be used, and the 3-bladed Paragon will be fitted if desired.

While this model is rated at 75 li.p., it is guaranteed to turn an 8ft. diameter by 5-ft. pitch propeller to at least 1,250 r.p.m., stationary, with corresponding increase in the air. It is understood, however, that the normal speed of this motor is 1,200, and should not be run above that.

The A. L. A. M. rating of this motor would be 72.25 h.p. The weight complete is but 375 lbs., and the price is $1,250. The gas consumption is 4 gals, an hour, which is low, and the oil consumption 3 qts.

AUGUST EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

Imports: Parts only, $2,153. For eight months ending August, one 'plane and parts were imported to value of $13,910, of which $12,054 is the valuation of the parts.

Exports: One 'plane and parts, $1,690, ol which the 'plane represents $1,500. Certainly aeroplanes are not overvalued when shipped. For eight months ending August, 25 aeroplanes have been shipped, representing $153,399, with parts totaling $25,001 additional.

Exports of imported goods: None for August; for eight months the total was but $207.

In Warehouse: On August 31 there was one foreign-built machine, valued at $1,856. At the same time in 1913 there were three and parts, valued at $7,708.

JULY EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

Imports: Parts only, value $86. For seven months ending July, 'planes and parts to amount of $11,757.

Exports: Two 'planes and parts for July, value $45.66. For seven months ending July, value was $176,710, as against $36,039 and $69,165 for 1913 and 1912, respectively, for the same period.

Exports of foreign manufacture: None. For seven months ending July, value totaled $207.

In Warehouse July 31; One 'plane and parts, $5,069. At the some time in 1913, there were in the warehouse three 'planes and parts, to the value of $7,708.

ALMOST A NEW ENDURANCE RECORD.

A new record for aeroplane endurance in America was nearly established on September 25, when Lieut. Joseph Carherry, U. S. A., accompanied by Oscar Brindley, remained in actual flight for 4 hours and 7 minutes, during which time they flew to Los Angeles and back and then across the Mexican boundary and back to the hangars on North Island. The old record is 4 hours, 22 minutes. The machine used was the new Wright tractor-type "pusher" with the 90-h.p. Austro-Daimler motor, being delivered to the Army.

THOMPSON ALTITUDE RECORD OFFICIAL.

The new American altitude record recently made with a Gyro motored machine hy De Lloyd Thompson has been officially fixed at 15,256 It. (.4,651.22 metres).

AROUND-THE-WORLD RACE.

Well, what has become of it? Also, where is Arnold Kruckman?

NEW BOOKS.

EXPERIMENTS, by Philip E. Edelman. 16mo, cloth, illus., 250 pp., published at $1.50 by Philip E. Edelman, Minneapolis, Minn. A most desirable work to place in the hands of any young man that has shown a tendency toward scientific study. The scope of .the book is well set forth in the frontispiece as "a series of selected, grouped and graded experiments which may be repeated in a simple manner, covering a wide range of applied science" evolved from the wonderful developments of the last decade in physics, chemistry and electricity. It is interesting reading for even those who are thoroughly familiar with the subject matter.

AIRCRAFT IN THE WAR

Until the war is ended and naval "Only twelve persons were injured, m the hope that at last there may

and army critics report on the value of these only live were killed. The turn up a winning hand."

of aircraft as reconnaissance means, total damage amounted to the shat- A re t which conflicts seriously

in offense and delense, little of real tering of the upper story of a with (ha, ,„ the effect tha, , Uer.

use will be learned. house and to the excavation of a man airshi have been destroyed ;5

Reports vary from one extreme to saucer-shaped hole in the ground in this. the other and, of course, such re- yhich a man might lie down comports are from untrained men and fortably. One shell from a six- Of the Zeppelin units, one is be-without definite significance It pounder would have wrought inhn- lieved to have been disabled by the would appear, however, that aerial lte|y more ruin, and falling in the fire of the Liege forts on Aug ft and reconnaissances have been the means same space, would have cost more in another was demohshel in a shed at of preventing ""surprises" and have life; . Tlle Germans were at the time Metz hy the French aviator Fink, made the great battles long drawn within ten miles of the centre of I wo others have been seen by Bel-ont affairs decided by number of tlle oi Brussels at one point of gian aviators, apparently wrecked by-troops and marksmanship, strength ,he,ir \'ne- Tlie *,eSe howitzer of wind squalls, in the forest between of armament and position "With- today has an effective range of more Metz and Aix-la-Chapelle. -Another out'dou'bt the aeroplane is the great- tnan twelve miles. A projectile dis- lias been brought down at liadon est single factor in this war is charged from such a gun would have viller, near Luneville. Of the re-the opinion of one expert ' absolutely demolished any building mainder, two are supposed to be on

n., .. , ', , upon which it fell. tlle Russian frontier and the others

lhe Zeppelins have made them- ,..„„... succe«fnl attempt at w-ir at Cologne. Hamburg and Kiel and

selves conspicuous by their absence. , Another successtul attempt at war French frontier \ German

A few desultory sorties have been irom the alr was that exploit of P!1 1 rencli trontier. a iierman

a iew uesunory sorties nave been , ■ , M i>e„n,,ri ,,.,<. ,i,„ ilpr„ biplane captured at Cernay has been

made, according to reports, but as * "cn M- 1 e80ucl %J,asatl,e ller0- added to the ■> > euns and other

a real f-irtor thev have vet iA ,l^m,m W 'th one companion he flew over a fuueu to 'J'e guns ana otner

a real lactor tne> nave >et to demon- . , (- Jl enramnmenis near trophies to be placed at the foot of

strate their worth. Ihey are ev - fenes 01 ,jerma" encampments near . 1 monument

dently being held back for some ^avenmacher. '» !elS'unJ; He flew tl,c Alsace monument

definite purpose which will appear at at n'gh,' a"d at °"1>r 50°, ft- alt"ude- ., Speaking of the relative merits of

the figured-upon time. ^n lac* °* exact knowledge gossip Zeppelins and the French non-rigid

1, , c has it that his load of bombs weighed tvpe of airships, as demonstrated in

Iveports continue of aeroplane 500 11)S ue discharged every one the present war. M. Sabatier, the

scouts being brought down by rifle before he returned. well-known airship specialist, says:

hre, of the miscellaneous dropping "French airships have been doing

of bombs and arrows from aero- , lne ,net result, so tar as can work and so far escaped

ulanes of duels in the air Lt,.,.n lie ascertained, was that the fright- cxceium work, arm so lar iscapeu

piancs, 01 aueis in tne air between , . , , , , ■ £ unscathed, although often under hre.

opposing scouts, and of occas ona ened oerniaiis blanketed their tires ՠ startj,.,r from -iia„

flights with bomb rironnino ,,ver 50 that the aeroplanist could not "»e 01 tnem. starting iiom .uau

Paris dropping, over find uh (arget It was af first s(ated bcugc, flew oyer Treves and beyond,

Herbert Corey in the r)nh, tliat two convoys of ammunition returning safely to its shed On

states- ' "ere destroyed by his bombs. This the other hand, we have bagged sey-

..." < , , , -. , not been confirmed. It is eral Zeppelins. The reason tor this

. Aircraft have utterly failed to highly hkely, of course, that if an apparent invulnerabi ity of the

justify themselves as instruments of ammunition caisson were struck by French airship 15 simple. By reason

battle in tbe great war. As instru- all explosive projectile it would be ll,e elasticity of our gas bags we

ments of reconnaissance they have destroyed, it does not necessarily can safely maintain a very high

been of great value This formula follow that the next wagon of am- altitude, beyond ordinary gun range,

was suggested to me by an officer munition would suffer. The 'in- This is impossible with the rigid

of the British flying corps: cendiary' bombs he carried would fhc" ot thc Zeppelin, which cannot

" 'One howitzer is of greater value unquestionably cause a conflagration J.ear. ")e expansion of gas, more par-

than twoscore of dirigibles. One if they fell among city houses. They hcularty111 this hot weather; so the

aeroplane may conceivably be of are almost harmless—as harm is r.rencli have a distinct advantage in

greater value than a squadron of counted in this war—if they fall airships.

scouts.' among the tents of an encampment. A young Belgian aviator was re-

"M. Bleriot, the first man to fly "ft is definitely known that each ported as saying: "It is very difficult

the English channel, and now one of side has been continually engaged in to distinguish anything .Men look

the leading aeroplane makers of experiments upon the other by s0 Sl"a" ٠such a height. For

France—his factory is at work day means of bombs. The French, at example, unless you are directly

and night turning out aircraft for least, have indicated they will give above them, you can scarcely see

use in the war—made this state- this up as a bad job. Even the even artillery upon a road. A rifle

ment: moral effect lias worn off. In the "ullet struck the propellor of his

'"The dirigibles have done nothing daytime marching troops have had machine and broke it slightly, hut

1 lie air giuies nave aone nothing, difficulty in avoidine the droDoed d,d ,10t sta-v llls night. The ex-

The aeroplane has been usefu—but uiintuiij awimiug me uroppea , ■ , shells were verv disturh-

ihe Hst xvnrA remains with the corns ' bombs. Bomb throwing at night is Plosions 01 snens .were very uisjurn

the last word remains with the guns. hi h] ha].assing ,Q t]le thrown at, ing because they interfered with the

JNI. Fegoud, who bas hgurcd in hut the animated targets have the equilibrium of the machine. As to

several daring exploits, is quoted as consolation that, like lightning, an noise? But the noise of the engine

lollows: aeroplanist never strikes twice ill drowns every other sound. So far

tr. , ihp cnn1P nlace as reconnoitering airman is con-

From an aerop ane one sees- the same place. a , ,efiefd ,s itc n , ..

but one does not always know what "'Our reports from Belgium are .

it is one sees. The airman may see that in broken, wooded, hilly country 5avs the 1 aris Jemps: llie ex-

that the enemy is in possession of an airman is quite unable to distin- Penence of our air people shows territory, but the work of developing guish with any certainty the numbers ,,hat an aeroP'J"e "f sa!e lr°ni

in what strength it is held must still or disposition of the troops beneath buUJ's„ "he" 1-000 Xds- '"gli. a,,d

be carried out by cavalry or motor him,' said the British officer quoted. aJ 2'000 yds- aV aviator still can

scouts.' -He might make a fairly accurate observe accurately with the naked

"Little has found its way into estimate of what was going on upon eye.__

print as to the details of the work a plain beneath him. Even so, in

done by dirigibles or planes in the the present state of development he itvtv ,iu- tjttv iivi.it

war. Gossip from the front, heard would only he able to report that a 11AL1 .\1A\ BU\ lit-KL.

in London and Paris, is that innum- certain number of small or large F.nea Bossi, a well-known Italian

erable attempts at aggression have bodies of troops were under way in engjncer aiKj designer is in New-been made by the aircraft of both a given direction buch reports have y fc c0]lferri „.ith manufacturers

sides. In one case a German dig been of great value to us, but they s floated over the city of Brussels must be supplemented hy feeling out nerc-

and discharged nine powerful bombs. the country by cavalry scouts.' "The Italian government now has From the airman's viewpoint condi- "Nevertheless, the countries en- 17 dirigibles, two of which are as tions for this savage raid were ideal, gaged in this great war are adding big as Zeppelins; 2S0 biplanes, and There w&s no wind, and the motor to their aeroplane squadrons as rap- j"Q hydroplanes" ^lr liossi said balloon was maneuvered over the idly as possible. It is conceded that Sept. 11.—Aeroplanes with search-city as easily as a catboat in a they - have not justified the high .. . 1 ., , 1 , , , breeze. The bombs fell upon a hopes that were entertained of them ,,?,',S f6 Sa , to 'e fU\rdel densely thronged city, thereby as- before the war began. But they are n'Sht the headquarters of the Ger-suring tbe maximum of cost to life one of the great dice of war, and man general staff and the Kaiser and property. they will be thrown again and again, at Luxembourg.

Sept. 19.- -British army officer said to have stated that the aeroplanes of the allies are doing splendid service. In one instance one located a German troop train at night and dropped a torch to indicate the range. "Our artjllery blew tile train to atoms in a few minutes."

Sept. 21. Aeroplane reconnois-sance reports German retirement, with trains and stores.

Sep;. 21. Japanese hydro-aeroplanes, throwing bombs, destroyed barracks and set fire to two important forts at Tsingtao.

Sept. 25. British aviators said to have set fire to hangars near Cologne, while German newspaper says only a few windows were broken.

Sept. 22.—British naval aeroplanes attack Zeppelin shed at Dusseldorf and dropped three bombs. Extent of damage not known.

Sept. 24.—Frenchman arriving in America tells of steel arrows, six inches long, rounded at one end and brought to a needle point, with grooves along the other end, launched a thousand at a time from aircraft fitted with special boxes, whose bottoms open.

Sept. 25.—German airship drops four bombs, making great cavities in the ground, damaging houses and breaking street lamps and wires.

Sept. 25. Germans said to have lost most of their aeroplanes, hut the "Zeppelin fleet is intact."

Sept. 27.—German aeroplane flies

over Paris and dropped a bomb. One man was killed. Three others bombs were dropped, doing "comparatively little damage." A German airship sailed over Belgian cities during the night and dropped bombs, causing considerable damage to gas works and buildings.

Sept. 30.—Japanese aviators say they hit a German vessel with bombs at Kaio-chow, and the guns of warships silenced two harbor forts after obtaining range signaled by Jap hydros.

Oct. 1.—-French pilot and mechanic use aeroplane gun on German scout machine, killing both German occupants and setting fire to the machine.

Oct. 1.—Italian dirigible sent out to locate floating mines in the Adriatic.

Oct. 2.—German aeroplanes drop proclamations over territory in which Russian troops are stationed, urging Russian soldiers to surrender.

Oct. 2.—During night German airships dropped bombs on Antwerp forts without serious damage. German gun fire is very accurate, being directed by officers in captive balloons to the front of German batteries. Captive balloon said to be poor substitute for aeroplane reconnaissance. British aviators direct fire from Antwerp forts.

Oct. 3.—British official press bureau issues .statement that the naval air service, including aeroplanes and

dirigibles, patrolled a line between Ostend and the English coast during movement of troops from England.

Oct. 3.—Japanese aeroplanes chase a German one at Tsingtao. A captive balloon is reported in use there.

(let. 5.—Report that airships are being groomed, new stations built on North Sea and material and supplies collected for a raid on England.

Oct. 6.—Kaiser confers Iron Cross on commander and crew of a Schutte-Lanz airship, for "the magnificent aerial reconnoitering that led to the destruction of the three British cruisers" torpedoed in the North Sea by German submarines.

Oct. 7.—Six German airships sail over Antwerp during the night, setting fire to oil tanks.

< )ct. 7.—German aeroplane Mies over Paris, dropping two bombs, which wounded three persons.

Oct. S.— Aeroplane drops bombs over airship at Cologne, but driven off by fire without doing damage. Bomb from aeroplane said to have damaged airship and shed at Dusseldorf. Airship reported seen over North Sea. Duel in the air between Belgian scout and German flyer, resulting in the loss of the German pilot and craft.

"Fall Fashions Volplane to Broadway." is the expression used in a haberdasher's advertisement in a New York paper.

U.S. ARMY AERONAUTICS—GOVERNMENT COMPETITION

Great activity reigns at the Signal Corps aviation school in North Island, near San Diego, Cal., at the present time. In fact, the school seems to have taken on a new lease of life since the return of the detachment which was hurried away for service in Mexico but which never got farther than Galveston.

E^ecently, four buildings have been added to the school: two hangars, each accommodating ten machines, a commodious storehouse and a headquarters building. These buildings were constructed under the able supervision of Captain Kirtland and add greatly to the appearance of the aerodrome.

Several new machines have recently been added to the equipment, including one Martin speed scout and two Martin school machines, alj tractors equipped with Curtiss O-X 100 h.p. motors; two Curtiss tractors and one Curtiss flying boat, with, of course, Curtis motors, O-X model; and one Wright modified tractor, with 90 h.p. Austro-Daimler engine in front and twin chain driven propellers in rear.

Some eleven constructors have entered for the militarv competition (see AERONAUTICS, July 15), which has been set to commence Oct. 20. Of these only Curtiss, Martin and Christofferson are on the ground and it seems unlikely that all of the entries wil have machines ready. Neither the Thomas, Sloane nor Moisant companies are entering the competition. In fact, a large number of machines can hardly be expected in view of the severity of the specifications, the small number of prizes and the mediocrity of the

prizes themselves. Other expected competitors include; The Wright Co., Maximilian Schmitt, Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co., and Gallaudet Co.

Perhaps in the year one of the next era Congress will wake up and make a respectable attempt to foster the aeroplane and motor industries in America. Let us hope so—but not too strongly!

Mr. Riley Scott has completed his experiments with his bomb dropping device, covering a period of five months, and reports have been made to the War Department. According to the Army and Navy Journal, a new type of aero bomb developed by the Ordnance Department was tried out with complete success. The range finder invented by Mr. Scott was used in the experiments and it is reported that remarkable accuracy was attained. The bombs, which were of two sizes, fifteen and fifty lbs., were equipped with adjustable fuses. Until the fuse is set the bomb can be handled with perfect safety. In dropping from an aeroplane the bomb is placed in a holder below the machine with a light wire cable attached to the fuse. At the proper time, the aviator pulls the cable attached to the fuse, which arms the bomb. This is done just before the bomb is released. The Scott range finder is telescopic and indicates just when the bomb should be dropped in order to strike the target. This is done by calculating the speed of the machine with respect to the ground and taking the height from an an-

eroid barometer, which is corrected before each flight.

With all the attention that the European armies have given to aeroplanes and Zeppelins, none of them lias developed a reliable range finder. Most of the bombs dropped have been guided only by the judgment of distances and estimates of the speed of aeroplane without the aid of instruments. This, it is stated, accounts for the inahility of any of the Powers in the present war to do effective work with bombs at high altitudes. The maximum height at which the tests were made at San Diego was 2,500 ft., but the accuracy with which the bombs were dropped indicates that the Scott range finder is a success and will enable military aviators, with proper training, to do accurate work at a height of 5,0(10 or more. Th;s would place aeroplanes out of the range of small arms and the present type of field artillery guns. The bombs containing high explosives tore holes in the hard soil. 6 to 10 ft. in diameter and 3 to 5 ft. deep.

A full description of the original apparatus and the theorv has been printed in AERONAUTICS.

Experiments have recently been conducted with a parachute device, the demonstrations being made by Mr. and Mrs. Broadwick. The Converse stabilizer, described in AERONAUTICS for August 15, will shortly be tried.

The Curtiss aviation school opened October 15, and Curtiss himself is already on the ground. The Curtiss school occupies part of North Island and teaching is done with hoth land and u ater machines.

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FLYING ON LONG ISLAND.

Bombs, made of plaster of paris and shaped like the projectiles used on v. ar vessels, were dropped by the aviators on the 1 lempstead Plains field at Garden City, at the weekly meet on Sept. 19. These bombs were about 12 inches long. At one end was a stick 15 inches long, which has cardboard quills at the top to keep the bomb steady when dropped. At the other end was a large wire nail. Inside the plaster of paris bomb was a large quantity of lampblack and a 3-inch cartridge, from which all the shot had been removed. When the aviator dropped the bomb from the aeroplane it whirled around and around in its descent, and as it struck the ground the nail was driven up in the bomb against the cartridge, which caused the bomb to explode with a loud report, and the lampblack, scattering in all directions, looked like dense smoke.

The handicap rating of the machines on the field at present is: hour; Heinrich monoplane, 64 m.p. Schmitt monoplane, 69 miles per h.; Kuhl-Baysdorfer biplane. 62 m.p.h.; Moisant Blue Bird monoplane, 62 m.p.h.; Heinrich School monoplane, 56 m.p.h.; Beckwith military tractor, 42 m.p.h.

These week-end affairs are being conducted under the auspices of the Week End Meets Association, of which John E. Sloane is president, A. J. Moisant vice-president, D. S. Houghton secretary and Albert Heinrich treasurer. So far as known no license has been obtained from the Wright company. All aviators are cordially invited to participate. Passengers are carried at $12.50 per flight.

AERO MART

FOR SALE—46 copies Aero and Hydro; 31 copies Aircraft; 4S copies AERONAUTICS. Numbers begin September, 1911, end 1914. Price $5.00 for the lot. Purchaser to pay express charges. R. B. Curnutt, 703 Ninth Ave. So., Great Falls, Mont.

WILL RENT my double covered 26 ft. x 6 ft. monoplane to a reliable party. Address E. M„ 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio.

WRIGHT Model B for sale as it stands; $50 will put it in perfect condition; engine in first-class shape. Met with slight accident in landing. Price $1,000 cash. Address S., care AERONAUTICS.

BARGAIN IN BOOKS—Will sell following books: Aerial Navigation (Salverda) $1.50; Navigating the Air (Aero Club of America) $.50; Aeronautical Annual. 1895-6-7 (James Means) $5; Travels in Space (Valentine & Thompson) $ .50; Art of Aviation (Brewer) $1.50; Airships Past and Present i Ilildebrand) $3; Proceedings Int. Congress Aerial Navigation, Chicago, 1893, $5; various other hooks thrown in to purchaser of the lot. L. E. Pare, 216 West 104th st-, New York.

FOR SALE—Biplane tractor. 35 ft. spread, equipped with 60-h.p.. 6-cylinder, air-cooled motor, Bosch magneto, Master carburetor and speed indicator; Farman-type landing gear. Everything in first-class condition. 1 )emonstration by appointment, or photograph sent by mail; $400 cash. worth $2,000. Leonard L. McCarty. 1014 S. Main St., Los Angeles, Calif.

JOHN WISE—"History and Practice of Aeronautics," by John Wise. We have just secured another copy of this famous, rare work. Cloth, 8vo, ill., 310 pp, steel engraving frontispiece. For sale at $10. AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54tb st.,

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AERONAUTICS

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NEXT GENERAL MEETING.

The next general meeting will be held the first Thursday in Nov em-her the 5th. The subject will be "Aerial Strategy," to be discussed by competent men. Announcement late

The first meeting of the season was such a success that a special effort should be made to improve even upon this.

erly 13th Royal Dragoons, German army. "The Military Phase of Aviation"; Capt. Washington 1. Chambers, U. S. N., "The Naval Angle."

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OFFICIAL BULLETIN

NOTICE TO MEMBERS.

Oct. 6. 1014.

Fellow Members: For the first year in the history of the Aeronautical Society there has been no series of meets at our aerodrome, now located at Oakwood Heights. Staten Island; but it must not be assumed that this is due in any way to inactivity on the part of those responsible, because the tea son is due entirely to causes beyond our control.

During last w inter there w as every assurance of most pretentious events taking place at our aerodrome, as we were assured of $10.

000 in prizes to be contested for on Decoration Day, The donor of the prizes, in endeavoring to obtain a license from the Wright Company, failed to receive any reply for some weeks and withdrew the offer.

Notwithstanding this setback, it was decided to endeavor to hold the Aerial Derby on Columbus Day or Election Day, and in order to make this an open contest for all aviators, whether licensed or not, correspondence was initiated with Mr. (Jrville Wright with a view to obtaining this privilege under a license, and an acceptance was finally received. Efforts were immediately undertaken to raise prizes for the Aerial 1 >erby and any other contests that could be developed. The owners of the Times, who had been the donors last year, were approached, but they frankly stated it would be impossible, in view of the European war. which consumed all the available news space, to do justicc to any scientific or sporting event and therefore recommended the postponement of the Derby till the spring.

Our efforts are now directed to ward holding the Aerial Derby on

1 lecoralion Day, believing that the time will then be propitious, under the assumption that the European conflict will then lie at an end and that many of our aviator members will have returned from the front, among whom may be mentioned R G. Guerquiu, Albert Fileux, William Thaw, George Dyott and others. The year 1914 will be a memorable one from many standpoints, one of which is regretfully the fact that for reasons beyond our control our aerodrome has not heen taken full advantage of in the matter of meets. Hut instead of this acting as a discouragement, it should stimulate us to greater and more pretentious activity next year, and it is the hope that all members will send any suggestions and offer to help make the year 1915 the most active in the history of the Aeronautical Society.

FIRST GENERAL MEETING.

The first general meeting of the fall and winter series of the Aeronautical Society of America was held < >ct. 1. The speakers were: Mr. Hudson Maxim, "Aerial Warfare"; ('apt. Ewald 1 lecker, form-

Notice to Delinquents.

Delinquents in payment of dues are earnestly requested to place themselves in good standing at the earliest possible moment in order that they may receive the official bulletin, AERONAUTICS, , semimonthly, the membership certificates and data sheets.

Membership dues in The Aeronautical Society are $10 a year, no initiation fee. Members receive data sheets, the magazine, AERONAUTICS, engraved certificate of membership, free monthly lectures. For further information address the Secretary.

The photograph is that r I Augus-tin Parla. the Cuban aviator, who v as recently appointed instructor of the Cuban Army, The picture is published by courtesy of Fausto Rodriguez.

The Cuban Government, realizing the usefulness of the aeroplane, has

established an aviation corps in the army. Parla is now opening the new military flying school. The Cubans have taken up aviation since the early start of the "game," and among them are the great fliers Parla, Rosillo and Gonzalez. Parla flies a Curtiss and the other two Morane-Saulniers.

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Make all checks and monev orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

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55

DEATH OF WELDON B. COOKE.

Considerable information is available regarding the accidental death of YVeldon R. Cooke at Pueblo, Colo., on September 16, through a subscriber of AERONAUTICS, who made a special investigation. He was appointed by a local newspaper to arrange with Cooke for the carrying of a passenger from Colorado Springs, the 45 miles across country to Pueblo, and assisted in setting up the machine at the Springs. It appears the machine was in bad shape. The struts were of pine, the engine bed the same, with a crack connecting the three holes for the engine and radiator in one bed beam. The cable attaching the elevator to the steering pillar was too short and was pieced out with "bale" wire. The front main later spar was pine and the rear one oak.

The trip from Colorado Springs was made all right, Cooke ariving the day before the accident. On the ISth he was coming in after some circles over the grounds and a trip over the surrounding territory, when a vertical strut was seen to break in mid air and fall to the ground, where it was later picked up. Cooke then made a left turn and dive to the ground. In this, witnesses watching through glasses state, a cable or control wire snapped. The machine hit a fence and was smashed to small pieces. Cooke's body was badly broken. The machine was a tractor, with Roberts engine, made by Cooke himself at Sandusky.

PICELLER KILLED.

William Piceller, who learned to fly under George Beatty, was killed on October 2 after a flight of several minutes over the field at Hempstead, L. I. Witnesses are unanimous in stating that his right wing warping control broke in the air. The chain passing over the pulley in the warping lead was found broken and is thought to have been defective. The machine was home-made of the Wright model li type and was in distressingly bad shape.

Two fatalities in one month due purely to negligence.

P. A. R. S. BALLOON MAKES FIRST ASCENT.

The new balloon of the Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society, the "Greater Philadelphia," made its initial ascent on September 29 from Point Breeze, with Dr. George II. Simmerman, Dr. Thomas E. Eldridgc, E. Minor Fen ton and George N. Storch as passengers. Mayor Blankenburg christened the balloon, which carried a supply of women's suffrage literature as ballast and a letter to President Wilson, which, it was hoped, would be possible of dropping over the White House. The air currents decided otherwise, and the landing was made five and a quarter hours after the start at Yineland. N. J., close to the house of Mr. Fenton's mother, who did not know he was of the party until Ite stepped out of the basket. Dr. Eldridge piloted the balloon. It was built bv A. Leo Stevens for a capacity of 60,000 cu. ft. The distance from Point Breeze to Yineland is 32 miles.

BALLOON RACING REVIVED.

Thousands of people lined the roadway between Pittsficld and the gas works on October 8, in automobiles, side cars, carriages, farm wagons, with shank's mare and many other equipages, when four balloons left the ground in a sort of hare and hounds contest.

Leo Stevens started in a pilot balloon at 12:35, with the condition that he land by 3 o'clock. This he did at a point called Stevens Brook, some 22 miles from the start. His landing was the signal for the other balloons to alight, manceuvering to descend as near as possible to the pilot halloon. Robert "Golden" and aide Sydney Walsh in the "1'Ecur-eil," w on the cup offered by F. Harrison Iliggins when they collapsed their bag only three thousand feet away.

Alan R. Ilawley, with George Von Utassy, in the "North Adams" was second and Messrs Jerome Kingsbury and William II. Richardson in the "1. C. U-," third. Stevens' aide was Gordon Bruce, of the Tribune, and the balloon he used was the "Dancing Doll."

Cortland F. Bishop offered a cup for the first automobile to arrive at the pilot balloon, which was won by Roy Bridge, of Pittsfield.

There were 32 moving picture men on the field and a revival of ballooning seems imminent.

Frank II. Burnside, the Thomas star flier, flew at Concord, N. C, mi Sept. 29th and 30 th, attaining great success. Chas. Fev, Jr., flew at Cobleskill, N. Y., "Sept. 22d-25th. He gave a very good exhibition of fancy flying during the four days.

STABILITY OF AEROPLANES—Continued from page 68)

action a powerful mechanism for operating the controlling surfaces.

ff the wind strikes the vane on the under side, as would be the case when the machine takes a larger angle of incidence, the elevator is turned to cause the machine to point downward in front till the normal angle is restored. If the air strikes the vane from above, a smaller angle of incidence is indicated, and an opposite action on the elevator is produced. In this system no particular angle of the machine with the horizontal is maintained. It is the angle at which the air strikes the aeroplane surface that is important. If the vane is set at an angle of 5 deg. with the main supporting surfaces, and the machine is traveling on a level course, increasing the power of the motor will cause it to begin taking on more speed. But as the lifting effect of an aeroplane surface is the product of two factors—its speed and its angle of incidence—any increase in speed will produce a greater lift and cause the machine to rise. The machine will now be turned upward, with the surfaces meeting the air at an angle of 5 deg. On the contrary, if the power of the motor be reduced or entirely turned off, the machine will immediately begin to decrease in speed, requiring a larger angle of incidence for support. But as soon as the angle begins to increase, the

air will strike the regulating vane on the underside and the elevator will be turned, pointing the machine downward till the component of gravity in the direction of travel becomes sufficient to maintain the normal speed. In this case the planes will be inclined downward with reference to the horizontal. It is evident that a machine controlled by regulating the angle of the machine with reference to the impinging air is not liable to the dangers of "stalling" already described.

Several other methods of maintaining fore-and-aft equilibrium automatically have been proposed. One utilizes the force of gravity acting on a pendulum or a tube of mercury; the other, the gyroscopic force of a rapidly revolving wheel. In both of these systems the angle of the machine is regulated with reference to the horizontal, or some other determined plane, instead of with the angle of the impinging air.

In the case just referred to, in which the power of the motor was suddenly turned off while traveling on a level course, with these systems, the planes would be maintained at their original angle with the horizontal without any regard to the angle of incidence. The machine would continue forward till, through the loss of momentum, its speed would become so reduced and its angle of incidence so great that it

would be exposed to the dangers of diving.

The pendulum and mercury tube have other serious faults which render them useless for regulating fore-and-aft equilibrium. If the machine suddenly meet with a greater resistance to forward travel, either as a result of change in direction or of meeting a stronger gust of wind from in front, and its speed be ever so slightly checked, the pendulum will swing forward and instead of turning the machine downward, so as to maintain the normal speed, will cause the machine to be inclined upward in front and thus further increase its forward resistance.

The pendulum has proved itself an exceedingly useful device, however, in regulating the lateral stability of aeroplanes. In this case the effects of momentum and centrifugal force act on the pendulum in the proper direction to produce desired results.

I believe the day is near at hand when the flyer will be almost entirely relieved of the work of maintaining the equilibrium of his machine, and that his attention will be required only to keeping it on its proper course and in bringing it safely in contact with the ground when landing,

GYRO HOLDS

Altitude Record!

WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER

Kansas City, Mo., August 6th, 1914.

Gyro Motor Co., Washington, D.C.

Broke altitude record this afternoon, approximately forty-seven hundred meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed flight authorized by Aero Club of America. Record should be official. Motor worked fine, only carried five gallons of gas, made altitude in forty minutes used old spray nozzle. Will write full particulars later.

DE LLOYD THOMPSON.

New Gyro "Duplex"

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs.

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 Girard Street

Washington, D. C.

< BENOIST «r

Aeroplanes Flying Boats

AIRCRAFT CO.

St. Louis, Mo.

BALLOONS

Airships Aeroplanes, G;*s Generators, Safety Tacks, Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 95% of American and Canadian club*.

AERONAUT

Madison Sq. BoxIBI.NewYork

1

LEO STEVENS

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY

64th St. & West End Ave., New York City Also Maoufacturers of Automobile Radiators of all types

SP E E D

Write for Free Photographs

C,Is the most important quality of an aeroplane. Reserve speed means

safety and control. C,On an3T standard machine, we will guarantee two to si.r miles per hour more speed with a PARAGON' than can be obtained with any other propeller.

COn light weight high speed machines our FLEXING PARAGONS give quicker start, faster climbing and higher speed than any other known type of blade. Its operation is wonderful and unique. C,0ur work proves our word. Used on all jYat't/ Machines.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

PATENTS

SECURED or FEE RETURNED VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY

Send sketch or model for FREE opinion as to Patentability. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for nur speci.il list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each.

Main Offices: 771 NINTH STREET.N. W.

WASHINGTON. D. C.

PATENTS

Frederick W. Barker

Attorney and Expert in

PATENTS. TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS

Cases prepare*! and ]>rosecuted tvi th the area test care a ml thoroughness, to engine bmad seojie ami validity

28 Years in Practice Direct Connections in all

Foreign Countries 115 Broadway, New York

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n i*'<ntraniz:ition of The Sloane Aeroplane Co.

Full particulars nf our Standard Sloane Aerojilancs— Motors and Accessaries on ret]next.

THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc., Sole Manufacturers of 1733 Broadway. New York Sloane Aeroplanes

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY rnrr BOOKS. ADVICE AND SEARCHES T Ktt

Send sketch or model for search. Highest References Best Results. Promptness Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

DON'T w"te us vn,ess

* you are interested in a reliable, efficient arc'economical rower plant. 7 rat is the only kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works

Muncie, Ind.

1914 thomas flying'boat

Thomas Aeroplanes Hydro-Aeroplanes

Are recotrnized as a standard EfllcW'itrv, Speed. Reliability, tion. Write your needs.

Flying Boats Propellers

in American aviation. Soundness of construe-

THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO. BATH, N. Y.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

The

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Patents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

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DAYTON. OHIO

New York Office: 11 Pine St.

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FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs nod preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, aod with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use Id combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Mats. U, S. A.

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No. 6, 1914, September

Curtiss model "J", two-passenger Military Tractor Biplane. The last word in all-round efficiency. Speed range 40-90 miles per hour with 90 h.p. Curtiss O-X Motor. Climbs 1,000 feet per minute, flying light; 400 feet per minute with two men and four hours fuel. Adopted by U. S. Army.

AMERICAN ALTITUDE RECORD OF 17,185 FEET MADE BY CAPTAIN H. LEROY MULLER, U.S.A., IN CURTISS MODEL "J"

90 H. P. "O-X" MOTOR Curtiss Model "N", two-passenger Military Tractor Biplane, combines unusual 1 efficiency with highly developed inherent stability. Planes are staggered and have = adjustable dihedral angle. Speed range with Curtiss "O-XX" Motor, 40-80 miles ft per hour.

Further information concerning: these, or new models of Curtiss Flyine Boats and Hydroaeroplanes, will be sent post free on receipt of request

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389194

GYRO HOLDS

Altitude Record!

WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER

Kansas City, Mo., August 6th, 1914.

Gyro Motor Co., Washington, D.C.

Broke altitude record this afternoon, approximately forty-seven hundred meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed flight authorized by Aero Club of America. Record should be official. Motor worked fine, only carried five gallons of gas. made altitude in forty minutes used old spray nozzle. Will write full particulars later.

DE LLOYD THOMPSON.

New Gyro "Duplex"

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs.

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 Girard Street

Washington, D. C.

< BEN0I5T

Aeroplanes

AIRCRAFT

SI. Louis, Mo

Flying Boats c o.

BALLOONS

Airships, Aeroplanes. Gas Generators, Safety Packs, Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 95% of American and Canadian clubs.

A RONAU

Madison Sq. 8oi181,NewYork

LEO STEVENS

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY

64lhSt. & West End Ave., New York Cily

Also Manofactorerj ol Automobile Radiators of all types

THE U. S. NAVY

uses

Paragon Propellers Exclusively

3 Because they are the best by a large measure and proved best by test and official report

■¥ Others use Plain Paragons because they are not only best but also cheapest. J

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SOME EXPERIMENTS WITH A BIPLANE

By Albert Adams Merrill.

The value of the longitudinal dihedral as a means of obtaining fore and aft stability has been known to students of aeronautics for a long time. Its value was shown first by Penaud in 1871. All monoplanes and biplanes, with the exception of the Dunne, introduce this dihedral between the main surface and a horizontal tail, either front or rear. This tail is small, relative to the main surface, and since the righting couple is a function ot" the product of area and horizontal gap a small tail necessitates a large gap. I believe that a large horizontal gap is had because it causes a time lag in the introduction of the righting coniile which will tend to set up oscillations. The first effect of a

CP. for each surface at 0. 13, 3.4, and 15.4 degrees are plotted. Taking X and V moments about 0 degrees we get A, which is the CP. for 0 and j.4 degrees. Increasing the in-cdence 1.2 degrees and taking X and V moments about 12 degrees we get P.. which is the CP. at 12 and 15.4 degrees. We need go no higher he-cause above 15 degrees the CP. moves in the right direction on each surface. Plotting the values of Kx and Ry at 1> we get R. the new lesultant which passes back of A and produces a small righting couple.

Manifestly, knowing the characteristics of any given surface we can combine two of these surfaces so as to get any righting couple we desire. This method is sound when-

gust on the front main surface is to upset the machine, since all single cambered surfaces are unstable, and only when the gust strikes the rear surface will the righting couple come into action. Manifestly then the shorter the distance between the two surfaces the less time will there be for the upsetting gust to start oscillations. This is proved by the admitted fact that a monoplane is steadier longitudinally at high speed than at low speed and this is simply because the time lag mentioned above is reduced.

Starting with a righting couple of a fixed magnitude, such as exists in a monoplane, to reduce the time lag wc must move the tail forward, but if we do this we must increase its area to keep the magnitude of the couple constant. As we bring the tail forward we must move it away from the slip stream of the main surface if we are not to lose efficiency and we arrive al the form show n in Fig. 1. This type may be called a staggered converging biplane and it is with this type that I have been experimenting.

The difference of incidence between the two surfaces is 3.4 degrees, the larger angle being in front. The surfaces used are Eiffel's No. 3. single covered, and the method of computing the righting couple is as follows: The surfaces are drawn I to scale and the positions of the

ever the amount of stagger is enough to prevent interference between the surfaces. A full stagger seems to do this.

My machine, which is a tractor, was constructed in lioston last March and my first flights were made in

Squantum, where I succeeded in making several good straight flights. On laud there was not the slightest trouble in rising, in fact to keep the machine from climbing fast we had to throttle the engine. The machine was very sensitive to its elevator, but it would climb or glide without moving the elevator simply by altering the thrust. This proved that the righting couple resides in the supporting surfaces.

To continue my experiments with the least danger to my pilot I decided to put the machine on pontoons. I spent a lot of time over t he problem of the proper adjustment of the C.G. to the center of lift and center of buoyancy, but finally got what I wanted so that the machine would rise and act over water as it did over land, except that the weight of the pontoons lowered the C.G. and made the moment inertia of the machine greater, and hence the flights steadier. I have made only short straight flights over water and only in winds. In a calm the engine seems not to have the power to overcome the water resistance. 11 is an old rotary rated at 50.

The photographs sliow the machine with no horizontal tail. These flights demonstrate that safety can be obtained without the use of an auxiliary surface either front or rear, and without the use of negative tips as in the Dunne. lJoth of my surfaces are lifting surfaces throughout their entire area. It may not be wise to fly this type of biplane without giving the elevator a longer moment arm, but nevertheless my pilot had no trouble in producing an undulating flight with ailerons placed at the rear of the lower surface. However, L would advise in practice a fuselage have a vertical and horizontal rudder hut no fixed horizontal surface, as the hitter is not needed.

In these experiments I have paid no attention to the problem of inherent lateral stability, but have used ailerons working on the reversed Farinan principle, a system which 1 have advocated for years and which now, I think, M r. Glenn Curtiss is using. I have borne, myself, prac-

June. For an elevator I use ailerons tically the whole cost of these ex-

on the trailing edge of the lower periments and cannot carry them any

rear surface. The machine at first further at the present time. I feel

was a land machine and the experi- sure that the idea underlying this ments were made on the field at {Continued on paue 0ft)

IT'S A SAD S

The much-heralded competition of military aeroplanes at San Diego. California, which was scheduled to commence October 20th. proved to lie more or less of a farce—more rather than less. The $30,000 infant, whose coming was hailed with such delight by the hungry Aviation family, passed away shortly after birth, and has been laid to rest with many tears in the graveyard of American aviation, where repose so many Inst hopes. Tombstone there is none to mark its last resting place, for the frail mother who gave it brief being, Mrs. Sig. Corps, is ton poor to buy even a wooden headpiece to mark the lonely grave.

In other words, in the parlance of the highbrows, the Competition for Avions was called off—pardon, rescinded—on account of the failure of tke contestants to comply with the technical regulation requiring them to file by October 1st drawings to scale of aeroplanes and motors and certified test sheets of motors, That was the official reason given, but the real reason, according to the Chief of our Aerial Detective Bureau (transmitted to us by private leased wire, the shortest in the world 1. was that the powers that be, armed with long-range telescopes, couldn't find enough competitors to make a competition.

Which is as was to be expected. As our office boy sometimes opines, facetiously we suspect, "What do you want for thirty cents?" In this seventh year of military aviation in America, the government suddenly wakes up to the fact that the aeroplane industry is languishing and decides to hold a big competition. It is not yet fully known just how the authorities came to this important conclusion, unless perhaps some member of the National Board of Air Strategy eaught a casual glimpse of the south side of an aeronautical editor going north or observed the abbreviated family wash of one of our noted constructors hanging on the line. However that may be, it was decided to hold a big competition. That decision having been reached, after long and careful consideration, someone suggested

ORY, MATES

that it might be a good idea to offer prizes. Of course, that was an entirely new idea and had to be carefully threshed out. Finally, however, it was decided to offer prizes.

Here is where the excitement begins. Someone suggested that the prizes be made large enough to make it worth the while of every constructor in the country to enter the competition, lie was promptly thrown out of the window. Then the (lour was locked, the blinds were drawn and the authorities went into executive session. An ancient sock was carefully withdrawn from behind a faded likeness of C Washington, Esq., and with bated breath the available funds were counted. Clink, clank, clink, the tarnished coins dropped upon the table. There was found to he just sixty-seven cents and a pewter nickel. After looking up the aeronautical appropriation of Montenegro for the current year and reading the digest of an opinion rendered by the Ahkoond of Swat on the value of aeroplanes in warfare, it was finally decided to rehabilitate the art by offering thirty cents in prize money and, as a fmther incentive, to decorate the winning aviator with the pewter nickel. The final scene was enacted amid great applause.

It is, of course, difficult to understand why, in the face of such munificence, the constructors of the country didn't fall over one another, figuratively speaking, trying to get a piece of the change. It has been suggested to us that maybe they couldn't figure how they were going to make any money out of the competition, but we indignantly spurn such a suggestion. It is impossible that our patriotic constructors take such a sordid view of the matter. We are inclined to believe that the stupendousness of the competition and the size and variety of the prizes so flabbergasted them that they have not yet recovered from the shock. Something like the old lady of Yonkers who saw a dollar bill in the street, and fell dead from heart failure. At least, let's give them the benefit of the doubt.

TO OUR READERS

This magazine endeavors to keep its readers informed on all new developments in the aeronautical world, especially in America, and is always glad to print descriptions and sketches or drawings of new machines and worthy inventions. It is impossible, however, in the present state of aeronautics in America, to have paid correspondents at the various centers of interest throughout the country, and we have to rely largely upon the good will of our friends and those interested in the welfare of the art to keep us in touch

with new developments. Won't you, gentle reader, help out by sending in a description of any worthy new thing that you may know about, whether your own or somebody else's? This especially applies to established constructors and to builders of new machines and appliances. Unfortunately, the editor of this magazine is neither a millionaire or a mind-reader, and unless you send in the material we have no means of getting it. The magazine is published for you. and it's up to you to help out. Giddap i

i Z. i\ -> >x </\\

y f bi^ J

Y

—-٠s- » ^ - A. f. BONNALI6 >«« «

"IT PAYS TO ADVERTISE"

It is general practise for individuals, partnerships, companies and the like to maintain offices for the transaction of business. This is done for the purpose of having a fixed and convenient place where the person engaged in business may be found by those who would fain do business with him. Few there be in business so humble that the}' have not some place that they dignify with the designation, "my office."

Now, the twin-brother of the office is the advertisement. The one is the complement of the other. Unless people know that you are ready and willing to supply certain commodities, they will get them somewhere else. An advertisement in your trade journal is just as much of a necessity as a place in which to do business. If a man doesn't happen to know what you are selling, or where your office is, he is not likely to engage a detective

to lind out. If he wants to buy a carload of razors, he naturally consults the Daily Close Share, and if his mind hankers for power plants or other aeronautical provender, he most likelv buys, borrows or steals a copy of AERONAUTICS.

While this was being written a man came in and asked for a copy of this magazine in order to look up a place where he could buy certain aeroplane accessories. This not only happens occasionally, but nearly every day, and sometimes several times a day. Still there are those who do not believe in advertising— who hide their light under a bushel, so to speak. It may be remarked, however, that the top-notchers are the ones who do advertise. They are the leaders. Anybody from John Wanamaker to John the llootblack will tell you that.

"There's a reason."

THE "COMPLE

Optimistic students of human nature are recommended to the aeronautical business for their postgraduate course.

If optimism still prevails after juggling with delinquent subscribers, debtors and the all-around crooks, its possessors must have the "faith that moves mountains."

Witness the latest example of air-trading! One of America's well-known aviators—one who has long been held up as an exception, universally liked and admired, a man who has held the friendship and confidence of all, who some time ago started in business for himself—has apparently left for parts unknown, as Uncle Sam fails to lind him in the locality in which he has made his home for many years past.

One doesn't mind so nincli being tricked by those who have the reputation of being out-and-out bunco men, by those who are known to be in the questionable class, or by strangers who "put it over"—the creditor himself is the one to be blamed fur his trustfulness; but to be defrauded by one's own friend, who has always been held in the highest esteem, is quite annoying.

Adverse criticism does not always attach itself to the man who honestly starts in business with small capital, tries as best he may to arrive somewhere and then fails, when he admits his debt and frankly makes a plain statement of his situation. One has much

lT" swindler

a

sympathy for the men who legitimately try and fall back in honest endeavor.

lint the man who, with his property judgment-proof and his assets hidden away, from the start conducts his affairs by deception, with easy promises and easier forfeitures, with the sole idea of getting as far as possible before the crash, is he who can not be too strongly condemned. He meets his debts by notes and his notes hi' honor-sworn promises (as if he had honor) and other notes, both of which are as valueless as the man himself is false. And in the end, which comes sooner or comes later, he merely walks out, sans soiiei, and launches himself in some other budding industry, there to repeat the operation with a new crop of suckers.

We have noted one example of such men— parasites on the struggling shoots of an industry—a man whose history began in the early days of the automobile, with a quick-change to aviation, and latterly attempted to skim some cream from the cyclecar trade. Where he will cling next remains to be seen.

Such men are pirates. They fraudulently trade upon the popular interest in a new thing. They rob the public, they steal the deserved profits of the earnest worker who actually adds to the human store, they cast discredit upon the industry they swindle which only years of continued struggle and investment by the legitimate houses will restore to its proper plane.

An American consular officer in southern Europe advises that a nrni in his district desires to communicate with American manufacturers of aeroplanes, gasoline motors, propellers, magnetos and spark plugs, etc., and with manufacturers of all material for building, equipping, and repairing aeroplanes. Price lists and c-stimates should be f. o. b. any American port having direct connections with destination. Correspond-

ence and catalogues should be in the Spanish language. Address Department of Commerce and Labor, Washington, D. C.

" 'You can't imagine how easy it is to pilot an aeroplane,' said a lecturer at South Orange, N. J., recently. 'It is too easy to fly. I never felt safer than when I was in the air. The air is safer than the street.' The lecturer declared

he would not drive an auto across Fifth Avenue at Forty-second Street, New York, but would fly an aeroplane anywhere

The Jersey apple-jack season is open.

With the European war being decided hy aircraft, one wonders when Congress will see fit to interest itself in appropriating some liule money for aeronautics.

AIR CRAFT IN WAR

By George P, Scriven, Brigadier-General, Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army.

Existing conditions show that whatever may be the conclusions drawn as to the use of air craft for offensive purposes in warfare, and as to the importance of the dirigible* there can be no doubt of the value of the aeroplane in rapid and long-range reconnaissance work, and of its power to secure, and to transmit by radio, visual signals, or direct flight, information of importance to armies in the field. So true is this that it seems probable the aeroplane and, to some smaller degree, all air craft have altered, not the principles of strategy, which are immutable, but the theory and application of grand tactics, ft now appears that the actual game of war is played openly w ith cards laid on the table, and opportunity no longer is given for inference as to concealed movements or fur surprise, perhaps not even for the exercise of the high military quality of anticipation of the unseen movements of the adversary. It is now recognized that the possibility of brilliant and unexpected blows and surprises by enterprising commanders has been largely eliminated from modern operations of war by the information supplied by aviators. It is proved that the modern air craft lays open to the field of mental view the whole of the immediate theater of war and that the commander's view reaches far beyond the limits of actual vision of troops. The air craft sees and indicates the larger operations of war and points out to the slowly moving troops on the ground not only the points to be attacked or defended, but to reconnaissance troops, especially the cavalry, the objective to he sought, the localities to be searched, and the character of information to he obtained.

By no means does the air craft supersede, nor can it ever supersede, detailed information which can be acquired only by close observation, by contact, and by development of the enemy's forces and positions. This is the work of the troops in the field; but the air craft does indicate to either commander the character, location and general disposition of opposing forces.

Not only is the aeroplane invaluable in locating the position of the enemy, but it has especial value to a commander in finding his own troops, in keeping him informed when movements are taking place, of the position of his flanks and center, his outposts, his cavalry, of the positions attained by any detached body —in short, of keeping him constantly in touch with the locations and movements of all of his troops under the changing conditions of war.

This much is proved; but it does not follow that the air craft curtails the work of reconnaissance of other arms of the service, the infantry, the signal corps, and, more especially, the cavalry. On the contrary, it extends the usefulness and power of all, for if the general field of reconnaissance is outlined, it is obvious that the cavalry or infantry can more readilv strike its objective and more quickly and accurately obtain information regarding any particular point than if obliged un-seeingly to search the whole field of operations for locations and forces regarding which an intimate knowledge is desired. In other words, by

aid of air craft, and more especially of tlie aeroplane, a reconnaissance by troops moves less in the dark, knows better what to look for and learn in detail, and loses less time and effort in accomplishing the object sought. No move of concentration from flank or center, no envelopment of a wing nor reinforcement of a weak position should remain unknown to the adversary in the case where he possesses a thoroughly efficient flying corps. It would seem, therefore, that not only has the power of all reconnaissance troops been increased by the air craft, but the need and importance of the cavalry in reconnaissance work has not been lessened, but, on the contrary, has been greatly increased by the aeroplane.

In addition to the influence now exerted by air craft on grand operations, events now appear to show that its value in more detailed operations is great and may increase in the future to enormous proportions. It is now well established that the accuracy, value, and power in warfare of field and siege artillery have been greatly increased by this agency, and it may almost be said that guns are fought by means of the eyes of the aviator. It should be self-evident that the same is true of guns of the seacoast and land fortifications. So clearly has this been shown that there now appears a noticeable change in artillery tactics. Instead of the old-fashioned system of range finding by experiment, the exact range is now found with the help of aeroplanes. No doubt artillery fire direction has been enormously increased in accuracy by the aeroplane, and infantry fire largely improved in efficiency by the same means.

Hut besides influence of this character the aeroplane has undoubted use in the finding of concealed positions, in the location of ships at sea or at anchor within defenses, possibly in the detection of submarine mines, and certainly in the enormous increase of efficiency given to fire and in many other details of observation,

lint the useful, approved, and most important work of air craft is probably to be found chiefly in reconnaissance and the collection and transmission of in formation in the theater of military operations; for this reason aviation must be reckoned as a vastly important branch of the Signal Corps of the Army, The use of air craft for these purposes cannot be open to the charge of inhumanity and cruelty. But as to the service and value of air craft in offense, much doubt remains, except where an overhead attack upon troops can be made effective—a condition that probably does not often arise, although many isolated instances of its value in attack are cited. When used in general destructive work against non-combatants, dislike to this method of attack must always exist. A fire sown broadcast upon the earth or employed under conditions which make specific aim useless is at least distasteful. But beside this feeling, it now appears that as a weapon capable of injuring an enemy by the dropping of bombs and other missiles, little of importance lias been proved. In real-

ity little is known of this power of air craft, though much is guessed and more feared. It seems probable, however, to judge from existing conditions, that the effect is largely moral, and that physical results heretofore obtained from this method of attack have been far too meager to warrant the cost, effort, and risk called upon to produce them.

* * * Of the attack by aeroplane, however, although I believe its importance is exaggerated, it is admitted that it may prove useful at times, and may be resorted to against proper objectives when needed, if the aeroplanes are available. On the other hand, it may later be show n that aerial offensive flights, especially in conjunction with sea operations, may prove important; but it is useless to prophesy, and 1 believe the only safe conclusion at this time regarding the value of aerial offensive is the verdict, "nut proven."

It may be said, however, that iI the future shows that attack from the sky is effective and terrible, as may prove to be the case, it is evident that, like the rain, it must fall upon the just and upon the unjust, and it may be supposed will therefore become taboo to all civilized people; and forbidden at least by paper agreements. Be that as it may, in view of present conditions it appears that the use of air craft for attack alone does not warrant the expense of production of air craft fur this purpose; and no recommendation for the construction and adoption of dirigibles on a large scale is made at the present time. The aeroplane should continue to be our main reliance for aerial work at present, and the dirigible as a service unit may well he placed on the waiting list.

Bui it should be noted and recalled later when economic conditions are more favorable, that both the aeroplane and the dirigible have proved successful in coast patrol, and will he equally so for frontier guard purposes. In this service the dirigible, especially of the smaller type, will be the more valuable machine, as from its leisurely flight, its power to keep the air at night and to use the searchlight, and especially on account of its ability to hover and to examine carefully the world beneath, it may become useful as a border patrol when freed from the danger of gunfire and from hostile aeroplane attack. But for the present it is believed that the Army should rely upon the aeroplane and the hydroaeroplane for the pati ul of sea coast and frontier, and lor use in its island possessions and exposed positions. One or two dirigible, if of American manufacture and design, might well be purchased when money is available for experimental purposes and to encourage our manufacturers i:i endeavor along this Hue of work; but I am not yet prepared to recommend that the Army take up the dirigible seriously, as its value is still believed to be indeterminate; it requires the co-ordination of too many favorable conditions to insure success, and its cost is comparatively yreat.1 Should large appropriations be made in the future for the avia-

1 Probably in proportion of about 1 dirigible to 35 aeroplanes of the best type.

tion service the question of the war and for the accumulation of vation from captive balloons, which

dirigihle will appear in another light, spare parts. must necessarily he sent up some dis-

but the time is not thought opportune Once the type of military machine tance in the rear, is a poor substi-

to pass beyond the experimental stage is determined it will be an easy and tute for the direct overhead recon-

in regard" to other air craft than comparatively inexpensive matter to naissance obtainable from aeroplanes

the aeroplane. It is doubtful whether maintain a considerable reserve of or dirigibles.

the dirigible is worth its cost as an parts in storage, with mannfactur- In addition it is asked that con-offensive machine, and for recon- ers or elsewhere, ready to be as- sideration be given by the War L)e-naissance or defense it seems to be sembled as needed, should the policy partment to the training of men of of far less value than the aeroplane, of supplying a large reserve be the National Guard in the work of The dirigible is seemingly useless in deemed unwise. aviation, and to the establishment of defense against aeroplane or gunfire, The captive halloon. too, has its a reserve corps of flying men and its attack may be safely left to uses, but they are limited. Obser- throughout the country, the care of fire from the ground and to the aeroplane. The value of tbe dirigible as an observation station is

obvious, and is no doubt very great AVIATION IN THE U. S. SIGNAL CORPS

under circumstances which prevent

its destruction from below or by From June, 1913, to February, been returned to their branch of the

aeroplanes, but such conditions will T' 14, an amount of flying quite service and unsuitable enlisted men

probably rarely be met. and at pres- unprecedented in the history of avia- have been assigned to other duties,

ent it is believed that the use of tion in tbe United States was carried It is the intention to establish a

the dirigible in offense, defense, or on at the Signal Corps Aviation high standard of efficiency for both

reconnaissance is so limited that its School, San Diego, Cal. Unfor- officers and enlisted men on aviation

adoption now for these purposes is tunately there were three accidents, duty and to see that this standard

not worth while. Its power of gen- resulting in the death of four offi- is maintained. Valuable experience

eral destruction when no resistance cers. While it could not be estab- has been gained during the year by

i> offered is tremendous, but for this lished that these accidents were due the officers conducting the aviation

work it is not believed that prepara- lo faulty construction or design of work of the Signal Corps. With lit-

tion should be made. the machine, the result was a loss tie or no previous experience and

The continued development of the of confidence in tbe "pusher" type of no precedents to guide them, they

aeroplane in our service, by the en- machine m which all these accidents have had to train themselves and

couragement of Congress in granting bad occurred, and a decision made their subordinates at the same time,

men and money to an extent war- to abandon that type. This, reduced great deal of this work is of a

ranted by the size of our Army, is the numher of machines considered character entirely different from any-

strongly * urged. To this goal* the suitable for service to four Burgess thing else in the service. To suc-

Signal "Corps is bending its best ef- tractors and one Curtiss tractor. This cessfully adapt it to the needs of

forts change caused considerable delay the service will require the best

It is believed, however, that aero- the ?°Jk\ as on,X °"e or two tho»fht and the most careful study

planes, their accessories, and the offi- omcers had, >«» Gained to fly a on the part of those officers charged

cers and men to use them should tfactor ""chine; but instruction on with this duty, be liberallv supplied. these machines was pushed forward

As to tbe genera, type of aero- ^ten ^^^^^ PRESENT CONDITIONS, plane, a word must be said. In the a detachment, with three of the best present time the aviation United States we have for military mac),;nes at San Diego, was ordered work of the Signal Corps is on a purposes stood by the biplane, and to Galveston, Tex. This detachment very satisfactory basis. There are events are now proving the wisdom returned t0 gan Diego on July 17, 24 officers, 115 enlisted men and 7 of this attitude. It is believed that j9jj civilians performing aviation duty at the present practice points strongly Considerable equipment has been the Signal Corps Aviation School at in favor of the biplane over the added to the Signal Corps Aviation San Diego. Cal., and in the Philip-monoplane as a war machine. In- sc|100] 3, gan Diego, both in the l"ne Islands. Applications of offi-deed, there is little doubt that the waj, of machines and apparatus nec- cers for detail as aviation students types of machines now used by the essary ior tneir maintenance. Five are beinS regularly received. * * * aviation section of the Signal Corps of tlle maci,jnes now jn service rep- Uunng the year the policy has are the best which are known for resent tile vtry highest development keen adopted of employing expert military purposes. I speak of types, o( aeroplane " construction in the civilian instructors to give the pre-not details, and refer especially to United States, and will compare very I'minary instruction in flying. The the biplane tractor. This Army ma- fav-orahle with anything that has been "esults obtained have demonstrated chine has resulted from close study done abroad.2 beyond a question of doubt the wis-and experiment, and is the product . « . ՠ« dom of this policy. There are now of long trial, from which the con- a number of expert aviators in the elusion is reached that the machine file present outlook for securing service, hut expert aviators are not with propeller action—that is. the satisfactory aeronautical engines in necessarily competent instructors. In-puller—is superior and safer than the t]le United States is very encourag- structors must have special qualifica-pusher. Evidently, in case of acci- ;ng ... Tne American manu- tions in addition to being expert dent with the former machine, the facturers have recently shown a very aviators.

aviator falls ahove rather than under encouraging activity in the matter of ' In addition to the regu-the weights. It is probable that the producing "first-class aeronautical en- lar instruction in flying, in the care s,ize and power of aeroplanes will g;nes, aIId at least one American- and repair of aeroplanes, and the be enormously increased in the fu- made engine will compare very fa- operation, care, and repair of aero-ture. vorably with those manufactured nautical engines, courses of lectures The aeroplane is not in itself an abroad. were delivered on the subject of expensive machine; but the cost as a ..... meteorology and meteorological in-whole will not be small. It has been struments, aeronautical engineering, noted that the wastage in aeroplanes, PROGRESS. propellers, and on mternalcombus-as shown by notes from abroad, is Under the act of July 18, 1914 uorl engines by eminent authorities enormous; and with the appropria- [see AERONAUTICS, April 15], tbe on tl,cse subjects, tions for the aviation service of the worij 0f aviation was' given a great ..... Army it is especially desired to em- impetus, the work of the Signal _ , . , phasire the fact that the life of an c/s \viation School, at San Diego, , Experiments ill dropping bombs aeroplane is short and decreases <-al.P was reorganized and much ir0٠a» aeroplane were begun early rapidly with use. and especially with „roaress made 111 A?nl 1914' at. San Dieg,°- Ah,es<; use in the field. Unlike; the long 1 f,iere ]ias been a very marked im- experiments were interrupted and had service of ordinary war machines, ,)rovement in tbe personnel of the 0 b,e '"definitely postponed when such as rifles, field and siege guns. !,\riatlon section during the year. Of- he detachment was sent to Galves-the life of the aeroplane under the ncers unsuited to this work have t0"- „ . .ՠ, . ,. vicissitudes of actual operations is Sufficiently satisfactory results

brief, like that of an insect, which - "ere obtained, however, to warrant

it resembles. It follows that a suffi- 2 Editorial Note.—The aeroplane continuing these experiments at the

cient supply of aeroplanes will be competition was expected to bring earliest opportunity,

required upon the outbreak of hos- out information sufficient for the There were also conducted at San

tilities for both Regular and Volun- school to decide on a standard ma- Diego experiments in observing sub-

teers, and means should be provided chine. All conditions for the contest marine mines from aeroplanes, which

for their rapid manufacture during were printed in the July 15 issue. were continued from time to time

with interesting results, and a demonstration was given of a parachute pack designed for use by aviators. This parachute is packed in a compact bundle and carried on the back of the aviator. This device weighs about 8 pounds. At a height of about 1,200 feet the demonstrator jumped from the aeroplane, and the parachute opened promptly and lowered him gently to the ground. It is believed that as a life-saving device this parachute pack has considerable merit and warrants its development for use in our service.

The First Aero Squadron was organized at San Diego, Cab, during September, 1914, in accordance with General Orders, No. 75, War Department, December 4, 1913. This squadron consists of 16 officers, 77 enlisted men, and S aeroplanes, and is ready for field service. It is expected that a second squadron will soon be organized.

During the year [ending June 30] there were a total of 3,340 flights made, with an aggregate time in the air of 747 hours and 50 minutes, 796 passengers being carried. Among the best performances of the year were the following:

From San Diego, Cab, to Venice, Cal.; distance, 115 miles.

From Venice, Cal., to San Diego, Cal., via Cienga, Cal.; distance, 134 miles.

From San Diego, Cal., to Elsinore, Cal., via Pasadena, Cal.; distance, 220 miles; duration, 3 hours and 39 minutes.

From San Diego, Cal., to Bur-bank, Cal., and back to San Diego; distance, 246 miles; duration, 4 hours and 43 minutes. This flight established new American cross-country distance and duration record for machine carrying pilot and one passenger.

A great many flights were made during the vear at high altitudes ranging from 5,000 to over 12,000 feet.

Altitude and cross-country work is the very best training for service in time of war and should be undertaken by only the most experienced aviators.

The Signal Corps Aviation School is now located at North Island, in San Diego Bay. All of the conditions for a suitable training station are more completely fulfilled at San Diego, Cal., than at any other point in the United States. This locality lias been used as a training station at some time during the past four years hy the Army, the Navy, and several civilians. All agree that for training purposes it is unexcelled.

It is requested by the commanding officer of the training school that land be secured at San Diego. It is therefore recommended that steps be taken at once to secure a permanent location for the Signal Corps Aviation School on or near North Island. This island is the best place known for preliminary training, and it is recommended that an effort be made to secure land here for use as an aviation training station and that the Signal Corps Aviation School be permanently located thereat.

AVIATION IN PHILIPPINES.

An aviation school was opened at Fort William McKinley March 10. 1913, with four officers and a small detachment of enlisted men. During the following July three of the offi-

cers fulfilled the requirements of the War Department and were rated as military aviators. In August, 1913, the school was transferred to Pasay, arrangements having been made for a temporary hangar on the beach at the Manila Polo Club. As this was the rainy season, tbe Fort William McKinley flying field was frequently covered with water and deep mud, but at Pasay hydroaeroplane flying over Manila Bay was continued during all favorable opportunities between typhoons. Three accidents occurred, in which three aeroplanes were wrecked and one officer killed. After these accidents the aviation school was discontinued on account of the lack of training machines.

From March 24 to November 14, 1913, the aviation school made 696 flights, the total duration being 7S hours and 57j^ minutes, not including short runs on the ground during the instruction of students.

An officer and a small detachment of enlisted men were sent to Fort Mills in October, 1913, for hydroaeroplane work. The first flight at this point was made November 6, and from that date to the following June 7S flights were made, the total time in the air being 37 hours and

47',^ minutes. The longest flight was 2 hours and 5 minutes, and the highest altitude reached, 5,500 feet. At this point flights were made to observe the results of mortar fire, for practice in locating targets, and in observing the result of siege-gun fire from Corregidor at targets on the Mariveles shore. During these flights various means of signaling from the aeroplane were tried, and the work was all of a great practical value.

AVIATION IN HAWAII.

The aviation station was established at Fort Kamehameba on July 14, 1913, with 1 officer in charge, a detachment of 12 enlisted men, and 1 civilian aeronautical engine expert. Two machines were set up and flights made by the officer in charge up to November 23, 1913. The tent hangars first used being unserviceable, were replaced with more substantial hangars of wooden frame with galvanized iron covering. This detachment has been transferred to the school at San Diego, and reached the latter point in the middle of August, 1914.—From the Annual Report of the Chief Signal Officer, Brig.-Gen. George P. Scriven.

LATEST BURGESS-DUNNE FOR ARMY

One will notice the 120 h.p. Salm-son motor and the new type radiator, designed by W. Starling Burgess, in the new Burgess-Dunne aeroplane recently built for the War Department.

This machine with the heavy hydroplane equipment, weighing over 317 pounds, developed a speed in the air with two passengers of 75 miles per hour and climbed at the rate of over 300 feet a minute. The aeroplane has been shipped to San Diego for active service. This is the first Burgess-Dunne to be de-

livered to the War Department. The aeroplane is very heavy and built for real hard service.

On the initial trip on October 10 of the new Dunne biplane built at Marblehead for the United States Government an average speed of 75 miles an hour was reported. A feature of the new machine is a nickel steel armor plate l/% inch thick to he installed in the operator's car. This new type of war machine is the heaviest Dunne machine ever built. It weighs 1,700 pounds and has a carrying capacity of 2,300 pounds.

AERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 191|& £ R S O NAL PROPERTY Page 89

AERO SCIENCE CLUB HOLDS FIRST SPEED CONTEST.

The first model aeroplane speed contest ever held was held with great success under the auspices of the Aero Science Club at Van Cortlandt Park, New York City, on Sundav, September 20th, 1914.

The wind velocity was very small, so that the flights were very slightly, if at all effected by the wind.

The contest was held over a course of 528 ft, or 1/10 of a mile, the models rising from the ground under

By Harry Schultz, Model Editor

THE FUNK SPEED MODEL.

At the speed contest recently held by the Aero Science Club, the results of which appear above, the model constructed by R. Funk, and shown in the accompanying drawing, demonstrated its superiority over the other models entered by winning the contest, flying the distance of 528 feet, or 1/10 of a mile, in 14 2/5 seconds.

The fuselage, or main beam, of this model consists of an I-heam of spruce, measuring \\ by 3g of an

j^'as^r reacted

treated with Ambroid is secured to the front of the model as shown.

The chassis is constructed entirely »f 1 /32 in. steel wire. It consists of a central skid, the front upper end of which is bent into a square to fit the main stick. It extends downwardly, and then rearwardly where it is bent slightly to form a support, and act as a skid, for the rear portion of the model. Extending upward near the rear of this skid the upper end of which is looped about the main stick is a wire brace. The portion of the chassis to which the wheels are attached is of a triangular form, the upper end of which forms a square through which the main stick passes. The entire chassis is removed by simply withdrawing the main stick from the three square portions of the center skid, wheel portion and brace.

The propellers are 7 in. in diameter and of rather low pitch. They are constructed of thin birch steamed to shape, each half of the blade being made separately, and then the two halves constituting the entire propeller being joined at the center, thus forming a thickened portion through which a perforation can be drilled for the reception of the propeller shaft.

Each propeller is driven by S strands of Vs-in. flat rubber. The entire model weighs slightly over 2 ounces.

their own power. With a very straight and speedy flight R. Funk annexed first prize, doing the course in 14 2/5 seconds, or at the rate of approximately 26 miles per hour.

The writer took second prize, after strenuous attempts to persuade his model to fly straight, doing the course in 16 seconds, or at the rate nf 22l/2 miles per hour.

Carl Trube, a youngster from Yqnkers, N. Y., whose models are noted for their fine flying, was third, doing the course in 20 seconds.

Many interesting events took place and the air was continually full of models.

Probably the most overworked persons on the field were Messrs. Edward Durant and George Bauer, the judges. Mr. Durant acted as timer and Mr. Bauer as starter.

The prizes were cash, offered by the club, and aeronautical publications kindly donated by Harper and Brothers.

inch at the center, and tapering towards the front and rear ends. In order to strengthen the same it is covered with fibre paper and treated with Ambroid varnish. Extending upwardly from about the center of this stick is an upright of wire, looped at its upper end, and passing from the front of the stick, through the loop, and to the rear of the stick, is a single strand of very fine steel wire. At the rear and fitted into a slot in the stick, is the propeller bar measuring 7 '4 in. in length, and \\ in. wide by !4 in. thickness.

The main planes are entirely constructed of 1 /32 in. flat steel wire, the main plane measuring 19 in. in span and 2 in. in chord at the center. The elevator measures 6 in. in span and has a chord of IM in. at the center. Buth planes are covered with China silk and treated with Ambroid. A small fin constructed of steel wire and covered with silk,

THE SCHULTZ SPEED MODEL.

The above model was constructed by the writer and won second prize in the speed contest above mentioned, doing the course in 16 seconds.

The fuselage is constructed of J4 by 3/16 spruce and is 30 in. in length. As shown, it is of the usual triangular farm and is braced by two bamboo strips, the front one being 9 in. from the apex of the triangle and the rear one being 10 in. from the rear of the frame. The propeller bar is of bamboo and is 7Vj in. in length and V* by % in. in thickness. The bearings, which consist of Vz lengths of tubing, are secured to the propeller bar by binding very tightly with silk thread, then coating with Ambroid glue.

The tail plane, is constructed of Ts in. square bamboo and is of a triangular form, the triangle being formed by strips extending from the propeller bar to the rear brace and being secured thereto as shown. The front plane is constructed of 1/16 in. flat steel wire and has a main lu~ am extending across the same on the under side, of spruce 3/16 by 13 in thickness.

Both planes are covered with goldbeaters skin, sometimes known as Zephyr skin and treated with Ambroid.

(Continued on page 9U)

GLENN MARTIN MAKES NEW RECORD.

After the "competition" at San Diego was called off, Glenn L. Martin put his machine through the paces on Oct. 29th, with the result that he climbed 4.170 ft. in ten minutes, and 4,500 ft. in 11 minutes,

the American cross-country record by carrying two passengers, besides himself, a distance of about 110 miles.

These two machines are worthy in every way of the best traditions of American workmanship, and their designers and builders deserve great credit for what they have done.

and party, consisting of his family, Robert Nolker, president of the St. Louis Aero Club, and members, were waiting to christen the new balloon. The Mayor's daughter, Edna, broke a bottle of Mississippi River water over the anchor and then took her place in the basket for her first ascent. Both river banks were crowded with people, watching the spectacle, which marked the start ot a river pageant.

Leaving the boat's deck, the balloon slowly drifted over the river to the shore, above the crowds and the city to the northwest, where luncheon was enjoyed 7,300 ft. above terra fir ma. Landing was later made on the historic farm of General Grant, now owned by Augustus A. Busch, the brewer, who was the first to arrive with his car and assist in tbe deflation. Hugh Wagner brought Mr. Honeywell and Miss Kiel back to the boat for dinner.

NEW BALLOON COMPANY.

With a change in tbe distribution of stock of the French-American Balloon Co., of St. Louis, the name becomes the Honeywell Balloon Co., with Capt. II. E. Honeywell as president and general manager, as a reward for the long list of achieve-m nts to which Honeywell points with pride.

Honeywell balloons were entered in 14 big races and 9 first, 6 second, and 4 third places were obtained. In 1908 a trip of 870 miles was made, making a new American record for distance and duration. In the international race from Stuttgart. Germany, 1912. a distance of 1.200 miles was covered, with the balloon landing near Moscow, Russia, winning third prize. In the international race last year Honeywell, in his own balloon, obtained second place for America. In the international race in 1911 at Kansas City, Honeywell's balloon, non-contestant, beat in distance the German winner of the race. In the international contests, of course, the best products of foreign countries were represented.

carrying the full required load consisting of 450 lbs. of sand attached to the fuselage, gasoline and oil for four hours' flight and one passenger, lie afterwards broke the American passenger record by flying for five hours and fifteen minutes with the full Army load, as above stated. These remarkable flights were made with the new Martin speed scout which was entered for the competition and which is equipped with the new Mall-Scott Type A-4. 100 h. p. motor.

The engine swings a 8 ft. 4 in. by 5 ft. 9 in. propeller at 1,500 r. p. m. in the air. giving a speed of 90 miles per hour for the machine.

Christofferson's machine was not on hand on the day set for the beginning of the competition on account of continued motor trouble. 1 le bad taken it to Los Angeles several days before, and, after trying two motors, shipped it back to San Francisco. Before leaving San Diego, however, be unofficially fulfilled the requirements by climbing 4.000 ft. in ten minutes with full load. On tbe trip between San Diego and Los Angeles, he broke

They have really produced machines which compare favorably with the best products of European constructors, and that without one-tenth of the encouragement that European constructors receive. In plain English, it will be a damshame if the government does not recognize and adequately reward their efforts.

HONEYWELL STARTS BALLOONING WEST.

Capt. II. Eugene Honeywell of the French-American Balloon Co.. has finished a new balloon of silverized fabric, which made its initial esccnt on October II. The new bag, the "New St. Louis." of 40,000 cu. ft. capacity, was inflated in St. Louis and towed over thousands of wires, over factories, railroads and other obstacles a half mile to the Mississippi River where a tug boat was waiting to tow the balloon up the river, under the free bridge, to the harbor boat "Rastus Wells," which was anchored in mid-stream about a mile distant, where Mayor Kiel

ENGLAND PAYS FOR USE OF WRIGHT PATENT.

The Aero Club of America has been notified that the British Government has officially recognized the Wright Brothers' patent and has paid to the British Wright Company $75,000 in settlement for the past, present and future use of the Wright patent in Great Britain.

This still leaves the patent in the possession of the British Wright Company, which can collect royalties from other users of the invention in England. This is in settlement of the sued claim for $375,000 which has heen in the British courts for the past year.

Old subscriber writes in to say:

"Stop Miss -'s subscription at

once and send me bill. After talking it over we have come to the conclusion that it is no use paying six dollars a year when by getting married we can both use the same copy and save 50 per cent, on the damhighcostof living."

Never looked at it that way, but the idea is brilliant, just tbe same.

UIRO-VAVTICS, Sept. 30, 1914.

Page 91

NEW LONG DISTANCE NON-STOP FLIGHT.

A new American record for nonstop cross country flight was established on < Mober 17th by W. C. Robinson, of Grinnell, Iowa, in his flight from Des Moines to Kentland, Ind., a distance of 375 miles, in four hours and 44 minutes.

Robinson bail intended to fly to ('hicago, following the railroad all of the way. When he reached near Clinton, low a, however, he was forced to ascend above the storm tiouds. and lost his way. lie left Des Moines at 10.56 in the morning and alighted in Kent land at 3.40 p. in. lie was timed passing over

vision. The dimensions of the machine are: Span, 35 ft.; chord, 7 ft.; length. 25 ft. The motor is a radial type, also designed by Robinson, 6 cylinder, 5-in. bore, 6-in. stroke, developing 100-b.p. and turns an S-ft. propeller, dy2 ft. pitch at 1,250 r.p.m. Gross weight, 900 lbs. Forty-five gallons of gasoline and 7 gallons of oil were consumed on the long trip. The distance actually flown is said to be 400 miles, which figures an average speed of 84 miles per hour. Xot a little of the success was due to the use of Bosch magneto rnrl plugs.

JANNUS REPORTS GOOD BUSINESS.

"Tony" Jannus, writing from Baltimore says, "We have made a killing here. In fact, ever since my machine w ore out on me at Cedar Point I have kept my brother busy with bookings, and our first w eek here, although we had expected to do practically nothing, netted $745.00 in passengers alone."

The pioneer flying boat pilot has combined with his brother, Roger Jannus, in business, with offices and factory at Battery Ave. and Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.. where they are busy filling contracts for exhibition flights and passenger carrying and are taking orders for the designing and construction of flying boats and land machines.

Construction work is to be begun on a 3-passengcr flying boat, known as the "Exposition Model" and two more of the same type have been ordered. "Tony" will go to Florida for about two weeks to fill some contracts and return to Baltimore, preparing every possible apparatus new orders will j nstify and have the tir»<t contingent of three flying boats and one fast monoplane ;irrive at San Francisco hy the 2uth.

Grinnell at 11.37 a. m., having made the 56 miles fron the starting point in 4 1 minutes and at noon he w as sighted over Marengo, a distance of 'Hi miles from Des Moines. Rochester, la., was passed at 12.57 p. m., after which point he began ascending to an altitude of 7,500 ft. and flving above the clouds for some three hours the remainder of the distance, llis course was due east, but a strong w ind blew him tow ard the south. "During the la-^t half hour of the flight," says Mr. Robinson, "the clouds below me began breaking up and gave me a sight of the ground. My gasoline ran out and I descended slowly and found myself in Kentland."

The machine used was a two-seater, side by side, monoplane of Mr. Robinson's own design and built by the Grinnell Aeroplane Company, of Grinnell, la., under his super-

The Jannus brothers—Roger and Tony made spectacular flights over \he l'atapsco beginning November 1. taking with them in their giant bydro-^ biplane several Raltimoreans as pas-

sengers. The first two to make the Mr. Robinson stated that before he flights were Richard Clapp and started he had some apprehension Spencer Heath, the maker of "Para-abnut being able to get out of the gnu" propellers, while a waiting list small field in which he started with of some half dozen others was on tin large gasoline tank, but that he hand to make up the day's enter-found that the machine rose from tainment,

the ground as easily with the large —■--—

tank as it did with the small 5-gal- „T „ KT rAM1i.rDrr , Kr

Ion tank, and that he as yet does FOREIGN COMMERCE IN not know the lifting power of the SEPTEMBER,

machine. Robinson intends to keep [MPORTS.

increasing the size of his tank and Aeroplanes .............. None

gasoline until he discovers how much parts ................... $13,548

it will carry, and it would not be <> mos., ending Sept.,

at all surprising to see him double 'planes and parts........ 13,910

the capacity be used in his trip to EXPORTS,

Kentland and go with the wind for 5 aeroplanes ............. $lb,600

a world's record. Parts.................. . 89

After several setbacks owing lo , "'"^ 5ndmS ^ePl- 1Q-nyo

j ,- * . . planes and parts........ 195,0S9

poor gasoline and a slight injury to EX PORTS OF FOREIGX MAKE.

the 'plane in landing at Momeuee, Aeroplanes .............. Xoue

111., Robinson completed the trip to parts ................... None

Chicago on October 20th. ') inos., parts only........ $207

IN WAREHOUSE SEPT. 30.

- 1 aeroplane .............. $1,856

ANOTHER NEW ALTITUDE RECORD.

Captain 11. L. Mullei, of the U. S. Signal Corps birdnien, on < >ctoher S made a new American altitude record of 17,185 feet, using the new Curtiss Model I tractor, described in the last issue. The Curtiss 90-100 OX motor was fitted, of course.

It's now up to Thompson and his Gyro-motored machine to again break this new figure.

HONEYWELL MAKES TWO BALLOON RECORDS.

Capt. H. E. Honeywell broke two American records in the balloon. New St. Louis, on Nov. 1st. He increased the distance record for four passengers in a balloon of 40,000 cu, ft. capacity from 77 to 85

miles, and the altitude record from 7,300 ft. to S.0U0 ft.

With Honeywell were Miss Estelle Lilich. 3515 Tenessee avenue, and her fiance. Edwin C. Knenig, vice-president of the Missouri Press Brick Company, and William II. Threfts, J r., a photographer. The party started from Priester's Park and landed at Kinmundy, 111.

Honeywell sailed without a drag rope because of the weight of the load. He bad difficulty in landing and part of the basket dragged through a pond, wetting its occupants. Farmers near Kinmundy seized the balloon and held it until it could be tethered.

Honeywell male the previous record with four in the "Missouri."

The Macv stabilizer will be tried out shortly at the Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego,

REGARDING COOKE'S DEATH.

In noting the death of Weldon Cooke last issue, an error was made in staling the machine was a tractor, lie, it seems, changed from the tractor described in full in AERO-XAUTICS at the time, and built a Curtiss-type pusher, with Roberts 6-cylinder motor, ailerons on upper plane. Double surfaced Irish linen, treated with home-made "dope," which Cooke said cost 20 cents a gallon to make. His seat was on brackets bought for 10 cents at a Woolworth store. Xot a turnbuckle or lock nut on the machine, Tbe left aileron bad a broken rib. Cooke sai«l he had flown it that way till "now (Pueblo) and gotten by with it-—guess" he could now. The gasoline tank had a leak and Cooke drove in a wooden plug as big as a lead pencil to stop the flow.

JOINT CONFERENCE ON AVIATION

The inventors, after the Confer-^t^riN^/^NNv ence, may be given a certificate

^i^-r^^\\ showing that their invention has been

submitted to the Joint Conference. 1 f the .Joint Conference so decides, the opinion passed on the invention may be included in the certificate.

There will be no charges for the consideration of the inventions, but the inventors w ill fully prepay all mail matter addressed to the Society, as well as all express charges for drawings, models, etc. Should a demonstration of apparatus be arranged for, the inventor will bear the cost of it.

All inventors wishing to submit _ their inventions are invited to communicate with the Technical Board The Aeronautical Society of Amer- of the Society 29 West 39th Street

Mr. Daniel L. Braine, 185 Madison Ave., New York City.

Mr. Walter L. Post, 50 Church St., New York City.

Mr. Joseph Barbato. 11 Pine St., New York City.

Mr. George Adams, 113th St. and Riverside Drive, Riverside Mansions, New York City.

Mr. Leroy M. Whetstone, 3820 North Franklin St.. Philadelphia, Pa.

Mr. James Mitchell Beck, St. James Hotel, Philadelphia, Pa. Elected Nov. 5th.

29 West 39th Street. New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

in collaboration with many na-

in

New York City, and to submit to it all data in their possession, such

tional engineering ړ٪*]ړ £ as patents, descriptions, data of tests,

this country, will on Febiuary 5tli i inventor Is in a position

mid 6th 1915, consider the inven- ttc- 11 \nc mvemor 15 in d position

ana oui. , etahilitv t0 submit a model, or can show an

turns tending tc» increase tl«■ ^bil.ty f worki size> he should

and safety of flight in heaver-than ^ ^ tQ the Tcchsn;cal Board. It

air machines. nu]St be c]early understood that all

In addition to the Technical Boaid information so submitted may he prc-

and representatives of the Ae

ronauti-

nted in public meeting of the So-

cal Society of America representa- Q and thcrcfore# no inventions

lives of several national engineering Qr da(a of a secret nature shou]d be

organizations will take part. llie comnuniicated t0 th Technical

following have already sent in lists p>oard

of their representatives: The'Technical Board will consider American Mathematical Society, the inventions submitted with a view American Society of Mechanical En- of preparing for the meeting of the gineers. Massachusetts Institute of Joint Conference on Aviation such Technology, American Physical So- "data as will enable the Conference ciety. . to form a clear and correct judg-The complete list of representatives ment of the value of the invention, will he published later. The Joint and will collaborate to this end with Conference will consider the inven- the inventor to the best of its abil-tions submitted solely with the view ities. The Technical Board retains of promoting thereby the progress of the right of withholding from pres-aeronautical engineering in the entation any invention either out-LTnited States. The work of the side of the scope of the Joint Con-conference will be embodied in its ference, or on which sufficient in-proceedings, the publication of formation has not been presented, which, in full or in part, will be or, which appears to be based on er-decided on by the Joint Conference, roneous theory. No invention will It will also express a general opinion be rejected on the latter score if mi each of the inventions submitted, embodied in working size.

GENERAL MEETING,

The general meeting of Nov. 12th (which was erroneously announced in the preceding issue) was devoted to the important subject of AERIAL STRATEGY IN WAR. An address on "THE WIRELESS PHASE" was delivered by Mr. E. BUTCHER, of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph of America, followed by an open debate, Messrs. Hammer and Kimball acting as exponents of the attacking power of aircraft and Messrs. Goldmerstein and Jones explaining the means of defense against such attacks.

ROUND TABLE DISCUSSIONS.

It is the intention of the Board of Directors to increase, as far as possible, tbe benefits derived by members from helonging to the Aeronautical Society of America and to liven up generally interest in matters aeronautical. With this purpose in view it has been decided to resume the round table discussions which were so pleasant a feature of the early days of the Society, and which enjoy a great popularity in several European engineering organizations. The rooms of the Society will be thrown open to members Thursday evenings and a general "conversazione" will take place. No formal lectures or papers are expected to be presented at such discussions, but members are welcome to raise questions in connection with the art of flying which are of more or less general interest, as well as to tell of their work in the development of the new art. Probably soinehodv will always have something to say about new books on aviation, nr about a new article in some foreign paper or engineering periodical, and it is generally expected that memhers will greatly enjoy the evening spent in the Society's rooms. Members are entitled to bring with them friends interested in aviation. No "conversazione" will take place on evenings of general meetings.

During the second week of February next the first Joint Aeronautical Convention in America will be held in the Engineers Building when there will he exhibited a "new electro-mechanical motion that will show the basic principle of inherent stability in aeroplanes.

"This mechanism, when in operation, expresses an earnest desire to continue in an elliptical orbit-plane tangential to, or parallel with, the earth's surface; while it also pre-cesses, nutates, perturbates and performs all the functions of a satellite. Therefore, it is another moon to the earth. It is also an electron model in accord with the electron theory of the universe which may he expressed as follows:

"If we assume that inside all chemical and other atoms there are minute electrons, or planets, constantly spinning, and flying, in orbital planes, then we may prove one law governing the universe.

"Sir J. J. Thomson, of Cambridge University, England, was awarded the Alfred Nobel $40,000.00 cash prize in the year 1906, for advancing the electron theory which has not been refuted, and it now remains for some one to make a special study of electron models in order to re-\eal the electron formula.

"The discoverer would be entitled to another Alfred Nobel $40,000.00 cash prize with others too numerous to mention, and, tbe discoverer would also he known throughout the world as the greatest scientist in history."

For further information address Harry Schultz, secretary the Aero Science Club of America, Room 718, 29 W. 39th St., New York, N. Y.

NEW MEMBERS.

Mr. Brandon Hendricks, life membership, 924 West End Ave., N. Y. City. Elected July 30th.

Mr. F. N. Brown, 65 Livingston St., Brooklyn, N. Y. Elected August 27th.

Mr. Or vis A. Roach. 401 Cedar St.. San Antoniu, Texas.

Mr. Frank A. Roy, 527 Fifth Ave.. New York City. Elected Sept. 19th.

Captain Ewald Decker, 248 West 52nd St.. New York City.

Mr. lidding Freudenthal, 250 Manhattan Ave., New York City. Elected Oct. 7th.

Mr. George I. Brown, 17 State St., New York City.

Mr, N. I*. Converse, of San Francisco, inventor of the Converse Automatic Stabilizer, which was recently described in these columns, is now engaged in constructing a new fore-and-aft and lateral stabilizer, which be expects to have ready for trial tests within a fortnight. This stahilizer follows the lines of his lateral stabilizer which was tried out with complete success on the machine of the late Arthur Kybitski a few months ago. The new stabilizer will weigh only 18 lbs., complete.

I have no criticisms for your magazine—nothing but praises. It is the best of the four that 1 take. STEVEN STUART,

Seattle, Wash.

.MROXAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914.

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AERONAUTICS

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BARGAIN IN BOOKS—Will sell following books: Aerial Navigation (Salverda) $1.50: Navigating the Air (Aero Club of America) $.50; Aeronautical Annual, 1895-6-7 (James Means) $5; Travels in Space (Valentine & Thompson) $.50; Art of Aviation (Brewer) $1.50; Airships Past and Present (Ilildebrand) $3; Proceedings Int. Congress Aerial Navigation, Chicago, 1893. $5; various other hooks

tin own in to purchaser of the lot. I.. E._ Dare, 216 West lOJth st.. New York.

HAYING found a mechanical movement that would build an aerial apparatus that would be superior to the present aeroplane, and not having the money to build a try-out machine. I will give an interest to reliable parties who will exploit the device. E. G. L., care AERONAUTICS.

FLYING ON LONG ISLAND.

Only through the co-operation of the aeroplane manufacturers located on the aviation field at Garden City, could the meets, such as is programed each week, be made possible. Fully five to eight aeroplanes take part in the Saturday events while twn or more passenger carrying machines entertain the multitude of Sunday visitors.

On Saturday afternoon, Sept. 19th. Hdrold Kantner made a pretty flight in the Schmitt monoplane, rising to an altitude of 5,000 ft. This was followed by a handicap race between the Schmitt monoplane and the Kul.l-Baysdorfer biplane, around the held three times, in which the monoplane won.

Fully 1.000 people visited the field Sunday and were rewarded by seeing some fine flying. An accident occurred at the close of the afternoon, which wrecked one machine hut in which no one was hurt. Fred Jacobs went out in the Schneider machine for his second flight in a biplane. At the extreme end of

the field, in trying to make the turn, his control wire broke and the machine came down on one wing, crumplin.sc it up under him.

The program for Oct. 3 was postponed on account nf the death of William I'iceller. Late in the afternoon however Albert Tleinrich and Bonney made several flights so as not to disappoint the crow d at the field.

A new feature introduced at the Columbus day meet was a balloon chase. Several rubber, gas-filled toy balloons were released, and as they sailed up in the air, the aviators went after them. Whether the balloons were too small or whether the aviator was unable to manage both his aeroplane and revolver at the same time, >s not known, but the balloons floated away unharmed. Albert Heinrich was the first to compete in the bomb-dropping contest. The first few bombs he dropped missed the target by 300 ft., but after a little practice he was able to drop them with more accuracy. Sidney Beck with, in his military tractor biplane, also made some good scores.

The program for the following Saturday had to be postponed to Sunday, owing to bad weather. On Sunday, how ever, the 4.500 people who were at the field saw some exceptionally fine flying. A novel feature of the day was the use of human targets for bomb dropping. Arthur Heinrich and two other avia tors went out on the field and volunteered as targets. This caused a great deal of ercitement, for if the bombs had struck the men, the result would have been disastrous, as the bombs are quite heavy and arc filled with cartridges which explode when they hit the ground. Heinrich made several flights with passengers and Beck with gave a splendid exhibition of landing.

On Saturday, Oct. 24. the program consisted of bomb dropping, races and balloon chasing. An interesting exhibition was given on Election day and owing to the great micccss of these meets the Week End Meets Association have decided to have them continued, with a special program for Thanksgiving Day. No admission is charged to the field on Sundays.—D. B. Wright.

AERIAL BOMBS AND PROJECTILES

VETERAN BALLOONIST IS DEAD.

Samuel Archer King, a veteran balloonist, died at his home in Phila-ilelpliia on November 3. lie was 86 years old and made his first ascension in 1851. During his career as an aemnaut he made 4S0 ascensions, and never met with a serious accident.

Professor King, formerly a photographer, made bis first ascension in Fairmount Park in 1851. and immediately became not only one of the foremost enthusiasts in the sport, but also soon was acknwledged to be one of the best in formed and most efficient pilots uf aerostats.

Seconds Elapsed Titoe

SOME EXPERIMENTS WITH A BIPLANE

(Con1 iniwii from pope R-i) disposition is a valuable one ami u ill come i nto general use some day. It took several years for designers to see the value of the negative aileron which I have advocated for so long a time and I am curious to see how long it takes designers to see the value in the staggered converging biplane.

Aly experiments over water were CMied on at Marhlehead, Mass., and nil the members of the IUirgess Company saw the flights which my machine made. It seems to me that to get a tractor tailless b:plane to fly and land safely is to do something new in aeronautics.

MODEL NOTES

{Continued from pitgr S'J) The chassis is of a very simple form, as shown, and is constructed of '$ in. square split bamboo cut to streamline form. The wheels are ■'i of an inch in diameter and are of cork; fitted with small pieces of tubing for hubs. The propellers are carved from white pine and are 7 in. in diameter with a pitch of approximately 13 in. Each propeller is driven by 10 strands of } sin. flat rubber.

The accompanying chart has been arranged by Wilbur R. Kimball to represent graphically approximate data on falling bombs and projectiles. Tbese values will be modified by variations in the density of the atmosphere.

The vertical scales of fall in feet may be read for all three curves. The upper horizontal scale may be read for C and the lower one for A and IS.

The space traversed for any second of time is twice the time (2t) minus 1 times 16.OS. represented by the curve A on the chart.

The total distance fallen in any number of seconds is graphically shown by the curve 11, and is the time in seconds squared times 16.OS,

or -—- -

The velocity at the end of fall is gt, i. c. number of seconds times 32.16.

The velocity in feet per second acquired during fall is 8.02 times the square root of the space traversed.

If the projectile has an initial velocity of, c. g . 640 ft. per second

(on C >. approximately that of Ihe projectile tired by a Zeppelin, tin corresponding distance shown by the chart which it would have to fall to attain this velocity is 0,400 ft.; and the time required, 20 seconds.

To calculate the time of fall with this initial velocity, add the distances and subtract the corresponding times. For a projection of 6,000 ft., e. g.. add b,400. making 12.400, requiring 27-?4 seconds, less 20 = 7*_j seconds approximately. From curve A the space traversed in the 30th second is 944 ft.

Aviator Jacquith was fined $22.50 for duck hunting with his Curtiss flying boat, despite the plea of his attorneys, "who argued that the magistrate and game warden were giving a wrong interpretation to the law, as the so-called boat had no dimensions and was without specified draught."

F. C. ITild. formerly the head and feet of the American Aeroplane Sup-pi v 11 nuse. of Hempstead, L. I., is now in the French aviation reserve at Tours and will shortly go to the front.

While we are discussing speed models it recalls to mind the models constructed some few years ago by Stewart K. Easier, a former member of the N. V. Model Aero Club. These models are noted for their high speed, extremely light weight, excellent flying and high-class construction.

The main plane was extremely small, having a span of only 16 in.J 1 n fact, one of the Easter models had a main plane with a span of only 14 in.

These planes were double surfaced, being flat on the under side and cambered on the upper side. The front elevator had u very sharp dihedral angle, presumably for the purpose of obtaining straight flight1--.

The propellers were 7 in. in diameter and were carved so thin that it scarcely seemed possible for them to last for more than one flight, although a; a matter of fact the breakages were very few. The fuselage of this model was also a very delicate piece of construction.

Flights of over 1./00 ft. were very often obtained w ith this model, it being the holder of the world's record for distance for some time.

Published lemi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics

BY

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th Street New York Telephone, Columbus 8721 Cable, Aeronautics, New York

ERNEST L. JONES M. B. SELLERS, HARRY SCHULTZ, C. A. BEIER,

Editor Technical Editor Model Editor Advertising

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 1908, under the Act of March 3, 1879. $3.00 a year, 15 cents a Copy.

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XV. No. 7

OCTOBER 15, 1914

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THE HYDROAEROPLANE IN COAST DEFENCE RECONNAISSANCE

By Captain V. E. Clark, Aviation Section, Signal Corps.

In Kuropc, under actual war conditions, the aeroplane is daily proving its ability to pierce most effectually "the fog of war"—on land. The purpose of the present article is it point nut several practical uses of the hydroaeroplane as an adjunct to coast defense- to call to the reader's attention 'he possibilities in the use of this machine as a factor in the defense of our coast lines.

liy the general term "hydroaeroplanes." I mean all heavier-than-aif Hying craft capable of arising from ami alighting upon water, including so-called "flying boats," "aero boats/1 etc,

I n discussing the adaptation of the hydroaeroplane to coast reconnaissance, i will assume that the machine will always carry two men, w ho will divide betw een them the duties of pilot, observer, and signalman; and be provided with compass, other instruments, and a signal transmitting equipment. For some purposes the latter should be a wireless outfit; a:id for others, a smoke-puff device, such as a cylinder containing soot with apertures which can he opened and closed by the signalman. Practical tests in France l-ave shown that a compact wire-It s« outfit, weighing only about sixty pounds with antenna*, and not interfering vj.b the flight of the aeroplane carr dug it, is capable of sending messages sixty miles, under ordinal' ,■ conditions.

U KC ON N.USSANCi:.

( a) Discoverinty <;x pproaching Fleet.

Tn Fig. 1 have been indicated roughly three flight courses illustrating a plan by which, in case of an expected approach by hostile men-of-war or transports, three hydroaeroplanes might effect a more complete reconnaissance of our Xorth Atlantic coasi waters by making, back and forth, daily flights of three hours' duration, than would be possible by employing a score of the fastest destroyers.

It is not only possible, but highly probable, that, in the near future, hydroaeroplanes will he designed that will be able to "gel off," make extended flights during which implicit confidence mav he placed in the motor, and land without damage in almost any weather in which the navigation of a destroyer is practicable. There should, however, be some sort of break-water sheltering the get-away and landing water areas; and, in the plan suggested, the terminal points have been chosen with this in view.

In this connection, it must be rehiemhered that a strong wind, after having blow n over a large expanse of water, may be. to the occupants of an aeroplane flying in it, no more dangerous or uncomfortable than a dead calm. Strong winds over land become broken up by hills, cliffs, canons, and even trees or houses, until the air becomes very turbulent. On the other hand, there being none of these irregularities on the surface of the water, strong winds; will usnallv remain fairly constant in force and direction.

At each terminal point there

should he hangars, a machine shop, supplies*, extra motors, spare parts, and a force of mechanicians and relief pilots.

(hi a day of average atmospheric transparency, an observer in a machine riving at a height of two thousand feer could "make out" a fleei ot vessels at a distance of at least fifty nautical miles.

The shaded portion of Fig. I, then, indicates the area in \\ Inch the enemy would be visible to at least one of the flying scouts. After he had entered this area, the size of his fleet, the character of his vessels, and the direction of his movement would be reported to the wait-in;? coast defense commanders.

The report would, at the very least, give the ('oast Artillery personnel at New York, Fort M on roe. Huston, and Philadelphia fi ft ecu hours, and at the other fort ifled points within the zone, eight hours, in which to prepare pow der, fire trial shots, and even, possibly, move troops from the points not threatened to those that appear to he in danger. In the meantime, the eue-mv would tie utterly unawa e of the presence of the air scout. It is impossible to -ec or hear an aeroplane at a distance of even ten miles.

i b) "Run Hy" in a Fvg a tut Mo;-cnicnts Bchuui a Smoke Screen.

In many of our harbors, low fog banks, broken by many rifts, and extending only a short distance out from the fortilied shore, arc very common.

Should a coast defense commander have reason to expect an attempt to "run by," from hostile vessels behind such a fog bank, the service of a hydro might prove invaluable. The flagship would be located by circling over the harbor entrance', the observer would make a preparatory signal: and then the pilot should describe a series of regular circles, keeping his alt it ide constant, and passing, during the course of each circle, vertically over the target ship. The observer should cause a puff of smoke to be emitted when directlv over the target. There would be practically no danger to the aeroplane from the lire of the enemy's ships. It will be found that the only tire effective against an aeroplane is that of a regiment of infantry, in which there is a very large percentage of poor shots, the resultant wide distiersion increasing the probability of the aeroplane's being hit in a vital spot, despite the usual error in estimating range.

\Yhile the hydro is maneuvering as described above, the observers at the ends of horizontal bases on shore could, usinc azimuth instrumen ts capable of swinging through a large vertical angle, track, at least roucblv. the course of the target as indicated hv the path and signals of the aeroplane. While this method should prove particularly useful to mine commands. I believe that a snfficiently accurate track for the tiring of mortar and gun salvo* by '"ase HI might be >btained.

The movements of a fleet attempting m take advantage of a smoke screen might be followed and made

known to sNure obseners l>y an aeroplane using these same tactics.

(c) "Run-By" Xiqlit,

Should a coast defense commander expect a "rim-by" under cover of darkness, be would order one of his hydros to circle over the harbor entrance. Fven though the hostile vessels were running with "all lights doused." the observer in the aeroplane would be able to detect their approach by w a tching for the flames down in the smoke funnels and indicate the presence, strength, and direction of movement of a fleet by the use of Very pistol signals. Successive points in the course of a vessel might be indicated to those on shore hv dropping light bombs on the vessel when over it.

(d) I.veatiiui Submarines and .Submarine Mines.

It hac been found that, unless the water is \ ery muddy, at an altitude of about seven hundred feet submarine mines are distinctly visible from the air above: and that, from an altitude of two thousand feet, the movements of a submarine torpedo-boat may be easily observed.

IS'- employing the tactics outlined in (b), i. e.. describing regular circles at a constant altitude, and making smoke puffs when directly over i he target, the hvdro might render material aid to the mine command in its operations against submarines.

(el Reconnaissance Ayvinst Land-nit; Forces.

In (a) was described a method wheieby warning of the approach of transports might be given.

I'.ven after forces had landed at some point distant from coast fortifications, with ihe intention of operating against the defenses of the seaport from land, the movements of these troops might be followed from a hydroaeroplane as readily as from an aeroplane fitted with landing wheels. The hydro could start or land, for instance, at one of the terminal puints in Figure 1. or in the harbor of the city itself. The operations of the hostile fm-ce might bp reported daily from the time when the;- were several days" march distant.

Ft HE CONTROL.

< n Mortor Fire at c Target Obscure ti from Fnc 'Control St alio a hv a Fi oinout<<ry.

Should it be desired to fire on a vessel obscured from the observation of Are control stations by a high point of land, precisely the same system as has been suggested in (b) might used to direct observation and the ririntr of mortars. The- hvdro should maintain an altitude most convenient fur tracking b\ the base end azimuth inst ruin.' nls. A simple system of signals nit eh t be u^ed tn indicate to the loe cnmmandi r the relalive location ot the center of impact and the largi t. at all times during the firing.

(g) Indirect ]\Iortar and Hoiviiser Shrapnel Fire Against Land Forces.

Information, sufficiently accurate for indirect shrapnel fire, as to the position of the enemy "on the other side of the hill," might be obtained through use of the hydroaeroplane. Also, during this fire, corrections in elevation and azimuth might be made from information obtained from signals sent from the flying hydro.

(h) Spotting for Extreme Long Range Firing.

Suppose a fleet of the enemy's dreadnoughts should open a bombardment at a range of, say, twelve to fifteen thousand yards, against the protected city or against the fortifications. Should an attempt be made by the shore batteries to silence this bombardment, it would he next to impossible to determine, especially if the observing stations were located only a little above sea level, whether the center of impact were "over" or "short" of the target ships.

A hydroaeroplane, equipped with wireless, circling over a line normal to the line of fire drawn from the target, as close to the target as safety permitted, could, by using a simple code, keep the fire commanders on shore constantly informed as to the proper range corrections.

The observer could use, for determining range errors, a range rake the coss arm of which is capable of movement and adjustment along the beam "observer to target," which should be graduated. The distance from observer to target, to be laid off along this beam, may he obtained by short computation, from a table, or by a simple instrument. The two values required are: (1) the altitude of the observer, which may be read from an aneroid barometer; and (2) the angle, in a vertical plane, at the aeroplane, between the two lines; (a) vertical through aeroplane; and (h) aeroplane to target. The angle (3) may be obtained by an instrument, sheltered from the wind, consisting of a weighted arm which hangs vertically, with a graduated (sextant-like) arc attached, along which a simple sight (observer to target) may he moved; and the required vertical angle read.

offense.

(i) Dropping Bombs on Destroyers and Counter-Mining Craft Obscured from Shore Observation.

If, because of fog. darkness, searchlight out of service, or inconvenient location of mine field with relation to rapid fire batteries, these batteries should be unable to fire effectively on countermining craft or destroyers, the hydro might be of great aid to the

mine command by dropping explosive hombs on the hostile vessels from a low altitude.

(j) Attacking Dirigibles.

Should our coast forts ever be threatened hy bomb-dropping dirigible balloons, hydroaeroplanes should form an effective means of defense.

Possessing superior speed and mobility, and presenting a much smaller and more erratic target, they would he a constant menace to these monsters of the air. We have records of at least one, and probably two encounters, during the present Eu-opean war, in which patriotic French pilots have, by plungine their machines headlong into the envelopes of Zeppelins, demonstrated that, by the sacrifice of one man, a hostile dirigible, representing from twenty-five to one hundred and fifty men and hundreds of thousands of dollars in fighting material, may be rendered a complete loss.

Experience may prove that it is possdile to destroy a dirigible from an aeroplane by the use of a hand arm firing smail explosive shell, or hv throwing intn the top of the hal-loon a harpoon to which is attached a bomb with time fuse, diminishing, to snme extent at least, the danger to the pilot of the attacking aeroplane.—Journal of the U. S. Artillery.

WRIGHT COMPANY STARTS NEW INFRINGEMENT SUIT

On November 18. 1914. Judge Julius M. Mayer, of the U. S. District Court, sitting at Buffalo, signed two orders on motion of II. A. Toulmin and II. A. Toulmin, Jr., attorneys for The "Wright Company.

One order directed The Curtiss Aeroplane Company to show cause on or before November 30 (later extended to December 15) why a preliminary injunction should not be allowed: the injunction motion stands for hearing on December 22.

The second order of the court directed the defendant company, should it deny that its machines have heen "constructed in substantial accordance with the drawings accompanying the injunction motion." to produce drawings of its machines "correctly showing the construction and arrangement of the parts utilized in recovering lateral balance and employed in directing the machines in various directions of flight."

This is a new suit against a new company, with which Mr. Curtiss is connected, organized in 1910. The new bill of complaint sets out that The Curtiss Aeroplane Company, the new defendant, was organized by Mr. Curtiss during the pendency of the former litigation: that of the 200 shares of capital stock of this company 198 shares were subscribed for by Mr. Curtiss, one share by Mrs. Curtiss and one by R. G. Hall. Then the bill sets out that this new company has made and dealt in three types of machines:

"Type 1, in which the ailerons are attached to the standards which connect the supporting planes and which ailerons are operated in the same manner as in the Curtiss machine which the courts have held to be an infringement and have enjoined The Hernng-Curtiss Company and Mr. Curtiss personally from making, using, selling or exhibiting.

"Type 2, which also has ailerons, but which are attached to the rear margins of the upper supporting planes, yet are operated in the same manner as are the ailerons in Type 1, and with the same result, by recovering lateral balance.

"Type 3. which has the ailerons located and connected lo the upper main plane in the same manner as in Type 2, and in which, it is alleged by the defendant, the ailerons are not worked simultaneously, one upward and the other downward, but are operated one at a time, and are merely tipped up each time they are operated as distinguished from being tipped up and tipped down alternately."

The new bill of complaint sets out all that is stated above, and charges the new company with infringing the Wright patent, that was sustained in the other suit, by "making, using and selling the three types of machines, two of which types. Nos. I and 2, are substantially the same as the original machine, while the third type is a mere modification."

In the original suit injunctions were issued against The Ilerring-Curtiss Company, and Mr. Curtiss personally, and they were enjoined from making, using, selling or exhibiting infringing flying machines permanently.

Every move in this famous patent suit has been completely chronicled in AERONAUTICS, with court de-cisinns in full.

On Type 3 there is, however, a sufficiently new field opened up to bring into the new case one or more claims of the Wright patent not directly litigated in tile former suit. In this machine the ailerons are claimed not to present any positive angles to the line of flight, and, it is said, only one aileron is operated at a time, and then on the high side—to lower it hy creating a downward pressure, no attempt being made to life the low side by presenting the aileron to a positive angle. In this machine, should any tendency to turning about the vertical axis be noticeable, the vertical rudder would, theoretically, never-the less be turned, it is said, in a manner to prevent such turning.

The final determination of the new case on this point will be awaited with interest as the system so persistentlv urged by A. A. Merrill in AERONAUTICS and other journals is frequently claimed not to infringe the Wright patent.

Secretary of the Navy Daniels asks, in his report recently issued, $5,000,000 for naval air service for t!ie 1916 program.

The General Board in its endorsement of August 30, 1913. and accompanying memorandum, brought to the attention of the Navy Department the dangerous situation of the country in the lack of air craft and air men in both the naval and military services. A resume was given in that endorsement of conditions in the leading countries abroad, showing the preparations being made for air warfare and the use of air craft by both armies and navies and contrasting their activity with our own inactivity. Certain recommendations were made in the same endorsement looking to the beginning of the establishment of a proper air service for our Navy.

The result was the appointment of a Board of Aeronautics in October, 1913 (all dulv recorded in AERONAUTICS). That board made further recommendations, among them the establishment of an aeronautic school and station at Pensa-cola and the purchase of 50 aeroplanes, 1 fleet dirigible and 2 small dirigibles for training.

At the present time all the Navy owns is 12 aeroplanes, "not more than two of which are of the same tvpe and all reported to have too little speed and carrying capacity for service work," according to a statement of the General Board of the Navy in November, 1914, to the Secretary of the Navy.

"In viezi' of the advance that has been made in aeronautics during the Past year, and the demonstration no-n1 being 7nade of the vital importance of a proper air service to both land and sea warfare, our present situation can be described as nothing less than deplorable. As

now deevloped, air craft are the eyes of both armies ■ and navies, and it is difficut to place any limit to their offensive possibilities.

"In our preset!t condition of utt-preparcdness, in contact with any foe possessing a proper air scri'ice, our scouting would be blind. IVe would be without the means of detecting the presence of submarines or mine fields or of attempting direct attack on the enemy from the air, zchile our own movements would be an open book to him. The General Board can not too strongly urge that the Department's most serious thought be given this matter, and that immediate steps be taken to remedy it, and recommends that Congress be asked for an appropriation of at least §5,000,000 to be made available immediately for the purpose of establishing an efficient air service."

When the fleet was ordered to Mexican waters in April two aeroplane sections of two aeroplanes each, completely manned, with full outfits each, were sent on the Mississippi and Birmingham to Vera Cruz and Tampico respectively.. Tbert was no occasion for the use of aeroplanes at Tampico, but those at Vera Cruz were used continually and though the machines were not fitted for land work they did, for 43 days, a good deal of scouting over the trenches protecting Vera Cruz. There were daily flights without regard to weather or other conditions. Their scout work assured the Commander-in-Chief that no mines had been planted, enabled him to locate sunken works, and was of inestimable value in the combined operations of the Army and Navy.

The recent wars have demonstrated the inestimable importance of scouting. Air craft on land prevent surprises of the kind which

have determined most military victories. They provide the best means for discovering submarine mines and submarines and have now become an indispensable naval adjunct.

DANIELS HITS LOCAL TALENT.

The orders given early in the year for some foreign-built aeroplanes have not been filled, owing to the war. These were for testing that the Navy might adopt those best fitted. "The best types of American manufacture have been ordered and the department will develop this modern branch of the naval service steadily and rapidly. Indeed, it has been more ready to develop it during the past year than the manufacturers of this country have been to supply the demand for craft of approved design," says Secretary Daniels.

The Navy is conducting a large number of experiments with models of floats and pontoons for aeroplanes at the Washington Navy Yard; also, at the same place, in the wind tunnel with aerofoils and models of aeroplanes. A number of different experiments are being carried out at the present time, mostly of a minor importance, at the U. S. Navy Aeronautic Station, Pensa-cola, Fla. In addition to the experimental work and the flying school the Pensacola Station is carrying on repairs of machines in use. Recently a new picket boat was received at that station. It is of the Viper type of hydroplane, and has a speed of about 35 miles an hour. It is used for patrolling the course while flying for experiment and instruction is going on.

Captain Mark L. Bristol is in charge of the "Office of Naval Aeronautics" ^ in Washington, with the title, "Director of Aeronautics."

U. S. NAVY ORDERS SECOND BURGESS-DUNNE.

The second Burgess-Dunne has been ordered from the Burgess Company at Marblehead and from this it would be assumed that the previous one has been found of advantage. Full details of this type of machine, the claims made therefor and performances have been chronicled in AERONAUTICS.

This new one will have an American engine, a Curtiss O-X. The general characteristics are: biplane of the inherently stable type, carrying a pilot and passenger side by side. The pilot and passenger, motor and instruments are protected by a stream line hood. There are duplicate controls. The full load will be fuel, oil and cooling water for four hours' flight with 350 pounds additional. Tt is to get away in 2.000 feet at a speed of not over 50 miles an hour with full load and climb at the rate of not less than 100 feet per minute, glide not less than 5 in I, and have a speed range of from 60 to 40 miles an hour, or better. It will be readily handled and maneuvered on the water and be fitted for hoisting on board ship

and so arranged as to be quickly assembled or broken down. It will have one main pontoon and two auxiliary pontoons.

NAVAL REQUIREMENTS.

A naval authority has recently stated to the editor that manufacturers of aircraft have not developed these craft so that they would be used by armies or navies, especially navies, though late products have come nearer satisfying the demands of an army. The use of aeroplanes on water has been mostly confined to rivers, lakes and inland waters and the future naval air and water machine must be suited to the open sea. It is argued by the manufacturers, on the other hand, that the governmental demand, as far as this country is concerned, is so small that it is out of the question for manufacturers to do all the experimenting at their own expense with only a possibility of selling the products to the government. At any rate, our "well known" army and navy is more or less handicapped by the slowness of Congress in realizing the necessity of an aeronautical branch.

The aeronautic officers on board the "North Carolina" in Europe

are returning home and will go to the Navy Aeronautic Station at Pensacola and then a great deal more work will be done. These officers returning are: Lieutenant-Commander H. C. Mustin, Lieutenant P. N. L. Bellinger, Lieutenant R. C, Saufley and Ensign W. Cape-hart. The work at Pensacola at the present lime consists in instruction of the new class of officers that has heen detailed. There will be 10 officers in this class when finally assembled, of which eight have already been detailed.

NAVY MAY BUY DIRIGIBLES SOON.

The Navy has asked for bids on two small dirigibles, but the contract has not yet been let, nor, as far as one knows, has it been definitely decided what type or size will be used.

The newspaper story recently published is quite untrue. No one at the present time is making any dirigibles for the government, nor have any orders been issued.

$5,000,000 RECOMMENDED FOR AIR NAVY

NEW CORPORATIONS.

Ascension Manufacturing Company, Sparta. Wis., by Nathan Steele.

The Circular Monoplane Company, Rochester, N. V., has been incorporated with a capital stock of $50,000 and will begin business with $1,000. The directors are Joseph F. Claes-gens, George A. Glaesgeus and Agnes II. Claesgens, all of 246 Avenue C; Walter P. Davis, of 551 Plymouth Avenue South, and Frederic A. Geiger, of 292 Seyle Terrace. Joseph Oaesgens is the inventor of a monoplane of a new type.

SPEEDS

Miles per Feet per

Hour Second.

1 ....... 1.4?

2 ......... 2.93

3 ......... 4.41

4 '......... 5.87

5 ......... 7.33

6 '......... s.yr

7 ......... 10.29

8 ......... 11 "6

9 ........ 13.23

10 ....... 14.66

11 ......... 16-12

12 ......... 17.59

13 ......... 19.06

14 ......... 20.53

15 ........ 22.00

16 ......... 23.47

17 ......... 24.94

IS ......... 26.41

19 ......... 27.88

20 ......... 29.35

յ5 ......... 36.70

30 ......... 43.28

35 ........ 51.32

40 ......... 58.08

45 ........ 66.01

50 ......... 73.34

55 ......... 80.67

60 ......... 87.96

65 ......... 95.29

70 ........ 102.62

75 ........ 109.95

80 ......... 117.28

85 ......... 124.61

90 ......... 131.84

95......... 139.27

100 ......... 146.60

THE TURNER AVIAPHONE IN USE

We take the following from the San 1 >iego Union San ) Jiegn, California, September 20. 1 ('14 :

"Interest in the war department competition is growing hourly as the time for the contest approaches. The greatest fliers in America are now at North Island preparing for the competition. Pitted against each other will be Raymond Morris and Francis Wildman of the Curtiss School, probably assisted by Glenn Curtiss; Oscar Uiindley of the Wright School; Glenn Martin, regarded as the most sclent'lie flier in America; Silas Christ off erson. and the entry of the Benoist company not yet named.

"With these famous and expert hirdmen putting their planes through the difficult maneuvers prescribed by the war department, spectators, it is said, will witness some of the most

thrilling flights ever seen in this country.'1

When, O Lord, will aviation in this country cease to be ridiculous? Contemplating the far-flung publicity given to the Hearst Transcontinental "Flight," the Gould "Prize" and the Panama-Pacific "Around-the-World Race," not to mention a score of other similar fiascos, it is small wonder that that shrewd old gentleman, the American Puhlic, regards us more or less as a bunch of fakers.

THE TURNER AVIAPHONE.

Further experiments have been conducted with the K. M. Turner "a via phone," described in AERONAUTIC S some time ago, and recently a test was made on a Thomas flying boat at Stamford and in the 1 'eoh machine on Long Island, by Wilbur R. Kimball, representative of the General Acoustic Co.

The Turner aviaphone has been pioduced after some years of experiment, and is now offered to aviators and aviation schools as a practical instrument by which communication may be had during flight. 11 is especially valuable to governments for use in the aviation corps of the armies and navies. Officers living with a pilot can direct scouting movements, leaving both hands free for making notes, taking pictures, etc.

The instrument consists of two helmets or caps, two specially wound receivers for each user, breastplate, connecting cords, battery weighing hut 5 ozs, plugs and jacks, the entire outfit weighing but 5 lbs. 5 ozs. We furnish regularly caps as shown in the illustration; the receivers, however, can be adj usted to any type or size of helmet or headgear. The mouthpiece, extending from the specially constructed breastplate transmitter, is in position only during conversation.

DE KOR LATEST TO prompted the use of wood and cloth

LOOP "]t-h w're -ant* turnhuckles to obtain rigidity. The linen was given six

This photo is of Fied De Kor and coats of Emaillite, which upon ad-

his new tractor biplane equipped vice was not varnished. The prep-

\\ith an 80-h.p. Duplex Gyro and aratiou not being waterproof this

a Simmons propeller. This ma- oversight caused trouble, the upper

chine was built and flown at Los surface of wings having to be re-

form showed general superiority and greater freedom from the evils of discontinuity,

"In larger models observation will be made from windows along either side and under wings, the body being entirely enclosed.

"Patents on the entire design of the Airbirde Flyer (trade mark name), have been issued and median ical patents on wings, body form, and method of lateral control have been fully allowed."

Lateral stability is designed to be effected by the vertical fins. "In two trial flights of 5 and S minutes each, the bus proved superior to wing warping, though on a rectangular lifting surface they would not do."

Angeles, Cal.. and gave excellent covered. For the wheels special

results. De Km- on his first flight huhs and spokes were made, taking

made 2 loops. This is the first time 20x4 Goodrich tires and rims. The

that he has ever looped. lie states high carbon steel Shelby tube axle

that it is the best motor he has suspends from steel spiral springs ever sat behind.

THE MERRY

PARACHUTE

She called him her Darius Green, And donned her widow hat,

Then jumped aboard his aeroplane—-Now what do you think of that?

She was so charming that the wheels Began to buzz around,

And in a jiffy the machine

Was lifted from the ground— Now what do you think of that?

THOMAS BROTHERS MOVE TO ITHACA FOR ROOM.

The recent great impetus given to aviation by the present European war has, to some extent, been responsible for the move of the Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Corn-pa ny to Ithaca, X. Y.. where they have secured a factory, giving approximately three times the former capacity: and, in addition, excellent facilities for vtater flying over the beautiful Cayuga Lake, which is approximately forty miles long, with an average width of two miles. At the head of the lake they have an excellent flying field for land school work, and for demonstrating. In addition to this Cornell University offers considerable opportunities for research w ark.

Ithaca is an exceedingly pleasant ami live little city of 15,000 population, offering excellent hotel accommodations, and many diversities,

the whole being carried by light Shelby tubing bent to appropriate ^5* Lorus kissed her on the cheek, form as shown in illustrations. Which made the Chauffeur sigh;

"The control rudders operate by Socas a Sentle hint, of course,

means of flexible wire cables car- She leaned up to Dar ried into body to foot and lever control.

A /0-h.p. water-cooled motor of But

Now what do you think of that?

four-cylinder overhead struct ion was installed.

/alve con-driving a

'twixt the lips and stealing ships.

They bumped up in a cloud,

three-hladed flexing type Paragon

and on the whole is an ideal spot propeller of beautiful design. For

in which to take a course in aerial training.

A new military tractor biplane is at present under construction to be tested before the first of the year.

"The prospects in aviation have never looked brighter, and we believe that within a year aeroplanes will assume a position of immense importance in already have abroad, Thomas Brothers

protection on the flying field a circus tent was obtained but a severe storm disagreed emphatically with this procedure. Altho now consigned to the experienced handling of Mr. Allan S. Adams persistent motor trouble caused a postponement of extended trials until spring, when a dependable motor of another country, as they make wij, be instanej. The total say the area of tjje mac]inie js 300 sq. ft., weight 900 lbs. (which will be rein next mod-

And knocked the jibboom from the fore.

And tore the mizzen shroud— Xow what do you think of that?

And they were falling, when she cried;

"Oh catch my merry hat!'* They used it for a parachute— Xow what do you think of that? —Walter Scott Haskell.

Mr. J. Madison Thorp, of Ala-

R.

luced ahout 200 lbs.

els), spread of wings 40 ft., total meda, California, is the inventor of

length 35 ft., body 5 by 20 ft., an aeroplane launching and landing

wings 10 ft. deep along body, mean device for ships which seems to

aspect ratio 6 to 1. camber ratio have much merit. The device con-

1-20, greatest sectional wing depth sists essentially of a launching and

6 in. An interesting coincidence landing car mounted upon two cable

ear with the machine illustrated in the wing section form noted is ways and of means by which these

that while constructed to require- ways are maintained in a horizontal

D. BRUCE BUILDS NOVEL FLYER.

Robert D. Bruce, of Pittsburgh, Pa., has been experimenting the past

here, which be calls the "airbirde

After experimenting with models ments of the mechanical key de- position, no matter how the ship

in flight, this large machine was vised, the outline form is an exact rolls. The apparatus is light, occu-

built to scale. duplicate of that designed by M. pies little space and is capable of

"Laminated wood construction is Eiffel (Resistance of the Air & being readily dismounted and put

of course preferable but the factors Aviation-Eiffel, P. S4, wing S, plate aside when not required for imme-

of time and financial consideration II). The experiments with this diate use.

Page 104

NEW CURTISS MILITARY TRACTOR.

"Model N" is the latest military tractor from the Curtiss plant in Ilammondsport, with a range of speed, with two people up and five hours' fuel, of from 40 to 75 miles an hour, climbing 4,000 ft. in 10 minutes, using a 100-h.p. O-XX motor, a refinement of the O-X 90-100-h.p. motor which is now standard in Curtiss machines.

AVIATOR IS FINED UNDER RULING THAT HYDROAEROPLANE IS MOTORBOAT.

Under an opinion handed down by the Solicitor-General of the United States, holding that hydroaeroplanes are subject to all of the regulations governing the oneration of motorboats. Collector of Customs William F. Stone to-day imposed penalties totaling $550 upon Dean R. Vankirk, of Washington, owner of the flying boat Columbia.

So far as is known the imposition of the fines upon Mr. Vankirk is the first time the Government has ever sought to penalize an aviator. Tie was fined $100 for navigating after sunset, $100 for running without lights, $100 for having insufficient life-saving devices aboard bis flying boat and $250 for not having copies of the pilot rules aboard.

Only a few days ago Collector Stone had the hydro-aeroplane of the Jannus brothers, in this city, inspected, and found that it was fully equipped in accordance with the mo-torboat regulations.

This ruling was agitated by AERONAUTICS some time ago and an opinion similar to this .was rendered by the Solicitor General on a supposititious case. This view is heartily in accord with the opinions of aviators who are strong for Federal control of flying.

"The present government license for motor boat operators is a thing that has proved very sensible, as

well as formidable, and we believe that both the Aeronautical Society and the Aero Club of America should combine in an effort to regulate legislation so that the Department of Commerce will have comprehensive laws governing aircraft on both land and water and in the air."

Jannus Brothers.

ELTON AVIATION COMPANY ORGANIZED.

The Elton Aviation Co., Youngs-town, Ohio, has been organized by Albert Elton, H. P. McQuiston and II. M. Rinebart to give exhibition flights. While making a flight in a Model 11 Wright at Lynchburg, Virginia, October 9th, Howard Rine-hart, the aviator, fell a distance of 1.800 ft. The accident was caused by the elevator not being properly wired up, causing same to collapse in mid-air, causing subsequent loss of control of the machine. In his downward descent he turned completely over twice, the motor stop-

ping on the first turn, and after she settled on the second turn up side down she drifted on down to the ground like a large piece of paper, and falling into a cemetery near the flying grounds. Rinebart received an injured sciatic nerve which is about the total amount of his injuries. All things considered, it was a miraculous escape from death. We have had the Model B completely rebuilt by The Wright Company and have purchased the Model E single propeller exhibition machine.

. The Lorain (Ohio) Hydro

S: Aerial Co., composed of Lorain men, has received two car loads of aeroplane parts and at once will engage in the business of manufacturing aeroplanes and accessories and also will book exhibition flights. Several contracts have heen signed.

The company and its officers are J. E. Peppin, president; J. J. Kelly, vice-president; K. F. Banning, secretary and treasurer; K. F. Walzek, designer and builder.

JANNUS TO JOIN IN OPENING SAN DIEGO EXPOSITION.

Roger Jannus, of Jannus Brothers, Baltimore, arrived in San Diego December 13th. Knox Martin left for the same destination December 15th. The two flying boats belonging to these gentlemen left by freight December 15th, and are due in San Diego the 28th inst., and should be flying on the opening day of the Panama-California Exposition.

The construction of the Jannus Brothers' new "Exposition Model" four-passenger flying hoats continues briskly, and one should be ready for a test by January 5th. Tony Jannus leaves for Detroit Tuesday, December 15th, to purchase Maxi-motors for the season's output. Incident to this trip will be several prospects who have expressed their desire of going to San Diego on the co-operative taxi plane proposition. It is expected by those who are posted on the matter that the height of the season at San Diego will be in February and again in October. The Jannus Brothers will supply flying boats for the passenger carrying trade at this Exposition.

Curtiss Model N

JANNUS BUILDING NEW FLYING BOAT.

After six weeks in Baltimore the Jannus Brothers have now three more pilots in their camp, and two flying boats in excellent condition. The most active of the pilots has been Roger Jannus, well-known for his good work in Florida, Duluth and the Mississippi Valley. In the last few days (he aviator, Knox Martin, who formerly spent a year doing exhibition work in South America with aeroplanes, is now a confirmed flying boat pilot, having joined the Jannus Brothers and bought Tony Jannus' St. Petersburg Tampa flying boat. The students, J. D. Smith and Fritz Eric-son, are both flying alone, and are practically ready for pilot's license test after 12 lessons apiece. These men hoth learned under the new system of one-half hour lessons at $20.00 apiece. Alfred W. Harris, of Peoria, is taking a few lessons in anticipation of the completion of a new machine t which is being huilt to his order in St. Louis. Mr. Harris has flown with Tony Jannus on numerous occasions in Peoria and Cedar Point, and is a warm personal friend of De Lloyd Thompson.

The Knox Martin machine is an extra good job. looking better than ever before, having been re-designed

and re-built from stem to stern. This machine carries three people easily, and is a good rough water fighter. Roger Jannus and Knox Martin will open their winter season at San Diego, January 1st, carrying passengers. The factory is working on a new Exposition Model, a three-passenger flying boat, and this machine is expected to be a winner. There is also in work a new monoplane designed for a 6-cylinder radial motor.

The new Jannus Brothers* factory in Baltimore has been a source of local interest, and it is an astonishingly complete place considering the length of time given to this end of the business. In the course of the next six weeks a complete outfit for machine work should perfect the equipment.

Clarke Thomson, pilot and sportsman, indulged in two hours and seven minutes flying recently with Tony Jannus. They nosed in and out of every cove and river between Baltimore and Havre De Grace. "Millions" of ducks were encountered in the famous Susquehanna flats. The trip was made purely one of observation and no guns were carried. Mr. Thomson is a sportsman who has frequently patronized aviation, having received his pilot certificate under George Beatty. M r. Thomson has flown in other machines, but "his last and

longest trip with Tony Jannus was the most delightful and thoroughly satisfying of any; although a strong wind prevailed the entire day." M rs. Gwendolyn Whistler 1 laugh-ton, wife of Percy D. Haugliton, the famous Harvard football coach, was Mr. Thomson's guest. All of the guests at the Grace's Point Ducking Club were very enthusiastic, and expect to fly with the Jannus Brothers later in the season at San Diego and San Francisco.

The Jannus Brothers find their methods of extracting coin very effective. One machine has just been sold and they have taken in $2,000 in passenger money since we have been here. Considering the season and the fact that only one machine has been working, one would not call this poor.

The specifications of the new Jannus hoat are as follows: Total area, 4S0 so., ft.; spread. 45 ft. 10 ins.*, chord. 5 ft. 6 ins.; hull, length over all, 25 ft.; hull. beam. 3 ft. 10 ins.; Paragon propeller, 9 it. 6 ins.; geared. 3-4; motor, now a Roberts, but a Maximotor is now being hought. of 75 h.p.; carrying capacity, 3; speed range, 30-65 m.p.h. is claimed.

KILLED IN THE LOOP.

Venice, Cal., Dec. 3.—Thomas J. Hill, an aviator, was killed here today attempting to loop the loop over this city. It is reported a guy wire supporting one wing collapsed. Glenn Martin has stated that the guy wires were standard and that the monoplane 11 ill used had not been especially strengthened for this feat.

TERRELL DIES TO SAVE CROWD.

Chesterfield, S. C, Nov. 13.— Frank P. Terrell was killed in landing when he swerved his machine to avoid the crowd which had surged on the track after he had ascended. It is claimed his engine stopped and he was endeavoring to land and in had to choose between hitting the $ crowd or endangering his own life in making a landing in a spot safe 5 for the crowd. He paid for his heroic act with his life.

DEFINES "AERONAUTICAL."

The Chairman of the Congressional Committee, before which Captain Mark L. Bristol has recently appeared, has settled the status of "aeronautical."

"For instance, we have the aeroplane, and we have also the hydroaeroplane, and that connects it with the water. We have in the word 'aeronautical'—'aero,* which relates to the air. and 'nautical.* which relates to the sea, have we not?"

UNCLE SAM USES JEFFERY'S.

Teffery's Waterproof Liquid Glue. C Quality, has been adopted by the United States Aeronautic Stations and the United States Navy Department.

I can hardly wait from one issue till another to get AERONAUTICS, I like it so well.—N. L., Ohio.

Pa?c 106

AERONAUTICS. October IS, 1914.

THOMAS MILITARY, TWO-PLACE, TRACTOR BIPLANE

This new machine has been designed to supply the demand for a well built, speedy, and safe two-passenger machine, having a large speed range, and capable of flying with ample reserve when carrying two people, gasoline, oil, etc., for a flight of from four to six hours.

Over-all dimensions: Length overall, 26 ft.; span. 36 ft.; chord, 5 ft.; gap, 5 ft.

The wings are built up in five sections. The four large sections comprise practically the entire lifting surface of the machine. The small section fits over the fuselage. The wing curve is designed from data obtained from JM. Eiffel's experiments in his Paris laboratory, and is especially selected so as to have not only an extremely low lift to drift ratio, but is also especially adapted to fast climbing with load, and also being capable of sustaining the machine in flight, fully loaded, at a comparatively low speed. Most of the wood used in the wing construction is clear, silver spruce, and all the beams, ribs, etc., are of the lightest sections possible consistent w ith the strength required in each member. All ribs are built up in such a way as to assure their perfect alignment, and are proof against warping, and also weakening, due to exposure and weather conditions.

The fuselage is made up largely of white ash. All longitudinal members are channeled out and tapered for lightness. All clips are of steel, and are so designed that they do not pierce the longitudinal members.

Running gear is of the two skid, two-wheel type, having two 26-in. by -4-in. wheels and specially made Goodjear tires, mounted on a transverse axle, which axle is in turn carried on the skids through the medium of rubber shock absorbers. All running gear members are of streamline section; also the axle is streamlined by a channeled member joining the skids.

The power plant is completely enclosed, and is mounted in the front of the fuselage, having the radiator immediately in front of the engine, and] a light weight, aluminum, folding hood effectively shielding the former and preserving the streamline form of the fuselage. A service gasoline tank is mounted in front of the passenger's seat, and a storage tank, holding twenty gallons, is fitted under the pilot's seat, and, through a pressure pump, sup-lilies the storage tank.

Elevator operated by pull and push on steering wheel, which is mounted on a substantial, pivoted post. The movement is conveyed to two sturdy, all steel, flaps, hinged to the stabilizer.

Rudder is operated by a rotation of the wheel, the rudder itself being of all steel construction.

Aileron5 are four in number and are hinged to the outer extremities df the rear wing spars. They are operated by a leaning shoulder bow, or, as an alternative, by foot pedals, mounted in the front of the pilot's compartment. All the controls are very strongly constructed, and are made largely of steel tubing, with all joints wrapped and brazed; they are of ample si7e to take care of their requirements.

All fittings are made specially for their places, and such articles as turnbuckles, eyebolts. etc., are of the latest and most accepted design

and quality. All holts, clips, etc., are made of steels having a high tensile strength.

The fabric used is a high grade, imported. 1 rish linen, sewn on to the machine, and the n treated with from five to nine coats of a special "dope" solution.

The factor of safety on this machine is "seven." Wires are of ample strength and are of Koehling

lution counter. showing engine speed (Tel. Manufacture); inclinometer, showing angle of flight; clock, barograph, showing height; Pitot tube, giving air speed; switch, gasoline shut-off, magneto advance. The seats are of the aluminum bucket type, and are fitted with a 3-in. curled hair cushion, upholstered in a serviceable gray cordu-

manufacture, and doubled for safety. Each part is easily accessible, and such parts as strut connections and wing fastenings can be very quickly assembled or taken down.

In front of the pilot's seat is fitted a substantial mahogany dashboard, having the following standard equipment: instruments let in flush, gasoline preserve gauge, revo-

Thomas Military Tractor,

A Thomas propeller is used in conjunction with the 90-b.p. Anstro-I laimler motor.

The gasoline consumption is approximately nine gallons per hour, under full load, and the oil consumption is less than one-half gallon per hour.

Weight of machine, empty, 1,075 lbs., approximate!/.

WARRING COUNTRIES HAVE 6,000 PLANES.

A table has been made up by Captain Mark L. Bristol. Director of Aeronautics in the Navy, showing the estimated machines on hand on December I, 1914, among the foreign powers, as follows:

Austria-Hungary ....... 600

Belgium ............... 60

Great Britain .......... 900

France ................ 1,400

Germany ............... 1,400

Italy .'................. 300

Ta^an .................. 20

Russia ................. 1.000

5,6SO

Dirigibles are figured as follows:

Austria-Hungary ........ S

Belgium................

Great Britain .......... 12

France ................. 30

Germany ............... 60

Italy .'................. 4

Japan ................. 2

Russia ................. 20

136

At the beginning of the war the United States had 23 aeroplanes in both Army and Navy. A recent despatch says Italy has 10 dirigibles and 11 6 aeroplanes.

the Signl Corps. lie has been for eight months at the flying school at San Diego and has become skilled in the management of aeroplanes.

The new course at Tech, which has been open only this term, is beginning auspiciously, according to Lieutenant 1 lunsaker, who has charge of the instruction. Besides Captain Clark. M. S. Chow, one of the M. I. T. graduates in naval architecture, is making the study of the subject leading to the degree Master of Science; three other Chinese are taking the work in their regular institute courses and one senior in mechanical engineering is specializing in aerodynamics.

M. I. T. COURSE OPENS.

One of the students recently registered at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is Captain V. E. Clark, of Uniontown. Pa., who has joined the institute for the benefit of the special post-graduate work on aerodynamics. Captain Clark is a graduate of Annapolis who has been transfered to the army and is attached to the Aviation Section of

TEN MONTHS' EXPORTS, $214,057.

IMPORTS.

For October .............. None

For 10 months ending October. 1 aeroplane......... $1,856

For 10 months ending, October, parts ............... 12,054

EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC. For October, 3 aeroplanes.. $1 7,000

For October, parts......... l.n6S

For 10 months ending October, 33 aeroplanes .......

For 10 months ending October, parts ............... 27.058

EXPORTS OF FOREIGN.

For October .............. None

For 10 months ending October, parts .............. $207

IX WAREHOUSE.

On < >ct. 31, 1 aeroplane and

parts ................... $1,856

IF1

Combined with "FLY"

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics

■ y

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th Street New York Telephone, Columbus 8721 Cable, Aeronautics, New York

ERNEST L. M. B. SELLERS, HARRY SCHULTZ, C. A. BE1ER,

JONES

Editor Technical Editor Model Editor

Advertising:

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 2z, 1908, under the Act of March 3, 1879. $3.00 a year, 15 cents a Copy.

Postage free in the United States, Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries.

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received 6 days before date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allow ance must be made for receipt and return.

Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

The

Wright

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(The

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THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

The Wright Company

DAYTON. OHIO New York Office: 11 Pioe St.

AVIATORS, NEAR AVIATORS A Nil STUDENTS SHOULD INVESTIGATE OUR PROPOSITION FOR PARTIALLY FINANCING AND MANAGING AT FRISCO FOR 10 MONTHS. $3,500 REQUIRED. $20 PER LESSON UNTIL SUCCESS IS ASSURED. ADDRESS I ANNUS P.ROT11ERS. HATTERY AVENUE AND IIAM-UURG STREETS, BALTIMORE, MD.

WILL RENT my double covered 26 ft. x 6 ft. monoplane to a reliable party. Address E. M., 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio.

c^lERO MART

P.ARGAIN IN r.OOKS—Will sell folio wins hooks: Aerial Navigation (Salverda) $1.50; Navigating the Air (Aero Club of America) $.50; Aeronautical Annual. 1895-6-7 (James Means) $5; Travels in Space (Valentine & Thompson) $.50; Art of Aviatiun (Hrewer) $1.50; Airships Fast and Present i Ilildtbiand) $3; Proceedings Int. Congress Aerial Navigation, Chicago, 1S93, $5; various other books thrown in to purchaser of the lot. L. E. Dare. 216 West 104tli st., New York.

WRIGHT Model P. for sale as it stands; $50 will put it in perfect condition; engine in first-class shape. Met with slight accident in landing. Price $1,000 cash. Address S., care AERONAUTICS.

WANTED—Party with $2,500 to take half interest in Airbirde Exhibition Co.: can book machine solid season 1915: will give same interest tu flyer having SO-h.p. Gyro motor, or to manufacturer of financial responsibility who can assume the manufacturing license; will furnish the machine for affirmative tests. Robert D. Bruce, 33S Hastings St., Pittsburgh, Pa.

ADVERTISEMENTS IN AERONAUTICS

Once and for all time let us announce that we do not publish advertisements free, nor do we print any advertisements on a basis of replies leceived from the same. Our representatives in soliciting for AERONAUTICS have been approached with such propositions, the inference being that aeronautical publications are doing this. Let us say that we value too highly the patronage of those firms and individuals who have persistently used our columns and paid therefor, to entertain any such proposition.

ADVERTISERS IN A E R O-NAUTICS ARE PAVING FOR THEIR SPACE. When we say that AERONAUTICS reaches the heads of the influential governments of the world we are making a statement that is hacked up by the subscription

list and bv the results obtained. A d v er t i si n g in A E R O N A UTIC S makes an appeal to a larger buying power per paid subscription than that of all other aeronautical journals in the United States combined.

Established in 190", AERO-NA UT1CS has gained and maintained the confidence of all its subscribers and today its results gained for advertisers is testified to bv the amount of PAID advertising that the magazine carries.

It is unfair to accept the advertisement of a big firm FREE for the sake of inducing smaller firms to sign contracts under tile impression that the big firm is paying for its space,

It is unfair to the subscribers to make them helieve that AERO-

NAUTICS supports a vast and varied number of industries.

A certain number of reliable firms have found it to their advantage to use the advertising columns of AERONAUTICS. Our subscribers have long since found that such advertisers as use AERONAUTICS are reliable. FOR THIS REASON WE DO NOT NEED TO P R I N T ADVERTISEMENTS FREE. AERONAUTICS STANDS ON ITS MERITS. WE CAN CARRY AN ADVERTISER'S MESSAGE TO THE MOST IMPORTANT MEN INTERESTED IN AERONAUTICS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.

Results prove this.

29 West 39th Street. New York *

THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN.

The first three Round Table Talks were held on Nov. I9th, Dec. 3rd and Dec. 10th and proved to be a success, both as to the number of members present and to the interest displayed in the subjects discussed ami there is no dnuht but that these Talks will be become a permanent and important feature in the Society's work.

The informal manner in which these meetings were conducted brought out a diversity of subjects and spirited debate which furnished intellectual enjoyment perhaps unattainable in a formal public meeting.

Among the subjects discussed were: the Stagel Semi-Rigid Dirigible; a Process of Purifying Hydrogen Gas by Electrified Iodine; the Con ill Rotating Cylinder and Crank Shaft Motor; the Sherwood Non-warping Biplane; a System of Sky Rockets for Aerial Defense; the Mezzatesta Float less Type of Carburetor; the Pollizzi Tandem Surface Monoplane with Dual Motors; the Demand for a Small Type of Aeroplane Capable of Starting from a Country Road; Friction Losses in Universal Joints; the Proposed Xilson Type of High Powered Gasolene Motor; the Most Useful Power Range for Future Progress in Aeroplane Development; a Process for Uuilding up Cylinders for Aeroplane Motors by Oxy-acetylene Welding; Prof. Michel son's Work in Producing Exceedingly Tough Steel, and the Ionic Theory of Matter

The subject of Aerial Defense was debated with the result that it was deemed the duty of the Society to offer its services to responsible defense societies and leagues and to assist thin in the preparation of plans involving the use of aircraft.

SPECIAL NOTICE.

The Round Table Talks will be continued on Thursday evenings except those falline on Christmas Eve and New Year's Eve when the meetings will be held on Wednesday evenings. Pec. 23rd and 30th respectively. Members will please take notice of these two special dates. The regular Thursday evening meetings will be resumed in January.

A well-known aviator was not feeling verv well, so be thought he would consult a physician, to whom he was a stranger. He told the doctor his symptoms. The doctor examined him carefully and said:

"My dear sir. von are all right. What von want is plenty of fresh air."—Globe.

BULLETIN.

This organization desires to thank the Society of Municipal Engineers of New York City for their hospitality and the courtesies extended to this cluh at the recent visit to Mineola on Saturdav, November 7th, 1914.

The Milwaukee Model Aero Club has hecume affiliated with it, forming the Milwaukee branch ot The Aero Science Club. The officers of this branch are as follows: Lynn

E. Davis, president; Raymond Maas, vice-president; Gilbert Counsel!, secretary and treasurer; Walter Lohn-dorf, director of i-ou tests.

George F. McLaughlin has been appointed recording secretary of The Aero Science Club.

The club desires to extend a vote of thanks for the very excellent trophy offered by Mr. Henry S. Willard for open competition. Rules regarding the contests to he held for this trophy will be furnished on application.

The club also extends thanks to the Aero Cluh of America for the kindness accorded to its members on their visit to the Aero Club on November 21st.

At a supplemental gliding contest, in preparation for the contests as arranged for by M r. Hart of the Aeronautical Society. Mr,

F. M Broomliehl was a winner, having a percentage of 61. The content was for stability.

Club pins of sterling silver have been obtained ami all members desiring same will please remit to the secretary.

At Van Cortlandt Park on Saturday. November 21st, the world's record fur R. O. G. models for distance in competition for the Herres-hoff cup, was broken by Fred Wat-kins, with a flight of 1,761 ft.

After January 1st, 1915, the Long Island Model Aero Club will become a section of this organization.

The following are the results ot the contest held for the prizes kindly offered by Mr. Charles 11. lleitman:

R. Funk and A. Barker, 73 */2 seconds; W. Bamberger, 62 seconds; C. Freelan, 49 seconds. This contest was held on the afternoon of October 11th, at Liberty Heights, and was the largest contest of its kind held in some time. Fourteen of America's best model flyers competed for the prizes and a considerable number of flights were made by the many model enthusiasts not entered in the contest. The number of official flights made has been estimated to be over two hundred. With the ideal weather conditions prevailing, excellent flights were made by every model flyer and many times three or more machines were in flight at once.

Promptly at 2 p. m. the contest was opened, and continued until 5 p. m.. being judged by Mr. Edward Durant, director, and M r. C. V. Obst, president of the Aero Science Club. A very large number of

model flyers were on hand to witness the flying. Among the spectators was Archibald Hart, a Director of The Aeronautical Society of America, whose interest and support arc highly appreciated by all the members of this club. The start was made from the L. I. M. A. C. launching platform which was very kinaly offered for this special event. For the first time in any event two flyers won, both R. Funk and A. Barker, making the same duration of 73>2 seconds in their last flights. Directly after the meet closed a flight of 78 seconds was made by Barker, this being but 3 seconds below the American record.

It is interesting to note that this contestant's machine was smashed four times in succession during the competition, and he was handicapped by a broken finger, which was in splints and greatly interfered with him repairing big models.

Attention is called to the gliding contests to be held at Highland Park, Brooklyn, N. Y., as follows: December 6th, Duration; December 13th, Stability, and December 20th, Weight-carrying. All gliders must be thirty inches in span. No entry fee. The prizes for these contests are kindly offered by Mr. A. 11 art of The Aeronautical Society.

Attention is called to the contests for the Herreshoff year trophy competed for every Saturday afternoon at Van Cortlandt Park. No entry fees charged.

Each of the Directors of The Aeronautical Society of America paid respectively Ten Dollars into the Treasury of The Aeronautical Society of America, making a total of Thirty Dollars, to be competed for in model contests to be conducted under the auspices of the Aero Science Club of America. Each of the three respective winners ill be entitled to all privileges of The Aeronautical Society for one year.

For further particulars address the Secretary. 1 Iarry Schultz, at the rooms of The Aeronautical So-cietv. 29 West 39th Street, New York City.

AERO CLUB OF PENNSYLVANIA.

Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 1, 1914.

A stated meeting of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania was held at the Bellevue-Stratford. Friday evening, December 4th, 1914, at 8.30 p. m. Meeting of the Board of Directors at 7.30 p. m.

Mr. E. C. Malick, a former member of the club, who has been flying in the West during the past summer, gave an informal talk on bis experience.

Clarence P. Wynne,

President.

George S. Gassner,

Secretary.

NEW BOOKS.

GAS. GASOLINE AND OIL ENGINES, by Gardner D. Hiscox, 1915 edition, revised and enlarged by Victor W. Page; 8vo, cloth, 640 pp. 435 ills., published by Norman W. Henlev Publishing Co.. 132 Nassau St.. New York, at $2.50, Copies inav be had through AERONAUTICS.

B A J. I. OO I* S DIRIGIBLES

Records prove we liui[<i the best Balloons in America. Nine 1st prizes. Three 2nd, ami Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen World-wide Contests.

Write for prices and particulars. HONEYWELL BALLOON CO

4460 Chouteau St. Louis, Mo.

WHEN in California look for Jannus Brothers' EXPOSITION MODEL, passenger carrying "taxiplane." Two men now ready to go to San Diego for the opening and more training. Special proposition offered to sportsmen or professionals. Ask for booklet.

TONY and ROGER JANNUS NOW CALLKH THE

JANNUS BROTHERS

Factory: Battery Avenue and Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md.

AERONAUTICS

New aod Enlarged Edition. Coromeociog January, 1914

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to theTechnique and Industry of Aeronautics

? (FOUNDED 1907)

i Yearly Subscription One Dollar ) Eighty-five Cents : Post Free ? (.1/oney Orders Only)

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! 170 Fleet Street - - London, E. C. I Americao Office: 250 West 54th Street. New York

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AERONAUTICS

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THE BEATING WING MACHINE.

Evety once in a while someone announces the discovery of a wing movement that rivals the bird's in results. We have heard lately from Edison, in the public press, about the speed of the bumble bee's wings.

According to Spencer Heath, there is nothing in it. "The bee's wing seems to move with incredible swiftness because we consider only the number of pulsations per minute, or per second, and wholly forget the fact that the length of movement of the wing tip in each pulsation is only the fraction of an inch. The eye cannot follow the blades of an insect's \\ing but I think it has still less chance to follow the blades of an aeroplane propeller. I haven't the data at hand to figure it out but f think if we multiply the vibrations of the bee's wings by tiie sweep of its tip in one vibration, we will get prohahly a less tip velocity than we have in some aeroplane propellers. If an aeroplane propeller could be as large relatively to the size of the machine as an insect's wings are to its body, there would be no need of any planes. Prof. Petti-grew proved (and he was afterwards corroborated by Prof. Marey) that the action of a wing, whether of bird or insect, is identical with the action of a screw. The wing of a bird does not in any respect resemhle, in its operation, the wing of an aeroplane. It is only the gliding animals' like flying squirrels, lemurs and flying fish, that have any organ resembling the wing ol an aeroplane, but, of course, the soaring birds use their wings in this way part of the time."

DEPOSITION OF

METAL UPON WOOD

It is now generally acknowledged - and the decision made has been the result of disastrous ex per i-tnces that it is absolutely essential that the tips of propellers on hydroaeroplanes in any hut the smoothest \\ater should in some way be protected by a sheet-metal covering, says Bti'tish Aeronautics. Let us examine the only methods by which this has hitherto been accomplished.

A Mr. Barber, we understand, was the first to use a metal-sheathed propeller, the covering being ob-ta;ned merely by depositing copper in a bath on a wooden propeller, which had been prepared fur this by means of the application of finely powdered plumbago, which converted the wooden surface into the conducting medium necessary. The Chauviere Co. then introduced propellers of \\hich the tips were covered with sheet-copper, this being attached by means of multitudinous rivets. This is the seaplane propeller most largely in use at the present time, but would seem to suffer from (he disadvantages that, in the first place, it is considerably heavier owing to the presence of so many rivets than would be one covered only with the sheeting; secondly, the rivets are liable to increase the size of the holes drilled in the wood through which they pass, and thus tu wcakeii the blade by the shocks which would be occasioned by occasional on it net with spray or crests

of waves; and thirdly, perfect evenness uf surface after lengthy use is difficult to retain.

An excellent solution to the difficulty was finally arrived at by M. [.any, who was aware of the tendency of a sheathing by Mr. Barber's process to fly off through cen-tri f u sal force at the slightest opportunity. By bis process a thin strip uf copper is firmly embedded m the blade at the required distance i rum the tip, and the wood between these two is prepared in order that copper may be deposited upon it. *] Ins certainly si-eni> In be the most satisfactory method of surmounting the difficulty, ior the "anchoring strip" and sheathing become one and the same thing, disintegration being highly improbable.

Another method by which the attachment could be effected has lately come tu our notice, and may here be briefly described. A paper was recently read by I Jr. Each on the subject of tlie pulverization and spraying of metals, a process which would seem to be singularly suitable for attaining the end in question. The apparatus, evolved by Sehoop. is so designed that jet* uf oxygen and hydrogen stream out at a high speed and are minted on emergence, thus constituting the ordinary oxy-hydrngen blowpipe The intense fl'me resulting inelts a projecting piece of metal, pulverizes it, and ihrows the pai tieles t rward under pressure. The deposition of this onto anylli ng suitably placed will then result, and the thickness of the coating may vary hetween a few thousandths of an inch Lip lo more than half an inch.

This process, need1 ess to say, finds many applications other than that suggested for propeller blades. Aluminium, the one metal that up to the present has not been available for treatment by the electro-deposition, can be utilized by the spraying process. Its vise ha sheen suggested as a means for rendering dirigible and balloon fabrics more impermeable to gas. and the possibility of protecting all wooden portions and the fahric of aeroplanes against the weather would seem perfectly reasonable.

An American inventor, A. G. Wat kins, of Philadelphia, lias patented a system for the deposition of copper upon wood and other materials to any thickness desired, and samples of this work have been shown in the office of AERONAL1-TlCS. A note on this suhject has previously appeared in AERONAUTICS, and it is interesting to note that some definite use has been made of copper-deposited propellers.

PENDULUM STABILIZERS.

To the Editor:—

Noting in your March 31st issue an article on "The Fallacy of Pendulum Stabilizers." in which quotations are made from a lecture by II. R. A. Mallock. F. R. S.. to the effect that "It is essential to the success of any automatic control that the forces called into play to make the correction of trim should not react on the director of those forces, whether this is a pendulum nr gyroscope or any other equivalent device," and that "any device in which the correcting force tends to niter the position of

the corrector is more likely to do harm than good," thewriter ventures the opinion that although the above expressions may put it a little too strongly, there is nevertheless much truth in the lecturer's contention, and several years ago—on May 5th. 1910. to be exact, before cav-eating was abolished—I filed a cay-eat on a device to overcome this reaction of the balancing devices on the pendulum or gyroscope or combination of the two. It is evidently essential for the purpose to avoid all frictional contact—even that necessary for making electrical connections—between the balancer and the corrector, and this I proposed to accomplish by means of a selenium cell in connection with an electrically controlled balancer, the preferred form being a pendulum steadied by gyroscopes in balanced relation, an arc or semi-circle on the pendulum opaque at the center and gradually shaded lo transparency at each end, and a fixed, steady light shining through this translucent arc to the selenium cell. Then, as the pendulum changes its position relative to that of the fixed light and selenium cell, the amount of light shining through this shaded arc varies, and this varying light wave falling on the selenium ell varies accordingly the latter's electrical conductivity and hence the strength of the electrical current passing through it to operate the controls. Separate devices would of course be used for lateral and longitudinal balancing. The pendulum might be arranged to sw ing outw ardly by centrifugal force in order to balance while turning, only the variations from normal banking ihen affecting the selenium cell's electrical conductivity and hence the balancing devices. Also, instead of selenium, natural or absolutely pure antimony sulphide (also known as antimonite, stibnite and gray antimony) could be used, as according to a scien tific journal of March 2d, 1912, this substance "has been found to possess a photo-electric sensitiveness similar to that of selenium but for there being no troublesome inertia," both of these minerals possessing the remarkable power of heing very good electrical conductors while in the light and very poor ones in the dark.

The writer has not patented these ideas, and anyone is privileged to make use of them.

ELMER G. STILL.

Livermore, Cal., May 31, 1914.

P. S.—tn my next communication I will reveal my ideas on how vertical, hovering and slow flight may be accomplished, demonstrating the method by means of aerodynamic experiments already made, w hose full significance has evidently been overlooked, and also showing the several principles that render bird flight so efficient.

To the Editor:—-

There is one thing which you left out in the July 31 st issue of AERONAUTICS. ' Under the heading, page 25, "What American Aviation Needs." von forgot on** most important thing. I will acknowledge that American Aviation needs what yon have suggested, but in addition it needs that that pioneer among aviation journals. Ahronal'TKs. soon comes into its own! 1 sincerely hope that day is not far distant.

—Earle L. Ovingto.v.

PATENTS

SECURED or FEE RETURNED VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY

Send sketch or model for FREE opinion .is to Patentability. Write for our Gnide Booki and What to Invent with valuable List of loveotioDt Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeropl.ines. $600, 000 Offered in Prizee for Airships. We are Experts in Aeronnotics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each.

Ma

i Offic

771 NINTH STREET,N. W. WASHINGTON. D. C.

PATENTS

The first important WILLIAM N. MOOKK step is to learn whether Patent Attorney

vnu can obtain a patent. Loan and Trust Bldg.

Please send sketch of your in- Washington, D. C.

vontion with 55. and I will examine

the patent records and inform you whether you are untitled to a patent, the cost and manner of procedure Personal Attention Established 25 Years

P ATFNT^ frederick w.barker

L T\ 1 jLj! 1 A kJ Attorney and Expert in

PATENTS, TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS

Casts i>rei>tired and prosecuted 28 Years in Practice with the greatest care and Direct CoooectioDS in all thoroughness, to ensure broad Foreigo Countries

siu>j>e and validitu I 113 Broadway, New York

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed. Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids \\\ diameter and under any length.

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PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY CDrr BOOKS, ADVICE AND SEARCHES r KtL Send sketch or model for search. Highest References Best Results. Promptness Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 624 F Street, N. W. Waahineton. D. C.

BALDWIN

ir<2 Balloons Ksi Dirigibles Fabrics

Motors ^

Box 78. Jladison Sq. P.O., New York fiSJ

SLOANE AEROPLANES

will now be built exclusively by

The Aircraft Co., Inc.

a reorganization The Sloane Aeroplane Co.

Full particulars of our Standard .Sloane Aerophnies Motors find Accessories on raiucst.

THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc., Sole Manufacturers of 1733 Broadway, New York 5/oone Aeroplones

DON'T wr'te U5 ur'"s

you are intci-ested in a reliable, efficient ane'economicel power plant. If at is the only kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works Muncie, Ind.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

^AiEirHOi:'

liquid chJ*-|

| C QUALITY

&ii

■ perdinand «■ \

WttTOH. H>«

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs aod preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, aod witb a coat of paint once a year will last as long as tbe boat.

For use io combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofiogmuslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, dii-ections for use, etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Mass. U. S. A.

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

GYRO HOLDS

Altitude Record!

WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER

Kansas City, Mo., August 6th, 1914.

Gyro Motor Co., Washington, D.C.

Broke altitude record this afternoon, approximately forty-seven hundred meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed flight authorized by Aero Club of America. Record should be official. Motor worked fine, only carried five gallons of gas, made altitude in forty minutes used old spray nozzle. Will write full particulars later.

DE LLOYD THOMPSON.

* New Gyro "Duplex"

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs.

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 Girard Street

Washington, D. C.

< BENOIST «c

Aeroplanes Flying Boats

AIRCRAFT CO.

St. Louis. Mo.

BALLOONS

Airships, Aeroplanes, Gas Generators, Safety Packs. Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons. Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 95% of American and Canadian clubs. AERONAUT

Madison Sq. Boi 181,NewYork

LEO STEVENS

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY

64ih St. & West End Ave., New York Cily Also Maoofaclurers of Automobile Radiators ot all types

Semi-Annual Sale

50 H.P. Gnome, perfect

condition...............$850.00

50 H.P. Gnome, perfect

condition.............. 700.00

50 H. P. Gnome, perfect

condition.............. 700.00

30 H.P. Anzarii, perfect

condition.............. 300.00

30 H.P. Anzani, perfect

condition.............. 300.00

1 Moisant Blue Bird Single Seated 50 H. P. Gnome. This Monoplane

is practically new...... 2800.00

1 Bleriot, good condition 400.00 F.O.B. Factory

The Moisant International Aviators, Wlnlteld. L. I.. N. Y.

Bargains in Motors and Aeroplanes

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.


No. 8, 1914, October to 1915, February

VOL. XV. N >. 8

OCTOBER 30, 1914

Issued February 11. 1915

15 Cents

EROMITICS

 

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M

 

//,. „......................„,.„......._........................................................................................................................................................ .................................

   

Hold the Principal American Records as Follows:

Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoy Muller, U.S.A., 17,185 feet. Altitude, with one passenger, Lieut. J. C. Carberry, U.S.A., 11,690 feet. Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron 0. Jones, U.S. A., 8 hrs. 53min. Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U.S.N., 6 hrs. 10 min.

Motors Ready for Delivery

MODEL "S," 6-CYL., 60 H. P. MODEL "O-X," 8-CYL., 90 H.P. MODEL "O," 8-CYL., 80 H.P. MODEL "OXX," 8-CYL., 160 H. P.

THE CURTIS S MOTOR CO. ha^IpW. v.

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St.. New Ynrk

Telephone. Circle 22S** Cable. Aeronautics. New York

ERNEST L. JONES Editor

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor

HARRY SCI1ULTZ Model Editor

FRANK CASH Ass't Editor

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22, 1V0S. under the Act of March 3. 187V. $3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.

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Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 31th of each month. All copy must be received b days before date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must*be made for receipt and return.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

CARBURETORS FROM THE FUNCTIONAL STANDPOINT

The "Perfect Carburetor" is brought out so often, and in so many different forms, that the average person is absolutely at loss as to what to believe, and how to judge what he sees.

There are two ways to approach the carburetor question : first, the functional, and second, the structural. The logical method is to first consider the functions to be performed, and next, having these functions in mind, to consider the mechanism, and see whether all the functions are properly carried out. And this analysis is equallv beneficial to the inventor of a carburetor and to the prospective purchaser.

The function of the carburetor is to deliver to the engine a dry mixture of air and fuel, in "best mixture" proportions. Let us analyze this statement carefully.

(a) A "dry" mixture, because the completeness of combustion is only realized when the liquid fuel is wholly gasified, and not in drops, which give imperfect contact with the air. Also a wet mixture will be sure to condense out in part, in the transmission line, so that even if we start with the proper air-fuel ratio, we would not have it when it reached the cylinder. This especially true in the complicated forked and bent passages used on many of the multi-cylinder engines.

(b) A mixture, meaning an intimate contact, as near a molecular contact of air and fuel as possible, in order that when the time for combustion comes, each particle may have its air to combine with. This alone will give com3 plete and rapid combustion.

(c) Best mixture proportions. For js. every fuel there is a definite amount | of air necessary for complete combustion of any given quantity of fuel, and this ratio is a constant. For gasoline it is, by volume, 52.74 cubic feet of air per

j cubic foot of gasoline vapor at the same s temperature, and by weight, 15.24 pounds

of air per pound of gasoline. If more P than this amount of gasoline is used, it P cannot burn in the cylinder, and simply

goes out in the exhaust, where it may

burn at the outlet of the exhaust pipe.

Here there is plenty of air. But corn-

By Ralph S. Barnaby

bustion here does no good, and the fuel is wasted. If too little gasoline is used, the cylinder charge will be mostly air, and the power will fall off, or the charge may refuse to ignite at all.

This fact cannot be too strongly impressed, as it is not generally practised. If any have tried this constant best mixture plan and failed, the fault is not here but in some other part of the system. I shall speak of this point again later.

The first method of carburetion was to pass air over a pool or reservoir of gasoline, and allow it to pick up the fuel by evaporation, or. by brushes or mixers, to be saturated with it. This plan failed, as it permitted fractional, or selective distillation, i. e., the air picked up the lighter constituents of the fuel and left the heavier. Changes of temperature would cause different amounts to be picked up, and the whole system was without regulation. This brings us to the firs,t requirement.

1. There must be a method of measuring out the proper amount of fuel and air for complete combustion, and then, having the proper amount of each, provide a means of mixing them thoroughly, and a means of gasifying the liquid fuel. It makes no difference in what order these last two operations are done, but the metering must be done first.

Tn order to insure complete gasification of the fuel, the temperature must be high enough to vaporize the heaviest constituent of the fuel, and this temperature depends on the pressure and on how closely the air and liquid are mixed. If there is no mixture of the two, the temperature required is the boiling point of the liquid, at atmospheric pressure. If the liquid exists as spray or small particles having a large surface exposed to the air, or if the pressure is reduced by a Yenturi entrance or a similar device, the tempeature may be much lower. For gasoline, the average air temperature is sufficient, if thorough mixing is given at a slightly reduced pressure.

Kerosene, which will not all vaporize at 000 degrees F., will yield a dry mixture at under 300 degrees, if properly mixed.

Thus our functions to be fulfilled in the carburetor are:

1. Metering of air and fuel in constant proportion.

2. Preventing vaporization until the metering is completed.

3. Making maximum contact at a suitable pressure to produce complete vaporization.

The temperature consideration is a most important one. Xot only in the carburetor itself, but also in the passages connecting it to the cylinder. If there is only one cylinder and the carburetor is closely connected to it, the mixture leaving the carburetor need not be perfectly dry, as the inlet valve itself is a good heater and will dry it readily. If, however, the passage is forked and bent, or made in the various ways necessary to the multi-cylinder engines, a mixture, wet, and full of suspended particles of fuel, will not divide evenly at the forks, will deposit drops of condensate along the pipe, some cylinders will get more fuel than others and an unequal distribution of work will result. Any one who does not believe this, need only try running his engine on one cylinder at a time, or in combinations of pairs by disconnecting the spark-plugs of the other cylinders, and see if they all give the same horsepower on a brake. Of course, valve and spark timing must be the same on all cylinders in these tests or the power will vary regardless of a constant mixture.

Many readers will object to the definite air-fuel ratio which has been mentioned all. if you will notice on the side that more gasoline is needed. In the paragraph before we have one answer for them. They are probably not using all that they measure out. Even barrine the condensate issue, there is still another factor. This is air leakage. One of the greatest of these, or I may say the greatest of these is around the inlet-valve stem, amounting to a considerable percentage, as these stems are seldom, if ever, packed.

We are, therefore, making up in the carburetor for defects in the motor, at the cost of increased fuel consumption, and hence for the aeroplane, a decreased radius of action.

Burgess Latest War 'Plane Supplied U. S. Army

NEW DURATION RECORD.

San Diego, Cal.—Lieut. Byron G. Jones, army aviator, is to-day the holder of a new record for continuous flight. He remained in the air eight hours and fifty-three minutes on January 16.

The machine used was a Martin training tractor with Curtiss model "O" engine of 80 h. p. rating.

ARMY WANTS AN AIR ENGINEER.

The U. S. Civil Service Commission announces an open competitive examination for aeronautical mechanical engineer, i.e., a M.E. who has specialized on aeronautical motors. From the eligi-bles evolved by this exam, a vacancy at $2400 a year will be filled in the Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego, and other vacancies as they occur in other branches of the service. For the present this man will take up the motor end of Colonel Reker's experimental plant, while G. C. Loening will handle the aero-dynamical part of it.

Technical education will count 30 weights: experience and fitness 70 weights.

Applicants must be graduates in mechanical engineering of some reputable school, familiar with the theory and practice of engineering as applied to internal combustion motors and have practical experience in the design and testing of such machinery. Additional credit given for experience in mechanical engineering as applied to aviation

motors and machinery. Other requirements are discreetness, moral fitness, et cetera.

Persons desiring to meet the requirements and desire this examination should at once apply for Form 1312, stating title of the examination for which the form is desired, to the U. S. Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C. Application must be filed with the Commission at Washington prior to close of business February 10.

NEW FIRM TO BUILD WAR AERO MOTORS.

Dusenberg Brothers have opened a new motor building plant at 2654 University avenue, St. Paul, Minn. Machinery has been installed the past week and has been removed from Des Moines, Iowa: Jackson, Mich., and Dallas, 111.

"One of the first propositions to be taken up by the new St. Paul firm will be the building of 200 aeroplane motors for Russia and France. Both of these nations have made an urgent request on the Dusenberg Brothers for early shipments," according to the St. Paul Pioneer Press.

JANNUS' BUSINESS GROWING.

The Jannus Brothers factory is busy and they are anticipating the delivery of the new 8 cyl. Maximotor about Jan. 15. The new machine should carry five passengers and fuel for four hours. A

useful load of 1200 lbs., they figure, will make them a formidable contender for military business.

Roger Jannus and Knox Martin are doing well at San Diego and although not within the Exposition grounds, they have a central location that should enable them to do a capacity business.

NEW CORPORATIONS.

Polyplane Motor and Metal Mfg. Co., St. Louis, Mo. Capital $100,000. Incorporators : W. P. Morgan, Jesse M. Neff, Charles Klein, F. P. Smith. Gus Stalhopoulis and S. H. Reynolds.

The Laq Aeroplane Company. Gibson, City, 111., capital, $2,500; general aviation business; incorporators, Andrew Miller. C. C. Harry, G. H. Bloom.

Judgment has been rendered in the First District Court of the City of Newark. Xew Jersey, on the twenty-first day of November, 1914, against Charles B. Kirkham in favor of Aeronautics Press. Inc.. for $350.90, with costs amounting to $21.70 additional.

William B. Atwater. the aviator, was recently adjudged in contempt of court by Judge Hough in the United States District Court for refusing to obey a ruling by Referee Anthony at a hearing on a petition by Atwater to be adjudicated a bankrupt.

FRONT ELEVATION

ARMY'S FIRST WAR 'PLANE.

The Burgess-Dunne Xo. 3 was accepted by the Signal Corps Board after successful tests at San Diego, December 30, 1914. It is equipped with a 135 h.p., 9-cylinder Salmson motor. The machine developed a speed of 75 miles per hour with full load, consisting of two passengers, four hours of fuel. In this condition it climbed 350 feet a minute.

This machine was built as an experimental type subject to further development. The wings are of the same dimensions as the original Burgess-Dunne aeroplane. See p. 83, March 31, 1914, Aeronautics. "The machine is inherently stable in the broadest meaning of the term."

Scale Drawing of the Burgess-Dunne, No. 2

During the tests Mr. Webster allowed the machine to fly by itself for long periods, and demonstrated that it could not be stalled even with the levers pulled back and the motor suddenly shut off. It was not expected that this aeroplane would develop anything like the speed or climbing power shown in the tests and its success demonstrates beytond doubt that high efficiency may also be obtained in the inherently stable type of aeroplane. The machine is shown

equipped with a Turner aviaphone and a Benet-Merciers rapid firing gun. Burgess supplied the Canadian contingent in the big war.

Burgess has so built this type that its upper and lower wings by means of hinged struts are capable of being folded one against the other. The flying wires remain at all times intact and the wing supporting wires alone need be cast off for disassembling. These features together with the entire absence of tail and tail surfaces make this aeroplane compact and easy to handle.

Wing spread, 45 ft.; length over all, 26 ft.; height, 10 ft. 11 ins.; weight, net, 1250 lbs.; fuel, oil and water for 300 miles, 420 lbs.; armor, 100 lbs.; useful load, 420 lbs.; total, 2140 lbs.

NAVY WILL SOON

In tlie statement of the Hon. Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, before the House Naval Committee, December 11, 1914, Air. Buchanan introduced in the record a letter prepared by Captain Mark L. Bristol, Director of Aeronautics, reviewing progress made in naval aeronautics during the year. Plans are under way for a big Navy sea 'plane competition and bids on dirigibles are being received.

Secretary Daniels said that last year there were $1,000,000 which could have been spent for aeronautics but there were no suitable aircraft to buy and this money was turned hack into the Treasury. At the present time, if nothing is appropriated there would be but $200,000 or $300,000 available. (See Aeronautics, p. 9. July 15, 1914.)

This letter of Captain Bristol follows, practically in full :

The plans for development of aeronautics in the Navy are those that were recommended by the Board on Naval Aeronautics (see Aeronautics, p. 19. Jan. 31. 1914). modified as we proceed in accordance with the experience obtained in actual practice.

Thus far the recommendations of that board have been realized to a great extent. An officer of naval aeronautics, with a director of naval aeronautics, has been established in the Navy Department. Each bureau of the Navy Department concerned is giving special attention to aeronautical development. An aeronautic center has been established at Pensacola, and designated the United States Navy Aeronautic Station, where all kinds of experiments are being carried out and classes of officers and men are being trained for aeronautical service in a flying school under a comprehensive course of instruction. A wind tunnel has been constructed at the Washington Navy Yard to be used, together with the water model basin (see Aeronautics, p. 133, May 15, 1914) for experiments with all kinds of models for aeronautical development. An aeronautic ship has been detailed for experimental work and the training of officers and men in handling aircraft for the purposes of war. Designs for a dirigible shed have been prepared and construction will begin when the first dirigible is ordered. Every point covered by the above board has been given consideration.

The aeroplanes for the fleet for war purposes will be purchased or constructed as soon as a type suitable for the purpose is developed. Proposals for a number of aeroplanes will be submitted to the manufacturers in this country in the immediate future.

In an endeavor to obtain a proper type of sea aeroplane manufacturers have been given a trip at sea on the aeronautic ship and constantly given every information we have. It is to be regretted that only a few of the manufacturers of aeroplanes, aeroplane motors, and propellers have scientific engineers capable of evolvinsr correct designs. Where the designs of aeroplanes have shown material merit orders have

BUY AEROPLANES

been given for machines, and under specifications prepared by the manufacturers themselves.

* * * The "flying boat" type * * * is not satisfactory for a sea aeroplane.

The Navy Department is now going to try to obtain a proper sea machine by advertising for a comparatively large number. It is hoped we will obtain better results than the Army.

Orders were placed in Europe last June for two machines of the latest types developed there. The breaking out of the war prevented the delivery of these.

The manufacture of dirigibles in this country is in such an undeveloped state that proposals sent out October 2, 1914. have only been responded to by three different concerns, and one of these replies was only received two weeks ago, and one concern that has been very active in advocating Government encouragement is still asking for an extension of time. This proposition is for the simplest kind of a dirigible with only general characteristics. If this war had not occurred, an order for one or two dirigibles would have been placed abroad before this time.

The plans for a captive balloon are being prepared and estimates drawn up.

A list of volunteer aviators has been prepared and is kept in the department ready for use in time of emergency.

A circular letter has been prepared and will he issued to all Naval Militia organizations to organize an aeronautical service.

* * * The development of aeronautics has been impeded by the difficulties that beset the path of any new thing; by the breaking up of the work at Pensacola when the aeronautic ship Mississippi and "aeroplane sections" were sent to Vera Cruz (see Aeronautics, p. 101, Oct. 15, 1914) ; by the sale of the Mississippi, and by the urgent necessity of sending the new aeronautic ship North Carolina to Europe for the relief of American citizens in the warring countries. These difficulties have not, however, prevented satisfactory progress.

In the aeronautic service of the U. S. Navy at the present time there are IS officers and 77 men and 12 machines, covering: 6 hydro-aeroplanes, 5 boat aeroplanes and 1 boat and land aeroplane.

NAVY TO HAVE AEROPLANE COMPETITION.

American manufacturers of aeroplanes will shortly have another chance to spread themselves in a competition—this time under the wing of the Navy. Captain Mark L. Bristol, Director of Aeronautics, will soon announce the terms and conditions. It is to be hoped that this competition will develop more than did that of the Army, in which but one aeroplane was duly entered, although eight different companies signified their intention to enter in the first place.

More aeroplanes and less grape juice!

NAVY'S TEST HYDROPLANE.

Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson, U. S. N., has introduced the hydroplane glider as an apparatus for testing motors and propellers. A glider has been built for the purpose of determining experimentally whether or not it would be feasible to use such a glider for these tests. Preliminary experiments indicate that this can he done, but there are difficulties to overcome and results are being held secret for the time being, at least.

The dirigible specifications have not vet been issued.

Lieutenant Commander H. C. Mustin, Lieutenants P. X. L. Bellinger and R. C. Sanfley. and Ensign W. Capehart have returned from Europe; and Lieutenant Bellinger and Ensign Capehart have gone to Pensacola to the Naval Aeronautic Station. Lieutenant Commander Mustin is on temporary duty in the Department for a while before going to Pensacola to take charge of that station. Lieutenant Saufley is going to the works of the Sperry Gyroscope Company for temporary duty in connection with aeroplane stabilizers.

It is expected that a new Burgess-Dunne aeroplane will be delivered at Pensacola early next month. This machine has some improvements over the first one that was obtained.

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

IMPORTS.

November, 1914 ............... none

Same period, 1913 ............. none

11 mos. ending Nov.. 1914. 1 aeroplane ($1856) and parts ($12,054), total................... $13,910

Same period, 1913, 1 aeroplane ($900) and parts ($18,725),

total........................ 19,625

Same period, 1912, 16 aeroplanes ($61,100) and parts ($1776),

total......................... 62,876

DOMESTIC EXPORTS. November, 1914. 1 aeroplane

($3000) ; parts ($28,935)...... 31,935

Same period, 1913, 2 aeroplanes

($6050) ; parts ($9,329), total. 15,379

11 mos.. ending Nov., 1914, 34 'planes ($189,999) ; parts $55,993), total ................... 245,992

Same period, 1913, 18 'planes ($54,950) ; parts ($24,604),

total ........................ 79.554

Same period, 1912, 32 'planes (103.751); parts ($9,390),

total ........................ 113,141

EXPORTS OF FOREIGN.

November, 1914 ............... none

11 mos., ending XTovember, parts

only........................ 207

Same period, 1913, 2 'planes

($10,332) ; parts ($900), total. 11,232

IN WAREHOUSE NOVEMBER 30.

1914. 1 aeroplane .............. 1,856

1913, 3 aeroplanes ............. 7,623

DE VILLERS CONVICTED.

Yves de Yillers, who lias become quite notorious through his business relations in the aeronautical held, was convicted on January, 1915, of grand larceny and sentenced to a term of 2l/2 to 5 years, by Judge Swann, Court of General Sessions, New York. The case was prosecuted in behalf of the People by District Attorney Arthur C. Train.

The indictment on which he was convicted alleged that a contract was entered into in March, 1913. between de Yillers, representing the Aeroplanes Motors and Equipment Co., a company formed by de Yillers, subsequent to the dissolution of the Aeroplane Motors & Equipment Co., (with which J. A. D. McCurdy was connected a short while) and the Curtiss Aeroplane Co., by which de Yillers agreed to deliver to the latter company a 160 h. p. 14 cyl. Gnome motor to be used in a Curtiss tractor which the Signal Corps had ordered, the engine of which was to deliver 150 h. p. on test in the Bureau of Standards. The price was $7960 with propeller, and de Yillers undertook to guarantee 150 h. p. on test or refund the purchase price. Some $2672 was paid in advance, and the balance was also paid prior to deliver\- at Annapolis for test, as de Villers demanded full payment in order to release the motor from customs duty and charges said to he due on the motor which de Yillers claimed was imported on part payment by him. On the witness stand, Glenn H. Curtiss testified de Yillers gave him and his representative, H. C. Geinuig, to understand the motor was to come direct from the Gnome factory.

The motor delivered but 101 h. p. on test and a demand for the return of the money was made by the Curtiss Aeroplane Co. The money was not forthcoming. Shortly thereafter the motor was replevined by Norman Prince, of Boston, and it turned out that de Villers had attempted to palm the Prince engine off on the Curtiss company as the latest type motor and one direct from the factory. Testimony was offered to the effect that markings on the box "Burgess Co. S: Curtis. Marblehead,'' etc.. were erased by de Yillers before delivery was made at Annapolis.

The order was placed by Curtiss with de Villers in March, 1913. and the motor which was delivered in May, was one made up of various misfit parts, which motor Norman Prince had imported under an exhibition bond in 1912 and which had been installed in the Burgess racing monoplane which was to have defended America in the Gordon-Bennett race at Chicago in that year, but which never was even flown through a disagreement in the matter of a pilot.

An arrangement appeared to have been made between de Yillers and Prince to sell the Prince motor and it appeared that Prince could not collect from de Yillers for the motor and so replevined it. The motor finally went back to France and Prince saved the pavment of 45 per cent. duty. Curtiss, however, paid not only the before-mentioned sum,

which price included 45 per cent, duty and transportation, for the motor which failed to meet the requirements and lost the sale of a tractor to the Signal Corps, but lost the motor as well. Curtiss has neither the motor nor the money.

RECOGNITION FOR GARDNER.

Tony Jaiinus and Spencer Heath of the American Propeller Co.. have inaugurated a movement in which manufacturers and all others interested in aeronautics are urged to write letters to their Senators and Representatives commenting on the alertness and capabilities of our army and navy officers with the appropriations that have been at command, and urging more liberal appropriations which will produce domestic machines entirely suitable to military needs.

These gentlemen also urge the commending of Representative A. P. Gardner for his active work in behalf of aeronautical preparedness.

The watchword is: More Aeroplanes and Less Grape Juice! Readers of Aeroxautics are appealed to in this matter. Get busy.

GERMANY'S PROTEST AGAINST BOMBS AND AERIAL COMBAT.

In view of the interest attached to the air raids being made daily in the great European conflict, is worthy of noting the proposal made by Professor Richard Eickoff, President of the German group, to the 19th Interparliamentary Conference, held at Stockholm, August 1920, 1914, which Conference drafted various resolutions and proposals for inclusion in the programme of the Third Peace Conference with a view to the final establishment of <i permanent international judiciary.

Professor Eickoff's resolutions urged a unanimous renewal of the Declaration of 1899 (See Aeronautics, p. 35, August 15, 1914) prohibiting the throwing down of explosives from apparatus for aerial navigation and the limiting of such ap-parati to operators of reconnaissance, investigation and sanitary service.

ARMY ACCEPTS AUTO-STABLE.

The BD-3 Salmson motored Burgess-Dunne was accepted on December 30 by a trial board of the Army, consisting of Lieutenants Fulois, Milling and Car-berry. Webster flew the machine both on land and water with full load and his control of the machine both on the ground and in the air was a great surprise to all who witnessed the flights.

AEROPLANE CLUB IS BUT A MEMORY.

With 51 cents in the hands of Frank Hamburger. West Side hardware dealer, and treasurer of the organization, the International Aeroplane Club, of Dayton, O.. is destined to be but a memory.

Last December, 1914, members of the organization that started out to per-

petuate the memory of Wilbur and Or-ville Wright admitted that there is no probability of re-establishing the club and putting it on a permanent basis. —Dayton Journal.

CURTISS ENLARGES FACILITIES.

The Curtiss Aeroplane Company will occupy about one-fifth of the space of the Thomas Power Buildings, No. 1200 Niagara Street. Buffalo, N. Y. The space to be occupied by the Curtiss Company will not interfere with the business of the E. R. Thomas Motor Car Company, which will occupy the same quarters as formerly. The Curtiss plant in Hammondsport will not be abandoned, but will be employed to its capacity, and the l'.uffalo branch will be used to assemble the parts made in Hammonds-port, and by other firms on contract, this branching out being the only way open to the Curtiss company to keep abreast of its rush of orders, occasioned by the European war.

FAILURE OF THE ZEPPELINS.

The London Engineer condemns Zeppelins as having done nothing that an aeroplane could not have done better, according to the Army and Navy Journal. A few desperate pilots who were willing to throw their lives away could successfully ram and destroy any airship that has ever sailed. Speed and maneuvering powers of the aeroplane are far greater than those of the Zeppelin, and such guns as the latter carry would find the greatest difficulty in bringing down every one of a covey of aeroplanes before one had got sufficiently close or into such a position as to ram with certainty.

It is becoming more and more abundantly clear that as far, at any rate, as the present war is concerned, the function of bomb dropping has been shown to be wholly insignificant in its power of destruction, as much from a Zeppelin as from an aeroplane, and is no longer the dreaded thing it was. If more serious attacks should be attempted by the remaining Zeppelins that Germany possesses they will be met as those already made have been met, or, as a last resort, by the concerted action of a handful of aeroplanes. The great duty which the aeronaut can perform is to spy out the enemy's position, and in doing this he is no doubt rendering signal service. For this work the aeroplane is better than the airship in every respect save one. It is less visible, it is faster, it is a smaller target, it carries fewer men, it is readily transportable, requires no gas plant to charge it, costs but a fraction of the price of a Zeppelin, and, finally, can fly at a higher altitude. It suffers only from the fact that it cannot remain at rest in the air, but this is a very small disadvantage when set against the many that the airship presents. To sum up, while the aeroplane has done brilliant work during the last three weeks, the Zeppelins have proved a hopeless failure.

U. S. ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN SECRET.

The Bureau of Ordnance, of which Admiral Strauss is the Chief, does not consider it advisable to make public data relating to the anti-aircraft gun recently developed.

ARMY'S ANNUAL FLIGHT COMPETITION.

Six Army aeroplanes left San Diego, Calif., for Los Angeles, a distance of some 108 miles, on December 21, with the intention of flying back the following day in competition for the Mackay Trophy. This trophy is offered annually for accuracy in locating the main column of the "enemy," accuracy in reporting strength of regiments, squadrons, etc. Six started, two arrived at Los Angeles and one finished. The two, pilots Dodd and Morrow, which arrived at Los Angeles, weathered the severe storm and the one that failed to reach San Diego after leaving Los Angeles was forced to land only through motor trouble. Bad weather intervened and the return Might and competition was held on the 23rd.

Captain Dodd and Lieutenant Fitz Gerald won the trophy, through skill, attention to detail and care displayed in the preparation for and during the entire contest.

The following are the facts with respect to the flight of the machines taken from the report of flights. All the machines left North Island, San Diego, as follows:

Captain T. F. Dodd, pilot, with Lieutenant S. W. Fitz Gerald as observer, left the ground at 8 a. m., December 21, 1914, in a Burgess tractor with 70 h. p. Renault motor, and reached Los Angeles, landing about four miles southeast of designated field at 10:30 a. m. on account of exhaustion of oil supply. Oil obtained, and leaving the ground at 12 m., reached the field at 12:08 p. m. Sufficient oil had been taken to allow for the time necessary to reach the field and a half hour more. The flight was made by map and compass, and at 10:16 [2 h. 16 m.] the machine had arrived close enough to the field for the spectators to read the number painted on lower planes. The pilot and observer could not see the landing signal. The machine was flown westward to the edge of Los Angeles, then circled back, and east to near Whittier, following the Whittier Boulevard to search for the landing signal. The oil was becoming low and at 10 :30 landing was made. December 22 storm conditions prevailed.

December 23. The machine left the field at Los Angeles for Mackay Trophy Contest at 9:44 a. m., and after completing the reconnaissance made landing at North Island at 1 p. m.

Lieut. J. C. Morrow, pilot, with Lieut. R. C. Holliday as observer, left North Island in a Burgess tractor with a 70 h. p. Renault motor at 8.02 a. ni., and landed at designated -point near Los Angeles at 10:22 a. m. [2h. 20m.] Left Los Angeles for the return trip at 9:48 a. m. December 23. The gas lead breaking, was forced to land near Oceanside, about 35

miles from start. In landing, a puff struck the machine, damaging it.

Lieut. T. DeW. Milling, pilot, with Captain \Y. L. Patterson, observer, left North Island at 8:20 a. m., in a Burgess tractor, which had been rebuilt by the Signal Corps, with a 70 h. p. Renault motor. Forced landing due to motor trouble was made in the vicinity of Agra, about 35 miles from start. Owing to soft, bad ground in which the machine landed, it was damaged.

Lieut. W. R. Taliaferro, pilot, with Captain B. D. Foulois as observer, left North Island at 8.24 a. m., in a Martin tractor with Curtiss 90 h. p. engine. Landed near Pacific Beach about 9 miles, at S:40 a. in. Upon landing report was made by telephone to North Island, and another machine (Martin tractor with Curtiss 90 h. p. engine) was flown to Pacific Beach and turned over to the pilot. At 10:20 a. m. another start for Los Angeles was made and at 11:00 o'clock a forced landing was made at the foot of the San Onofre Mountains, about 54 miles from San Diego. Cause of forced landing, a small particle of glass in the eye of the pilot, and as the wind was blowing over sixty miles per hour, it was too dangerous for the pilot to slow down and lessen the noise of the motor sufficiently for him to notify the observer of his trouble. The machine landed under very unfavorable conditions in soft ground, damaging the landing gear and propeller.

Lieut. J. E. Carberry, pilot, with Lieut. A. R. Christie as observer, left North Island at 8:29 a. m., in a Curtiss machine with Curtiss 90 h. p. engine. Forced landing. Machine damaged. Impracticable to make repairs to motor in time to continue flight. Machine dismantled and shipped to North Island.

Captain H. LeR. Muller, pilot, with Lieut. F. G. Gerstner as observer, left North Island at 8:32 a. m. When opposite the San Onofre Mountains, caught a terrific gale, and after a most exciting experience made a normal landing a half mile from shore in the Pacific ocean. Lieut. Gerstner was drowned while trying to swim ashore. The machine was a Curtiss tractor, with Curtiss 90 h. p. motor.

On the 21st all of the contestants encountered one of the worst storms off the San Onofre Mountains. Dodd and Morrow were both fortunate and skillful enough to get through to Los Angeles without accident.

DEATH OF LIEUTENANT GERSTNER.

Los Angeles, Dec. 21.—Lieut. Frederick J. Gerstner of the United States Army Aviation Corps was drowned while swimming ashore after a descent into the ocean during the race from San Diego to Los Angeles.

Capt. William L. Patterson, observer on a Burgess tractor, who with his pilot, Lieut. T. D. Milling, had landed near Oceanside, went to the rescue of Lieut. Gerstner and bis pilot, Capt. H. L. Muller, but failed to save the life of Lieut. Gerstner.

The military authorities do not believe

that the fatality can be attributed directly to aviation.

About opposite Oceanside, Pilot Muller, with Lieut. Gerstner as observer, at 6000 feet altitude, encountered very puffy air, which compelled him to work his controls all the time.

A bad puff struck him under the right wing and the machine side-slipped about 300 feet by the aneroid. He righted the machine, put on full throttle, and pointed slightly down, when a puff struck the plane in the same manner.

As quick as lightning the right wing went over his head, the ship dived vertically from that position downward, then upside down. He pulled the machine up very gently, being cautious not to overcontrol. as in the dive the machine had gained a tremendous speed. The machine responded to his control and shot out of the dive until the nose was vertically upward. She then fell on her left side, giving the impression that she was tailsliding, until the left wing seemed to sink out from under and the machine went into another nose drive.

This second dive appeared to be fully a thousand feet. The machine was wobbling badly, as though the angle of incidence was changing rapidly and uncontrollably. When the machine was pulled out of this dive it made a partial loop, the left wing being lower than the right.

After the imperfect loop he regained partial control, but the machine did not hold any definite angle. The machine being very unstable, it followed an undulating course up and down like a runaway roller-coaster.

In the meantime Capt. Muller had been working to throttle the motor, but could not reach the hand-throttle at first without getting out of his braces, as the throttle had stuck. The machine then made two loops without any control whatever.

It then came down almost vertically, sliding to the left, but about 300 feet from the water Capt. Muller cut his switch and obtained full control of the machine when between 50 and 100 feet above the surface. A normal landing was made on the water.

With the exception of a few wires in the wing section streaming in the wind the machine landed undamaged on the water and came to a stop with the nose down and Lieut Gerstner under the water. Capt. Muller pulled him up on the rear seat, and they both got out, standing on the running gear. Lieut. Gerstner insisted that one of them ought to go ashore. Lieut. Gerstner claimed that he was an experienced swimmer.

After having been in the water for a considerable period, Lieut. Gerstner informed Capt. Muller that he was going ashore. He continued swimming, and when about a half mile away disappeard from Capt. Muller's sight.

Lieut. Gerstner's body was found in a kelp patch a short distance from the shore. It is considered regrettable that Lieut. Gerstner did not stay with the machine, as it is certain that, had he done so, he would have been saved with Capt. Muller.

THIS BIPLANE HAS 125-MILE SPEED, CARRIES 4-INCH GUN.

At the military camp at Vizzola Ticino, Italy, the authorities have been experimenting with a new biplane, whose inventor is not known, though it is supposed that Pilot Pensuti, who has been taking it up during the experiments, is responsible for its construction. It is larger than any other aeroplane in Italy, measuring seventy feet from wing to wing, and has 300 horsepower distributed among three rotary motors so placed that the pilot can repair any two while the plane is in motion. There are armored seats for three men and a 4-inch gun.

The machine went up a mile and a quarter with complete success recently. It is able to stay in the air twenty-five hours and can carry a cargo weighing about a ton. Its average speed is 125 miles an hour.—X. 3'. World.

Riley E. Scott. ex-Lieutenant U. S. Arm)', whose fame introduced bomb-dropping, or vice versa, left some time ago for the seat of war, or thereabouts. Not knowing his future address, he failed to disclose it upon his sudden and surreptitious departure. He left behind him, however, some holes in the aviation field at San Diego caused by the impact of his bombs filled with a secret explosive developed in the Ordnance Department.

Paris. Jan. 4.—William Thaw, J. J. Bach and Weston Hall, three members of the American volunteers, who were attached to the Foreign Legion and who have been definitely accepted for service with the French aviation corps, will be sent to the front after a few weeks service at the military school at St. Cyr.

These men are the first foreigners ever admitted to the French Aviation Corps. —The Sun.

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ANOTHER AVIATOR NOW HAS NATIONAL LICENSE.

The Department of Commerce, Steamboat Inspection Service, at Ealtimore, has issued to A. C. Beech a license to operate and navigate a motor vessel, under Motor Boat Act approved June 9. 1910.

Flying machines that have combined with and in their construction a vessel, if such machine is propelled by machinery, becomes a motor vessel when in the water, and for that reason it was

necessary for Mr. Beech to procure a license.

The same form of license was issued as those to all other motor vessels less than 65 feet in length carrying passengers for hire. The license was issued Nov. 20, 1914, by Charles W. Wright and Edwin F. White, members of the Board of Local Inspectors.

Aeronautics has continuously urged that registration of aircraft and licensing of operators should be under Federal control and it would seem, in view of the obvious advantage of such control, that all aeronautical organizations formed to really advance the interests of flying would devote some energy towards this end, rather than to sit idly by and allow individual states to pass conflicting and onerous statutes. With machines tbat operate from the water, of course, Federal control is already an established fact but land machines are

AIR NAVY MAY GET $1,187,600.

If the pleadings of Naval officers do any good, the House of Representatives may consider the appropriation of $1,187,600 for aeronautical work appropriate for argumentation in Congress and it might even come to pass that the House will suggest to the Senate, etc.

At any rate. Captain Mark L. Bristol put his best aileron forward in the hearing before the House Naval Committee and explained that this $l,i87,000, if re-

still in danger of being restricted by foolish laws.

"Tony" Jannus was the first in this country to secure a Federal license. In the winter of 1913-1914. at the time of the agitation by Aeronautics of this subject, Jannus applied for license at Tampa, Fla. In the course of time, a delay being unavoidable by his movements about the countrv, the boat was inspected and finally Jannus got his

license, dated Aug. 10, 1914, the first ever issued for a hydroplane. On this subject Jannus advises: "For the benefit of your readers let me say that they must do the things the Department requires for boats. No anchors or lights to be carried by day are required and the special style of life preserver will eventually be allowed but in the meantime all pilots are liable to heavy fine for not complying. This applies to hydros and boats both. You must have motor vessel operator's license, one cork steamboat inspected life preserver for every soul aboard on each trip, two copies of the pilot's rules, a whistle, and a fire extinguisher capable of putting out burning gasoline. There is no charge for any of the services of the department for furnishing the license, rules or the information, but the applicant must appear in person at the Steamboat Inspectors' office in any of the towns that are ports.

ceived for the fiscal year of 1916. would

be expended about as follows:

48 aeroplanes .............. $525,000

1 dirigible ................... 174,600

1 hydrogen set .............. 17,000

1 floating shed for 2 dirigibles 90,000

1 mooring mast.............. 1,200

2 dirigibles for school........ 85.000

1 kite balloon ............... 800

Sheds at Pensacola........... 150.000

3 picket boats............... 31,000

Gasoline storage............. 4,000

Maintenance ................ 109.000

$1,187,600

Captain Bristol estimated the cost of a suitable aeroplane at $11,000. "The aeroplane industry in this country," Captain Bristol said, "is looking up, also the manufacture of dirigibles, and if you should appropriate a good sum of money to be expended on air craft our manufacturers would be encouraged then to go into the development of air craft with more serious consideration than they d < at present. The manufacturers in this country lack good engineering knowledge, and you cannot get a good engineer without paying him a good salary, and they do not feel like doing that unless they see some way of paying for that engineer, both as regards his actual salary and making some profit beside on his work. We have been doing everything we could to encourage them with what money we have had thus far, but they knew the amounts available and naturally don't see much money in it."

At present, of course, manufacturers cannot be sure of getting a contract even if they do come up to specifications, due to the lack of funds.

At the hearing, also, Captain Bristol presented the draft of a law to increase the pay of officers of the Navy and Marine Corps who are detailed on aeronautic dutv by 35% and to increase the pay of Navy pilots by 50%. The 35% to be allowed only when the men are detailed to actually make flights and the 50% likewise. The proposed law also provides that no more than 48 officers of the Navy and 12 officers of the Marine Corps be detailed for actual flying: that one year's pay be given a beneficiary in the case of a fatal accident not attributable to the aviator's own negligence and that the pension now provided by law for a widow be doubled; that enlisted men receive 35% increase in pay under thj same conditions as above; that no more than 90 men of the Navy and 24 met', of the Marine Corps at any one time shall be detailed to aeronautic duty; that a year's pay and pension be given a-> above stated.

At the present time non-commissioned officers and men receive no extra pay for aeronautic duty and enlisted men have been required to take flights without any extra compensation.

In a report to the House on December 29 by the Military Committee and by the action of the sub-committee of the House Naval Committee in recommending that $1,000,000 be appropriated for naval aircraft, aeronautics mav have $1,300,000.

The military bill authorizes $300,000 for aircraft for the Army.

Representative Mann, on Feb. 2, 1915, fought the $1,000,000 appropriation, and on his motion the amount was cut to $500,000.

The term "aeroplane" as used in Consular reports relates to any heavier-than-air flying machine, whether mono-nlane. biplane, etc., as distinguished from dirigible and ordinary balloons. Under the term "parts" are included motors, chassis, wings, etc., not shipped in conjunction with a complete machine.

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AERONAUTICS.

Page 123

PATENTS

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Send sketch or model for PRE K opinion as to Patentability. Write for our Goide Bonks and What to Invent with valuable Liit of Invenliaoi Wanted s.-nt Free. Send for cur special list of prizes offered for Aeroplnnes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are KxperN in Aeronautics and have a special Aernoantical Department. Copies of Patents in Airships. lOcents each.

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CONSTRUCTION DETAILS.

In the winter when the enthusiasm of most model flyers is at a very low ebb, there are, however, a great number of them who still remain true to the sport in spite of the cold and inclement weather. The device shown in figure 1 is the idea of A. K. Barker, and is adapted to be attached to the skids of the model in place of the wheels, or pontoons, if the model happens to be a hydro. These little "skates" enable a model to rise very quickly from the frozen surface of a lake or pond or from any short stretches of ice. These tiny "skates" create less friction than wheels; allow the model to rise with a shorter run. and weigh less. While attachments of this kind have been made before, we

By Harry Schultz, Model Editor.

wire for the shaft with a hook formed at one end as shown, for the reception of the rubber motor. A half-inch piece of brass tubing is bound and glued to the rear member of the fuselage as shown. It will be noticed that the tubing is bound to the under side of the propeller bar, and in order to make a very secure joint it is advisable to cut a small recess in the propeller bar in which the tubing is bound. A small strip of brass or any other like material is cut as shown and slipped over the hub of the propeller. A hole is drilled through the hrass strip as shown. To assemble the bearing, the piece of steel wire is passed through the tubing and through the hole in the brass strip and

In figure 4 is shown a simple method of constructing a bent wood propeller. It will be seen that the entire propeller is made in two parts, one blade being made at a time.

In this manner both blades can be carefully compared and both blades easily made to have the same pitch, by an application of steam and boiling water. When the blades are bent to shape they are joined at the center. Some model builders make this joint by binding and gluing, but the preferable method of making the same is by gluing and drilling four small holes through the thickened portion formed by the overlapping ends, and inserting small brads in these holes as shown. The hole for the propeller shaft is readily drilled through the thickened portion formed by the overlapping ends of the two blades.

In figure S is shown the method of joining the two members of a triangular frame at the front end, and the method of attaching the rubber hooks thereto. It will be seen that the inner sides of the sticks are tapered as shown so that when the two sticks are brought together a point is formed. A double hook is formed of a small piece of piano wire and bound and glued over the end.

have never seen them constructed in substantially the same manner as shown herein, which consists of a small section of safety razor blade shaped to the outline of a sled-runner and inserted and glued in a slot in a small piece of spruce. Two small holes are drilled through the spruce block so that the entire "skate" can be "sewed" to the skid on the model.

Figure 2 shows a simple method of making a propeller bearing. It merely consists of a short piece of steel piano

propeller, and the outer end of the wire is bent around the end of the propeller so that the propeller will turn with its shaft. The drawing shows the assembled bearing.

Figure 3 shows a well known English tractor model in flight, particulars of which have not been obtained at the present time.

Those who have made propellers of twisted wood will realize the difficulty of obtaining the same pitch in each blade.

ASHMUSEN 12-CYL. ENGINE.

Things are brightening up for the Ashmusen Mfg. Co., of Woonsocket, R. I.

They are now specializing on an 8-cylinder, 70 horse power, and a 12-cylinder, 105 horse power, aircooled aeronautical engine. These are both of the geared propeller type. They have now made manufacturing arrangements at Woonsocket, and have facilities in one of the largest machine shops in the country equipped for this class of work.

Page 125

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

The Wright Company

DAYTON. OHIO New York OHico: 11 Pin St.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

Aeroplanes

Speed

Hydro Aeroplanes

School

Safety

Flying Boats

THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO., Ithaca, N. Y.

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY

641h St. & West End Are., New York City

Also Manofsctortrt ol Automobile Radittori ol all typei

BALDWIN

Balloons JSw Dirigibles gjj Fabrics

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SLOANE AEROPLANES

exclusively by The Aircraft Co., Inc.

a reorganization The Sloane Aeroplane Co.

Full particulars of our Standard Sloane Aeroplanes— Motors and Accessories on request.

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

GERMANY PROTESTS CUR-TISS MACHINES.

A protest has been made by the German Ambassador to this country alleging the exportation of Curtiss machines to France, England and Russia to be an infringement of the obligations binding upon a neutral country, claiming them to be contraband.

When the matter is taken up with the Curtiss Aeroplane Company officially, the contention will be that hydro-aeroplanes are not vessels of war, are not fitted with guns for war purposes and are not sold to belligerents.

WHO INVENTED THE HYDRO-AEROPLANE?

Announcement lias just been made of the result of an interference suit in the Patent Office in which Albert Janin

OF AMERICA

29 West 39th Street. New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

The members aie keeping up their interest in the Round Table Talks, now the feature of attraction at the Thursday evening meetings— 8:30 p. m.— every week, the number of members attending being steadily on the increase.

The undertakings of the Technical Board and various committees always claim attention: and general discussions have followed. During the past few weeks, the presentation of certain novel methods of stabilization have been included among the subjects that have come up for consideration.

On January 7, at the invitation of Mr. A. Leo Stevens, the members of the Society gathered at the Sportsman's Show, held at Madison Square Garden, where Mr. Stevens bad an aeronautic exhibit including two large and one small inflated passenger-carrying balloons with their full equipment; Mr. J. J. Curran also exhibiting his Queen monoplane.

An informal meeting of the members present was held at the close of the evening, when a vote of thanks was given Mr. Stevens for his hospitality.

On January 14th, Mr. A. J. DeVoe, the well known weather prophet, addressed the members at tiie rooms of the Society on his conception of meteorological laws and the governing of weather conditions by the moon. Members, keenly alive to the value of practical forecasting, plied Mr. DeVoe with numerous questions, bringing out useful points from which they might make their own deductions for use in aerial undertakings.

The strong evidenee of awakening interest in the Government for a fairly liberal employment of air craft in the Army and Navy services is giving renewed hope to inventors, designers and manufacturers of promising activity, the consummation whereof will mean an increased scope for the useful functions of the Aeronautical Society of America. Every member of the Society, therefore, is requested to lose no opportunity of bringing, as new members, men who they believe will be of benefit to the organization and who may themselves profit through its operations.

Also, at this important epoch in the art of aviation in America, when it really appears to be about to expand, perhaps in the manner of its extent in Europe—though possibly on different lines—it is incumbent on every member to stand by with full support, keeping in as

claimed priority over Glenn Curtiss in the invention of the hydro-aeroplane.

In response to the published story of the Patent Office's award to Janin in the suit. Air. Curtiss states:

"Air. Janin and his attorney are quite premature in announcing the award of invention of the hydro-aeroplane to Mr. Janin. The interference with Mr. Janin involves one claim. The claim involves the use of the small side floats which are in action when the machine operates on the surface of the water as a hydroplane. It does not involve the features which made the hydro-aeroplane a successful flying machine, or the features of the flying boat. The decision in question is but a preliminary one of one of the three Patent Office tribunals. It is not in the United States courts. This is the second decision to be rendered by the Patent Office. The first of them

close communication as possible, that all may profit.

If behind in dues members should not delay in remitting, for the Society needs its revenue lo carry on its important work.

As regards the First Joint Conference on Aviation, to be held in the Engineers Building, February 5 and 6 next, a number of interesting inventions and devices for insuring a higher safety of flight have been presented and everything points to this conference being a real step forward in the understanding of the proper designs of aireraft which is especially important at the present time in view of the strong revival of interest in matters aeronautical.

All city members, also country members on visits to town, should call at the Society's rooms when able, so that they may keep posted in all aeronautical matters. The office of the Society is open daily from 10 to 5: Saturdays, 10 to 1. Members are also entitled to free use of the library, on the 13th floor of the building, open from 9 a. m. to 9 p. m. daily, and comprising the most eomplete engineering library in America, with all it. S. and foreign paten ts.

At the fifth annual meeting of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania January S in the Bellevue-Strat ford, the following officers were elected: Joseph A. Steinmetz, president; W. D. Harris and \Y. J. Shedwick. vice presidents; George S. Gassner, secretary: L. M aresch, treasurer, and A. t. Atherholt. Henry F. Bamberger, \Y. if. Shehau. C. P. Wynne, II. H. Knerr and W. S. Wheeler, directors.

Clarence P. Wynne, who has served the club as president so untiringly for the last three years, declined re-election on account of pressure of business engagements.

The club is negotiating for the use of an armory for an indoor contest. It has been decided that this contest will be for controllabil-

was in my favor, and I might at that time have made the same announcement which Air. janin has now made, and it would have been equally premature. Vet another Patent Office decision is to be made by the Commissioner of Patents himself before the Patent Office concludes the matter. The final decision which determines the award of this particular claim is in the province of the United States Court of Appeals. When this final decision is rendered and not until then will any statements of Air. Janin's concerning the award of invention be entitled to serious consideration."

Wilbur R. Kimball and T. R. Alac-Alechen are at 66 Victoria street. Westminster, London, working on a dirigible, it is assumed.

ity of flight. The date for the contest has not been decided upon, but this matter will be taken up as soon as it can he ascertained for what date the armory can be secured.

Mr. Henry S. Villard has kindly offered a very excellent trophy for competition by the club. The form of contest is being decided upon and the rules and place of competition will be announced later. This trophy is now on exhibition at the Aero Club of America.

The following persons have been admitted to membership:

Edward P. Warner, Concord. Mass.

Walter II. Phipps, New York City. N. Y.

Raymond M. Zimber, New York City. N. Y.

Frank Schober, Brooklyn, N. Y.

A donation of three prizes has been made to the Milwaukee branch of this club for competition as soon as the weather improves.

The Long Island Model Aero Club has formed the Long Island section of the Aero Science Club. Election of officers has taken place.

On December 27, 1914. the final glider eon-test of the recent series was completed, and A. K Barker proved to be a winner with 70 points. The contest was for weight-carrying.

Club flags have been made, the colors of the same being red and blue. These can be obtained at a reasonable price by applying to the Secretary.

Mr. Edward P. Warner, the representative of this club at Coneord, Mass., desires to announce that a series of model aeroplane contests will be held at Concord, Mass., during the spring of 1915, the events being held on the following dates:

March 13.—Distance, launched from the hand.

March 27.—Duration, launched from the hand.

April 24.—Distance, rising off the ground.

May S.—Duration, rising off the ground.

May 22.—Duration, rising off the water.

These contests will last from 2:15 to 5 p. m. and each contestant may have as many trials as he desires during that time. The contests are open to any rubher driven model and the models need not be constructed by the entrant himself. At each contest there will be awarded to the winner a silver medal and a bronze medal for the best record by a boy under sixteen years of age. using a model constructed by himself. Several cups will be given to those securing the greatest number of points in the four contests in which he makes the best showing; that is, those who compete in all five contests will have their worst score omitted. Points will be given to every competitor on a percentage basis. A small entry fee is charged and all entries should be made before March 1. Further information can be supplied by Air. Edward P. Warner, Concord. Mass.

At the meeting held on January 9, Messrs. Schober and Funk exhibited the compressed air engine constructed by them. The engine proved to be a great success and it worked excellently.

For further information apply to the Secretary, Harry Schnltz. at the rooms of the Aeronautical Societv. 29 West 39th Street, New York City.

ցERONAUTICS

Page 127

GYRO HOLDS

Altitude Record!

WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER

Kansas City. Mo., August 6th, 1914.

Gyro Motor Co., Washington, D.C.

Broke altitude record this afternoon, approximately forty-seven hundred meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed flight authorized by Aero Club of America. Record should be official. Motor worked fine, only carried five gallons of gas, made altitude in forty minutes used old spray nozzle. Will write full particulars later.

DE LLOYD THOMPSON.

New Gyro "Duplex"

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs.

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 Girard Street

Washington, D. C.

Write Us on Anuthinu You Want in Rublier

New Yoik Branch

1972 BROADWAY

U.S. Government Depends on Goodyear Balloons

Every balloon bought by the government the lasl three years has been made by Goodyear. Goodyear balloons won the American National Elimination Race out of Kansas City in 1913, the International Race out of Paris in 1913, and the American National Elimination Race out of St. Louis in 1914

Dirigible Balloon Bags—Any Size

Goodyear makes dirigible balloon bags in sizes from 75,000 cubic feet capacity up to 500,000 cubic feet or larger. Goodyear balloon fabric is thoroughly impregnated with rubber, not merely coaled, which keeps dampness away from the fibre and adds to its strength and gas tightness.

Goodyear Balloon Experts

The Goodyear organization includes men thoroughly experienced in the manufacture and handling of balloons. Also engineers who know the scientific details of design and construction. They have been the exclusive balloon builders for the government. They can build for you, too.

Ask Us Your Questions

Tell us your particular problems, whether balloon or aeoplane We can help you solve them. Write us today for further details. Address desk 136.

THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY, Akron, Ohio

Makers of Goodyear Automobile Tires

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AKRON. OHIO

AERONAUTIC SUPPLIES

hi anszz'criiig advertisements please mention this magazine.

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DETROIT

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